The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by "Market Street and the waterfront. It is here that the "Financial District is centered, with "Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the "Tenderloin nearby. "Cable cars carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of "Nob Hill, once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of "Fisherman's Wharf, and "Pier 39, where many restaurants feature "Dungeness crab from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are "Russian Hill, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked "Lombard Street; "North Beach, the city's "Little Italy and the former center of the "Beat Generation; and "Telegraph Hill, which features "Coit Tower. Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's "Chinatown, the oldest "Chinatown in North America. The "South of Market, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of "AT&T Park and an infusion of "startup companies. New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in "Mission Bay area, a former railroad yard, which now has a second campus of the "University of California, San Francisco, and where the new Warrior's stadium will be built.
West of downtown, across "Van Ness Avenue, lies the large "Western Addition neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after "World War II. The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including "Hayes Valley, "the Fillmore, and "Japantown, which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its "Japanese American residents were "forcibly removed and interned during World War II. The Western Addition survived the "1906 earthquake with its "Victorians largely intact, including the famous ""Painted Ladies", standing alongside "Alamo Square. To the south, near the geographic center of the city is "Haight-Ashbury, famously associated with 1960s "hippie culture. The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques and a few controversial chain stores, although it still retains some "bohemian character. North of the Western Addition is "Pacific Heights, an affluent neighborhood that features the homes built by wealthy San Franciscans in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the "Marina, a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay.
In the south-east quadrant of the city is the "Mission District—populated in the 19th century by "Californios and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from "Mexico began to predominate. In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to "twenty-something professionals. "Noe Valley to the southwest and "Bernal Heights to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the "Potrero Hill neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as "Eureka Valley, now popularly called "the Castro, was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first and best known "gay village, and is now the center of "gay life in the city. Located near the city's southern border, the "Excelsior District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominantly African American "Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial "urban renewal projects.
The construction of the "Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of "West Portal, and nearby affluent "Forest Hill and "St. Francis Wood. Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to "Golden Gate Park lies the vast "Sunset District, a large middle class area with a predominantly Asian population. The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the "Richmond, also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many "Russian and "Ukrainian immigrants. Together, these areas are known as "The Avenues. These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.
Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the "Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the "Ferry Building, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace.
San Francisco has a "warm-summer Mediterranean climate ("Köppen Csb) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers. San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the "cool currents of the Pacific Ocean on the west side of the city, and the water of San Francisco Bay to the north and east. This moderates temperature swings and produces a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation.
Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coolest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August. During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the "North Pacific High through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's "characteristic cool winds and fog. The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall, which is the warmest time of the year.
Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct "microclimates. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the "Sunset District; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year.
Temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on an average of only 21 and 23 days a year at downtown and "San Francisco International Airport (SFO), respectively. The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with the normal monthly mean temperature peaking in September at 62.7 °F (17.1 °C). The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with the normal monthly mean temperature reaching its lowest in January at 51.3 °F (10.7 °C). On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages 23.65 inches (601 mm). Variation in precipitation from year to year is high. Above average rain years are often associated with warm "El Niño conditions in the Pacific while dry years often occur in cold water "La Niña periods. In 2013 (a "La Niña" year), a record low 5.59 in (142 mm) of rainfall was recorded at downtown San Francisco, where records have been kept since 1849. Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to 5 inches (130 mm) fell on Twin Peaks.
The highest recorded temperature at the official "National Weather Service office was 103 °F (39 °C) on July 17, 1988, and June 14, 2000. The lowest recorded temperature was 27 °F (−3 °C) on December 11, 1932. The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.
San Francisco falls under the "USDA 10a Plant "Hardiness zone.
|Climate data for San Francisco (downtown),[b] 1981–2010 normals,[c] extremes 1849–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||79
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||67.3
|Average high °F (°C)||56.9
|Daily mean °F (°C)||51.3
|Average low °F (°C)||45.7
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||40.3
|Record low °F (°C)||29
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||4.50
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||11.7||11.1||11.0||6.5||3.8||1.5||0.3||1.0||1.7||3.9||8.9||11.6||73.0|
|Mean monthly "sunshine hours||185.9||207.7||269.1||309.3||325.1||311.4||313.3||287.4||271.4||247.1||173.4||160.6||3,061.7|
|Percent "possible sunshine||61||69||73||78||74||70||70||68||73||71||57||54||69|
|Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1974)|
The "2010 United States Census reported that San Francisco had a population of 805,235. With a "population density of 17,160 per square mile (6,632/km2), San Francisco is the "second-most densely populated major American city behind only New York (among cities greater than 200,000 population).
