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|Samuel Baldwin Marks Young|
General Samuel B. M. Young, official portrait by Marion Potter Sharpe
January 9, 1840|
|Died||September 1, 1924
|Place of burial||"Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||"United States of America
|Service/branch||"United States Army
|Years of service||1861–1865, 1866–1904|
|Rank||"" "Lieutenant General|
|Commands held||"Chief of Staff of the United States Army|
|Battles/wars||"American Civil War, "Indian Wars|
Samuel Baldwin Marks Young (January 9, 1840 – September 1, 1924) was a "United States Army "general. He also served as the first president of "Army War College between 1902 and 1903. He then served from 1903 until 1904 as the first "Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
Young was born in "Pittsburgh, "Pennsylvania, to John Young Jr. and Hannah Scott Young. He was educated at Jefferson College (now "Washington & Jefferson College) and married Margaret McFadden in 1861.
On the outbreak of the "Civil War, he joined the 12th Pennsylvania Infantry in April 1861 as a private. After the expiration of his term he was commissioned "captain, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry in September. He served with distinction in the "Army of the Potomac throughout the war, receiving promotion to "major in September 1862, to "lieutenant colonel in October 1864 and to "colonel in December 1864. Young was wounded four times in 1864 and 1865. He served in brigade command in the cavalry corps during the last days of the "Appomattox Campaign. He was mustered out of the volunteers on July 1, 1865.
After the war, Young joined the "Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society for officers who had served the Union in the Civil War. He was also a member of the "Society of the Army of the Potomac.
After the "Civil War he rejoined the "Regular Army as a "first lieutenant in May 1866, and was promoted to "captain of the "8th U.S. Cavalry in July 1866. On December 11, 1866, "President "Andrew Johnson nominated Young for appointment to the "brevet rank of "brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from April 9, 1865, in recognition for his services in the "Siege of Petersburg and the "Appomattox Campaign and the "U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment on February 6, 1867.
Young served with distinction throughout the "Indian Wars and was regularly promoted (to "major in 1883 and to lieutenant colonel in 1892), rising to the rank of colonel of the "3rd U.S. Cavalry in 1897.
On the commencement of hostilities with Spain, he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers in May 1898. In Cuba during the War, he commanded one of two cavalry brigades that were part of the Cavalry Division commanded by Major General "Joseph Wheeler. Young's brigade included "Theodore Roosevelt's "Rough Riders, the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. In July 1898, after the American victory of the "Battle of San Juan Hill, Young assumed command of the Wheeler's Cavalry Division and was made "major general of volunteers while he commanded a this same "division in "Cuba after the Santiago Campaign of the "Spanish–American War. That same year, Young became a Veteran Companion of the Missouri Commandery of the "Military Order of Foreign Wars.
During the "Philippine–American War, he returned to the rank of brigadier general of volunteers and commanded brigades in the Northern Luzon District, of which he was made military governor.
From February 1901 to March 1902, he commanded the military district of California from the "Presidio of San Francisco. Under the new General Staff System, he was appointed as the first chief of staff of the General Staff in August 1903, a position he held until retirement in January 1904.
From 1909 to 1910, he was president of the board of inquiry that investigated the alleged riot of black soldiers of the "25th U.S. Infantry at "Brownsville, "Texas, August 13, 1906, and affirmed the subsequent dishonorable discharge of 159 men by order of President "Theodore Roosevelt.
As Acting Superintendent of "Yellowstone National Park at "Fort Yellowstone in 1897 (after a stint in the same role at "Yosemite in 1896) Colonel Young introduced fish conservation measures. In 1907 after his retirement, he was appointed full Superintendent by the "Secretary of the Interior. He served as full Superintendent for two years. He died at his house in "Helena, "Montana, and was honored with a state funeral in "Washington, D.C., and was buried in "Arlington National Cemetery.
Samuel and Margaret Young were the parents of seven children, six daughters and a son: Edith (1865-1940); Burton (called Hannah) (1866–1944); Lillian (1868-1956); Marjorie (1872-1956); Eliza (1880–1883); Ranald Mackenzie (1880–1882); and Elizabeth (1883–1966).
In 1886, his daughter Burton (Hannah) married "George Windle Read, who attained the rank of major general and was a division and corps commander of the "American Expeditionary Force during "World War I. Their children included Burton Young Read (1889–1981), a career soldier who served from the early 1900s through World War II before retiring as a colonel, and "George Windle Read, Jr., a career soldier who served in both world wars and attained the rank of "lieutenant general as commander of the "US Army Armor Center and the "Second United States Army.
In 1886, his daughter Edith became the wife of army officer John Thornton Knight (1861-1930), who attained the rank of brigadier general. Their son, John Thornton Knight, Jr. (1894-1989), was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action while serving in France during World War I.
In 1901, his daughter Marjorie married army surgeon John Heysham Gibbon, the nephew of Civil War and Indian War commander "John Gibbon. John H. and Marjorie Gibbon were the parents of "John Heysham Gibbon.
In 1913, his daughter Lillian, who had become active in the "Christian Science church, married Eugene R. Cox (1856-1921), a "Chicago attorney and businessman who later relocated to New York and also played a prominent role in the operations of the Christian Science church.
|No insignia "Private||25 April 1861||"Volunteers|
|"" "Captain||6 September 1861||Volunteers|
|"" "Major||20 September 1862||Volunteers|
|"" "Lieutenant Colonel||1 May 1864||Volunteers|
|"" "Colonel||25 June 1864||Volunteers|
|"" Brevet "Brigadier General||9 April 1865||Volunteers|
|"" "First Lieutenant||11 May 1866||"Regular Army|
|"" "Captain||28 July 1866||Regular Army|
|"" "Major||2 April 1883||Regular Army|
|"" "Lieutenant Colonel||16 August 1892||Regular Army|
|"" "Colonel||19 June 1897||Regular Army|
|"" "Brigadier General||4 May 1898||Volunteers|
|"" "Major General||8 July 1898||Volunteers|
|"" "Brigadier General||2 January 1900||Regular Army|
|"" "Major General||2 February 1901||Regular Army|
|"" "Lieutenant General||8 August 1903||Regular Army|
"Nelson A. Miles
("Commanding General of the United States Army)
|"Chief of Staff of the United States Army