Rotterdam is the largest "port in "Europe, with the rivers "Meuse and "Rhine providing excellent access to the "hinterland upstream reaching to "Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2004 "Shanghai took over as the "world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest "container port in terms of "twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled.
The port's main activities are "petrochemical industries and general "cargo handling and "transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for "bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the "Betuweroute, a new fast freight "railway from Rotterdam to "Germany, was completed.
Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the Lijnbaan (the first set of "pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its subterranean position), which crosses the Coolsingel below street level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with retailers like "Michael Kors, "7 For All Mankind, "Calvin Klein, "Hugo Boss, "Tommy Hilfiger and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger. Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store "De Bijenkorf. Located a little more to the east is the "Markthal, with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks.
The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to "Rotterdam Ahoy, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.
Rotterdam has one major university, the "Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, "Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) "Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. In "Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the "CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, "STAR Study Association Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the world's largest student association, "AIESEC, has its international office in the city.
The "Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the "Willem de Kooning Academy is the "Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists.
The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research,["citation needed] behind the "Harvard University and "Johns Hopkins University. The Erasmus Medical Center ranks as the top European institution in clinical medicine according to the "Times Higher Education rankings.
There are also three "Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional "Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or "Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are "Hogeschool Rotterdam, "Hogeschool Inholland and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts.
As there are many international and American schools scattered across Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague) Rotterdam also has its own international/American school by the name AISR ("American International School of Rotterdam). At AISR children receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program.
Unique to the city is the "Shipping & Transport College which offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels.
Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was "European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the "Rotterdam Philharmonic, with its well-regarded young music director "Yannick Nézet-Séguin; a large congress and concert building called "De Doelen; several theaters (including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the "Ahoy Rotterdam complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major "zoo called "Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the "Oceanium. The city is home to the "Willem de Kooning Academy and "Piet Zwart Institute.
Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired ""Summer Carnival", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for popmusic.["citation needed] Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger. Currently the city has a few venues for "pop music like "Rotown, "Poortgebouw and Annabel. The venue "WORM focuses on "experimental music and related "cutting edge subcultural music. There are also the "International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the "North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured "Jefferson Airplane, "The Byrds, "Canned Heat, "It's a Beautiful Day, and "Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.
There is a healthy competition with "Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, distributed in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't need it".["citation needed]
It is also the home of "Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like "Neophyte and "Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam.
The main "cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the "Concertgebouw and "Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.
Rotterdam has many museums. Well known "museums are the "Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, the "Netherlands Architecture Institute, the "Wereldmuseum, the "Kunsthal, "Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and the "Maritime Museum Rotterdam. The Historical Museum Rotterdam has changed into Museum Rotterdam which aims to exhibit Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city.
Other museums include the tax museum and the "natural history museum. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the reconstruction of "ship of the line "Delft can be visited.
In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch "Witte Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the "Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by "Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the "Jugendstil clubhouse of the "Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and "Feyenoord's football stadium "De Kuip (1936) also by "Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect "J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. The Van Nelle Factory obtained the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of "World War II the center of Rotterdam was "bombed by the Germans, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture.
Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or "cube houses designed by architect "Piet Blom 1984.
The newest landmark in Rotterdam is the "Markthal, designed by architect firm "MVRDV. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A ("Rem Koolhaas), "Neutelings & Riedijk and "Erick van Egeraat to name a few. Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the "Schiecentrale 4b.
Rotterdam also houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.
- The "Erasmusbrug (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a 138 metres (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
- Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the "New Orleans Tower (158.35 metres (519.5 ft)).
- Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building '"Maastoren' (164.75 m or 540.5 ft) which houses "Deloitte. This office tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' (160 m or 520 ft) which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of "ING Group as tallest office tower in 2009.
- The city also houses the 186 metres (610 ft) tall "Euromast, which is a major "tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 metres (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 metres (279 ft) to its current height.
Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi ("Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.
Rotterdam is has a position in the best European SkylineTop together with "Frankfurt, "London, "Madrid, "Paris, "Warsaw and "Moscow. Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment.
Highrise buildings that are currently being built:
- Boston & Seattle, two buildings with a height of 70 metres (230 feet) each are being built at "Kop van Zuid. They are expected to be completed in 2017.
Rotterdam calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are the "Rotterdam Marathon, the "World Port Tournament, and the "Rotterdam World Tennis Tournament. Rotterdam also organises one race of the "Red Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event "Monaco aan de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse).