San Francisco is the traditional focal point of the "San Francisco Bay Area and forms part of the five-county "San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 4.6 million people. It is also part of the greater 12-county "San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, whose population is over 8.7 million, making it the fifth-largest in the United States as of July 1, 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population increased to 870,887 as of July 1, 2016.
Race, ethnicity, and languages
San Francisco has a "minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic "whites comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940. As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 "Whites (48%), 267,915 "Asians (33%), 48,870 "African Americans (6%), and others. There were 121,744 "Hispanics or "Latinos of any race (15%).
In 2010, residents of "Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population; the other Asian groups are "Filipinos (5%) and "Vietnamese (2%). The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, "Sunset District, and "Richmond District, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the "Crocker-Amazon (which is contiguous with the Filipino community of "Daly City, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in "SoMa. The "Tenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon.
The principal "Hispanic groups in the city were those of "Mexican (7%) and "Salvadoran (2%) ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the "Mission District, Tenderloin District, and "Excelsior District. The city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. San Francisco's "African American population has declined to 6% of the city's population. The percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of California. The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of "Bayview-Hunters Point, and "Visitacion Valley, and in the "Fillmore District.
As of 2010[update], 55% (411,728) of San Francisco residents spoke "English at home as a "primary language, while 19% (140,302) spoke a "variety of Chinese (mostly "Taishanese and "Cantonese), 12% (88,147) "Spanish, 3% (25,767) "Tagalog, and 2% (14,017) "Russian. In total, 45% (342,693) of San Francisco's population spoke a "mother language other than English.
Education, households, and income
Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only "Seattle. Over 44% of adults have a bachelor's or higher degree. San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km2).
San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15%. San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other "metropolitan area.
|Income in 2011|
|Per capita income||$46,777|
|Median household income||$72,947|
|Median family income||$87,329|
San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income with a 2007 value of $65,519. Median family income is $81,136. An emigration of middle-class families has left the city with a lower proportion of children, 15%, than any other large American city. The city's "poverty rate is 12%, lower than the national average. "Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco since the early 1970s. The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city.
There are 345,811 households in the city, out of which: 133,366 households (39%) were individuals, 109,437 (32%) were "opposite-sex married couples, 63,577 (18%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,677 (6%) were "unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10,384 (3%) were "same-sex married couples or partnerships. The average household size was 2.26; the average family size was 3.11. 452,986 people (56%) lived in rental housing units, and 327,985 people (41%) lived in owner-occupied housing units. The median age of the city population is 38 years.
Homelessness, historically, has been a major problem in the city and remains a growing problem in modern times. The homeless population is estimated to be 13,500 with 6,500 living on the streets.
San Francisco has a diversified "service economy, with employment spread across a wide range of professional services, including "financial services, "tourism, and (increasingly) "high technology. In 2012, approximately 25% of workers were employed in professional business services; 16% in government services; 15% in leisure and hospitality; 11% in education and health care; and 9% in financial activities. In 2015, GDP in the five-county "San Francisco metropolitan area was $431.7 billion. Additionally, in 2015 the "San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland "combined statistical area had a GDP of $758.5 billion, which would put it ahead of all but 16 countries.
The legacy of the "California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the "West Coast in the early twentieth century. "Montgomery Street in the "Financial District became known as the ""Wall Street of the West", home to the "Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the "Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct "Pacific Coast Stock Exchange. "Bank of America, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at "555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions, six "Fortune 500 companies, and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, "architecture and design—San Francisco is designated as an "Alpha(-) World City. In March 2014 it was ranked in "10th place among the top global financial centers.
Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, "biotechnology, and "medical research. Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013. San Francisco became an epicenter of Internet "start-up companies during the "dot-com bubble of the 1990s and the subsequent "social media boom of the late 2000s (decade). Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby "Silicon Valley, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013. In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companies to foster growth in the "Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the "University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Mission Bay hosts the "California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, "California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and "Gladstone Institutes, as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies.
