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Hillary Clinton and Sergei Lavrov with the "reset" button Clinton presented to Lavrov in March, 2009

The Russian reset was an attempt by the "Obama administration to improve relations between the "United States and Russia in 2009.

Contents

Symbolic reset[edit]

On 6 March 2009 in Geneva, U.S. Secretary of State "Hillary Clinton presented Russian Foreign Minister "Sergei Lavrov with a red button with the English word "reset" and the "Roman alphabet transliteration of the Russian "Cyrillic alphabet word перегрузка ("peregruzka".) It was intended that this would be the Russian word for "reset" but actually was the word for "overload".[1]

Substantive reset[edit]

Prior to the reset, US-Russia relations had been hurt by the "2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis in "Ossetia and the "Russo-Georgian War, leading to "Immediate Response 2008 by the "Bush administration. In private, several Obama administration officials expressed doubts about the reset and were concerned that it was overly optimistic, particularly Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Secretary of Defense "Robert Gates and U.S. ambassador to Russia "John Beyrle.[2]

In July 2009, Russian president "Dmitry Medvedev announced that U.S. forces supplies could pass through Russian airspace on their way to "Afghanistan. On 17 September 2009, U.S. President "Barack Obama announced that the U.S. was dropping the Bush Administration's plan to build a missile defence shield in Eastern Europe. Russia had viewed the planned missile shield as a military threat. "Vladimir Putin said the decision was "correct and brave". In March, 2010, the U.S. and Russia agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenals.[3]

In May 2010, major powers including the U.S., "China and Russia agreed on sanctions against "Iran. Three days later, the Obama Administration cancelled sanctions against the Russian state arms export agency, which had been sanctioned for exporting arms to Iran.[4][5]

At the 2015 "Munich Security Conference, Vice President Biden specified the substantive progress, and setbacks:

[...] once we pressed that reset button in 2009, between then and 2012, we achieved a great deal in cooperation with Russia to advance our mutual interests and I would argue the interests of Europe -- the "New START Treaty that reduced our strategic nuclear arsenal by one-third; a vital supply route for coalition troops in and out of Afghanistan; at the United Nations Security Council, resolutions that pressured "North Korea and Iran and made possible serious nuclear discussions in Tehran, which continue as I speak.

All of us, we all invested in a type of Russia we hoped -— and still hope -— will emerge one day: a Russia integrated into the world economy; more prosperous, more invested in the international order.

It was in that same spirit that we supported the establishment of the "NATO-Russia Council and Russian membership in countless other institutions, from the "Council of Europe to the "WTO. Unfortunately, and I mean it when I say unfortunately, as the "Chancellor pointed out this morning, President Putin has chosen a different path.
— Munich, February 07, 2015

Subsequent deterioration of relations[edit]

As early as the March 2014 censure of Russia by the United Nations over the Russian annexation of "Crimea, the reset was described in the press as "failed". Stated reasons included the "Russian annexation of Crimea, the "2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, and lack of Russian cooperation with the U.S. on "Syria. Former Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs "Adam Rotfeld stated that the reset showed "weakness". "Jeb Bush also called the reset a failure, stating that Russia had "invaded "Ukraine", which Russia had not done prior to the reset. He said that Putin was a "bully" and that "nuanced" behavior by the U.S. towards Putin tended to "enable bad behavior." Russia denied that it had sent troops into Ukraine. However, Hillary Clinton defended the reset as a "brilliant stroke", pointing to the Russian agreement to sanctions against Iran and permission to fly over its territory to supply joint NATO troops in Afghanistan.[6][7][8][9]

In October 2014, Medvedev said that a reset of relations with the U.S. was "impossible", and that relations had been damaged by "destructive" and "stupid" Western sanctions against Russia. The sanctions had been imposed because of the Ukraine crisis and the shooting down of flight "MH17, which Western powers said was the result of a missile fired from rebel-controlled territory.[10]

In April 2015, CNN reported that "russian hackers" had "penetrated sensitive parts of the White House" computers in "recent months." It was said that the FBI, the Secret Service, and other U.S. intelligence agencies categorized the attacks "among the most sophisticated attacks ever launched against U.S. government systems."[11]

In April 2016, two Russian jets flew over the US destroyer USS Donald Cook almost a dozen times, American officials said. At one point the jets were so close - about 9m (30ft) - that they created wakes in the water around the ship. The jets had no visible weaponry and the ship took no action.[12]

This sharp decline in relations has been termed "Cold War II by some.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shuster, Simon. "U.S.-Russia Relations: In Need of a New Reset". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Baker, Peter (2 September 2013). "U.S.-Russian Ties Still Fall Short of 'Reset' Goal". New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  3. ^ Baker, Peter; Ellen Barry (2010-03-24). "Russia and U.S. Report Breakthrough on Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-29. 
  4. ^ Peter Baker and David E. Sanger. "U.S. Makes Concessions to Russia for Iran Sanctions". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  5. ^ David E. Sanger and Mark Landler. "Major Powers Have Deal on Sanctions for Iran". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Mehta, Seema. "Jeb Bush calls Putin a 'bully'". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  7. ^ Taylor, Adam. "The failure of the U.S.-Russia reset in 9 photos". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  8. ^ Shuster, Simon. "A Failed Russia 'Reset' Haunts Obama in Europe". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  9. ^ "Clinton: Russian Reset 'Brilliant Stroke'". FreeBeacon.com. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  10. ^ "Russia-US relations reset 'impossible': PM Medvedev". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Evan Perez; Shimon Prokupecz (8 April 2015). "How the U.S. thinks Russians hacked the White House". CNN. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Russian hackers behind the damaging cyber intrusion of the State Department in recent months used that perch to penetrate sensitive parts of the White House computer system, according to U.S. officials briefed on the investigation. 
  12. ^ "Russia denies breaking rules over low pass of US destroyer". Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  13. ^ Dmitri Trenin (4 March 2014). "Welcome to Cold War II". Foreign Policy. Graham Holdings. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
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