The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and iconic athletes.
Rotterdam is the home of three professional "football clubs, being "first tier clubs "Feyenoord, "Excelsior and "Sparta.
Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup (current "Champions league) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the "UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.
Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as "De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country, after the "Amsterdam Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of "Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 80,000 seats.
Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any.
Rotterdam also has three "fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR. Rotterdam is and has been the home to many great football players and coaches, among whom:
- "Bert van Marwijk
- "Coen Moulijn
- "Dirk Kuyt
- "Ernst Happel
- "Faas Wilkes
- "Giovanni van Bronckhorst
- "Georginio Wijnaldum
- "Henrik Larsson
- "Danny Blind
- "John de Wolf
- "Jon Dahl Tomasson
- "Leo Beenhakker
- "Louis van Gaal
- "Ove Kindvall
- "Kevin Strootman
- "Memphis Depay
- "Pierre van Hooijdonk
- "Pim Doesburg
- "Puck van Heel
- "Rinus Israël
- "Robin van Persie
- "Ronald Koeman
- "Roy Makaay
- "Ruud Gullit
- "Sonny Silooy
- "Willem van Hanegem
- "Wim Jansen
- "Winston Bogarde
- "Włodzimierz Smolarek
Rotterdam has its own annual international "marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the "world record was set in Rotterdam, first by "Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by "Belayneh Densamo.
In 1998, the world record for women was set by "Tegla Loroupe, in a time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive times, from 1997 to 1999.
The current track record for men is held by "Duncan Kibet, who ran a time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when "Tiki Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012 Olympic champion in London, a few months later.
The marathon starts and ends on the "Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.
Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court "ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the "ATP Tour. The event was first organised in 1972, when it was won by "Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder.
Former "Wimbledon winner "Richard Krajicek became the tournament director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.
Tour de France 2010
In November 2008 Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the "2010 Tour de France. Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of "Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event.
The start in Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The "prologue was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the "Erasmusbrug and went south, towards Brussels.
Members of the student rowing club "Skadi were part of the '"Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the "Olympics in "1996.["citation needed]. Since the opening in April 2013, Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue 'Willem-Alexanderbaan' that will host the "2016 World Rowing Championships for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.
In "field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, "HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.
Rotterdam is home to the most successful European "baseball team, "Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most "European Cups.
Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with "Bep van Klaveren (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 "Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like "Regilio Tuur and Don Diego Poeder.
Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with "Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion "Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years "Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001.
Motor cycle racing
Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.
Sportsmen of the year election
Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the "Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.
Other famous Rotterdam athletes
- "Mia Audina, a retired Indonesia born badminton player, living in Rotterdam.
- "Nelli Cooman, a Surinamese born retired athlete who held the "60 m dash world record, and was the world and European champion in that event.
- "Robert Doornbos, a Rotterdam born race car driver, who competed in the "Formula One.
- "Robert Eenhoorn, a Rotterdam born retired MLB short stop, who competed for the "New York Yankees, the "Anaheim Angels and the "New York Mets.
- "Dex Elmont, a Rotterdam born judoka, who finished second in the European championships in 2009 in the 65 to 73 kg (143 to 161 lb) division.
- "Guillaume Elmont, a Rotterdam born judoka, who became world champion in 2005 in the 73 to 81 kg (161 to 179 lb) division.
- "Francisco Elson, a Rotterdam born basketball player who played in the NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the "San Antonio Spurs.
- "Ignisious Gaisah, a Ghanaian born long jumper with a personal best of 8.43 metres (27.66 feet), residing in Rotterdam since 2001. Gaisah is a multiple medal winner in several international events, both as a citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands.
- "Francis Hoenselaar, a Rotterdam born female darts player, generally recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever.
- "Robert Lathouwers, an athlete born in a Rotterdam suburb, specialised in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety when he got disqualified after shoving Irish athlete "David McCarthy in the 2010 European Championships.
- "Fatima Moreira de Melo, a Rotterdam born, three-times olympic champion in field hockey. Moreira de Melo currently is a professional poker player.
- "Piet Roozenburg, a Rotterdam born draughts player, who was the world champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion.
- "Betty Stöve, a Rotterdam born retired female tennis double specialist and 10-time Grand Slam winner.
- "Ingmar Vos, a Rotterdam born decathlete, with a personal best of 8224 points.
Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events include: North Sea Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in Europe, Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and a 3 day long maritime extravaganza called the World Port Days celebrating the Port of Rotterdam.
- January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race) – Ahoy Rotterdam
- January: "International Film Festival Rotterdam
- February: "Rotterdam Open ABM AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament – Ahoy Rotterdam
Rotterdam is well connected by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch "motorway network.
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' ("ring road):
- "A20 (Ring North): "Hoek van Holland – Rotterdam – "Gouda
- "A16 (Ring East): Rotterdam – "Breda (- "Antwerp – "Paris)
- "A15 (Ring South): "Europoort – Rotterdam – "Nijmegen
- "A4 (Ring West).
The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:
Much smaller than the international hub "Schiphol Airport, "Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest "airport in the country, behind "Schiphol Airport and "Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the "low-cost carrier market. For business travelers, Rotterdam The Hague Airport offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.
Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections:
- Southern direction "Dordrecht, "Breda, "Eindhoven, "Flushing (Vlissingen) (also international trains to "Belgium/"France)
- Western direction "Hoek van Holland
- North-Western direction "The Hague, "Leiden, "Amsterdam
- Northern direction (high-speed rail) "Schiphol, "Amsterdam
- North-Eastern direction "Utrecht and further
- A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the "Hofplein Line was converted to the light rail system "Randstadrail in 2006.
- The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the "Eurasian Land Bridge.
- "Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam's main station
- "Rotterdam Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam
- "Rotterdam Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam
- "Rotterdam Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam
- "Rotterdam Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam
- "Rotterdam Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam
- "Rotterdam Stadion – A station near the Feyenoord stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts
The main connections:
- Direct international services to "Belgium and "France via high speed train system: "Thalys
- Frequent international trains to "Antwerp and "Brussels, Belgium
- Frequent services within the Netherlands:
- Intercity line to "The Hague, "Leiden, "Schiphol airport and "Amsterdam (north)
- Intercity line to Utrecht and on to "Deventer or "Enschede (the east), "Leeuwarden (north-west) or "Groningen (north-east)
- Intercity line to "Dordrecht, "Roosendaal and on to "Vlissingen (south west)
- Intercity line to "Dordrecht, "Breda, "Tilburg, "Eindhoven and "Venlo (south east)
- Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal.
- Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
- Detailed information available from the site of the "Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)
In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following companies:
- NS (Dutch Railways): national train services
- RET (Rotterdam Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail and ferry-services in Rotterdam and surrounding cities
- Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services
- Connexxion: regional bus services
- Veolia: regional bus services.
In 1968, Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a "metro system. Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km (48.7 mi) of railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it the biggest of the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines (A, B and C) on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the north-south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects Rotterdam with The Hague as of December 2011.
|Line||Southern / western terminus||Northern / eastern terminus|
|Line A||"Schiedam Centrum||"Binnenhof|
|Line B||"Schiedam Centrum||"Nesselande|
|Line C||"De Akkers||"De Terp|
|Line D||"De Akkers||"Rotterdam Centraal|
|Line E||"Slinge||"Den Haag Centraal|
The "Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi). Service Tramlines in Rotterdam as of 2016[update]:
- 2: (Rotterdam) Charlois – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city)
- 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Marconiplein
- 7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Willemsplein
- 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg
- 20: Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Lombardijen
- 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
- 23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Beverwaard
- 24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
- 25: (Rotterdam) Schiebroek – Rotterdam Centraal – (Barendrecht) Carnisselande
Special tram lines:
- 10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole city for tourist information. Using historical Rotterdam Trams from the year 1931.
- 18: Tramline from Rotterdam Central Station towards Park, runs only at the Dunya Festival and during the Rotterdam World Port Days.
- 12: Rotterdam Centraal – Stadion Feyenoord or Rotterdam Centraal – Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline, only for big fixtures at Stadion Feyenoord or Het Kasteel.
- Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram through Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert"; Rotterdam dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a historical Rotterdam tram from 1968.
- IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists with ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert.
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 km (268.9 mi).
RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam and surrounding places like Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. .
Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities to Rotterdam.
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20) stretches from Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 "bicycles. The stops between Rotterdam and Dordrecht are:
- Rotterdam "Erasmusbrug – "Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder – "Ridderkerk De Schans – "Alblasserdam Kade – "Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Noordeinde – "Papendrecht Westeind – "Dordrecht Merwekade.
Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008, the city had 13 "sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister ports. Since 2008 the City of Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in international relations.
On March 15th, 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of the Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Rotterdam is "twinned with:
- " "Baltimore (since 1985)
- " "Burgas (since 1976)
- " "Cologne (since 1958)
- " "Constanța (since 1976)
- " "Dresden (since 1988)
- " "Esch-sur-Alzette (since 1958)
- " "Gdańsk (since 1977)
- " "Havana (since 1983)
- " "Lille (since 1958)
- " "Liège (since 1958)
- " "Shanghai (since 1979)
- " "Saint Petersburg (since 1984)
- " "Turin (since 1958)
- " "Antwerp (since 1940)
- " "Basel (since 1945)
- " "Bratislava (since 1991)
- " "Budapest (since 1991)
- " "Duisburg (since 1950)
- " "Durban (since 1991)
- " "Hull (since 1936)
- " "Jakarta (since 1983)
- " "Nuremberg (since 1961)
- " "Osaka Prefecture (since 1984)
- " "Oslo (since 1945)
- " "Prague (since 1991)
- " "Kobe (since 1967)
- " "Busan (since 1987)
- " "Seattle (since 1969)
- " "Tokyo (since 1989)
Places named after Rotterdam
- " "Nieuw Rotterdam, "Nickerie District, "Suriname
- " "Rotterdam, New York, United States
- " "Rotterdam, Limpopo, South Africa
- "Pierre Bayle, enlightenment philosopher.
- "Leo Beenhakker, football coach.
- "Giovanni van Bronckhorst, former football player and current manager of "Feyenoord.
- "Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist.
- "Pim Fortuyn, politician, assassinated in 2002.
- "Leo Fuld, singer.
- "Colonel Tom Parker, manager of Elvis Presley.
- "Piet Heyn, naval fleet officer.
- "Willem de Kooning, painter.
- "Rem Koolhaas, internationally renowned architect.
- "Coen Moulijn, football player of "Feyenoord.
- "Johan van Oldebarnevelt, statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
- "Robin van Persie, Fenerbahçe S.K. forward and Dutch international footballer.
- "Bernard Mandeville, philosopher, political economist and satirist.
- "Marten Toonder, comic writer.
- "Jules Deelder, poet, writer, DJ, night mayor.
In popular culture
Rotterdam features in "Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘"The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T. "Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter' (1839).
Part of "Jackie Chan's 1998 film '"Who am I?' is set in Rotterdam.
"Ender's Shadow, part of the series "Ender's Game is partially set in Rotterdam.
In season 1, episode 2 of "The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"), "Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked like Easter in Rotterdam."
In 1996 The "British band "The Beautiful South recorded a song named after this region titled "Rotterdam (or Anywhere).,
- Amersfoort, H; et al. (2005), Mei 1940 – Strijd op Nederlands grondgebied (in Dutch), SDU, "ISBN "90-12-08959-X
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De Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag is het gebied dat nu de huidige stadregio’s Rotterdam en Haaglanden omvat. Binnen dat gebied gaan de 24 gemeenten hun krachten bundelen in het samenwerkingsverband Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag om de internationale concurrentiepositie van de regio te versterken. De Metropoolregio regio heeft 2,2 miljoen inwoners.
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- Population growth; regions per month, "CBS StatLine, 2015
1,404,963 Greater Rijnmond (CR)
1,173,272 Rotterdam Metro (SG)
1,033,629 Rotterdam Urban (GA)
633,471 Rotterdam Municipality (G)
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"Rotterdam port: Gateway to Europe" (p.151)
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- Amersfoort 2005, p. 369.
- Götzel 1980, pp. 149, 150.
- "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). "Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
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- Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten, KNAW, 2006.
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|url=value ("help) (PDF) (PDF) (in Dutch). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: City of Rotterdam. 2008. p. 37. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
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|"World Gymnaestrada host city
"Zagreb, "Yugoslavia (1957)
||"Westland, "Maassluis, "Vlaardingen, "Schiedam, "Delft||"Pijnacker-Nootdorp, "Lansingerland||"Zuidplas|
|"North Sea||"Capelle aan den IJssel
"Krimpen aan den IJssel
|"Westvoorne, "Brielle, "Bernisse||"Spijkenisse, "Albrandswaard, "Barendrecht||"Ridderkerk|