The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.3% (25,000+ people) of the city's population, followed by UCSF with over 22,000 employees. Third—at 1.8% (8,500+ people)—is "California Pacific Medical Center, the largest private-sector employer. Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments, and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. The growth of national "big box and "formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy, and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop, an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters. However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey.
"Like many U.S. cities, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s. As of 2014[update], San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. The city's largest manufacturing employer is "Anchor Brewing Company, and the largest by revenue is "Timbuk2.
Tourism and conventions
Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city. The city's "frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. It attracts the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States and is one of the 100 most visited cities worldwide. More than 18 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2014, injecting US$10.67 billion into the economy. With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the "Moscone Center, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.
Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the "Golden Gate Bridge and "Alamo Square Park, which is home to the famous ""Painted Ladies". Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom "Full House. There is also "Lombard Street, known for its "crookedness" and beautiful views. Tourists also flood to "Pier 39, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and beautiful views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous "Alcatraz Island.
San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods.
The port currently uses Pier 35 to handle the 60–80 "cruise ship calls and 200,000 passengers that come to San Francisco. Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico. The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 is scheduled to open 2014 as a replacement. The existing primary terminal at Pier 35 has neither the sufficient capacity to allow for the increasing size of new cruise ships nor the amenities needed for an international cruise terminal.
A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms; by 1970, the number was nine thousand; and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand." The "commodification of the "Castro District has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy.
Culture and contemporary life
Although the "Financial District, "Union Square, and "Fisherman's Wharf are well-known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring "mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around "central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by Walkscore.com. Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in "Cow Hollow, 24th Street in "Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the "Mission, Grant Avenue in "North Beach, and Irving Street in the "Inner Sunset. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.
Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled "information technology workers from local startups and nearby "Silicon Valley has attracted "white-collar workers from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco. Many neighborhoods that were once "blue-collar, middle, and lower class have been "gentrifying, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the "Embarcadero, including the neighborhoods "South Beach and "Mission Bay. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation, creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the "highest quality of living of any U.S. city. However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's "Central Valley. By June 2, 2015, the median rent was reported to be as high as $4,225. The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction.
The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas, San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in "Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual "Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind outside China.
With the arrival of the ""beat" writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the "Summer of Love in the "Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of "liberal activism and of the "counterculture that arose at that time. The "Democrats and to a lesser extent the "Green Party have dominated "city politics since the late 1970s, after the "last serious "Republican challenger for city office "lost the 1975 mayoral election by a narrow margin. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a "Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since "1988. In 2007, the city expanded its "Medicaid and other "indigent medical programs into the ""Healthy San Francisco" program, which "subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents.
San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. Starting with the founding of the "Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit "Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding our natural environment. The 1980 "San Francisco Recycling Program was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs. The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the "San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is rolling out the "CleanPowerSF program to sell electricity from local renewable sources. SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel.
The "Sunset Reservoir Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010.
San Francisco has long had an "LGBT-friendly "history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, "Daughters of Bilitis; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, "José Sarria; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, "Harvey Milk; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., "Mary C. Morgan; and the first "transgender police commissioner, "Theresa Sparks. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts "San Francisco Pride, one of the largest and oldest "pride parades.
"San Francisco Pride events have been held continuously since 1972. The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year.
Entertainment and performing arts
San Francisco's "War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the country. The "War Memorial Opera House houses the "San Francisco Opera, the second-largest opera company in North America as well as the "San Francisco Ballet, while the "San Francisco Symphony plays in "Davies Symphony Hall.
"The Fillmore is a music venue located in the "Western Addition. It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s, housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the "Grateful Dead, "Janis Joplin, "Led Zeppelin and "Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the "San Francisco Sound.
San Francisco has a large number of "theaters and live performance venues. Local theater companies have been noted for risk taking and innovation. The "Tony Award-winning non-profit "American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) is a member of the national "League of Resident Theatres. Other local winners of the "Regional Theatre Tony Award include the "San Francisco Mime Troupe. San Francisco theaters frequently host pre-"Broadway engagements and tryout runs, and some original San Francisco productions have later moved to Broadway.
The "San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the "South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually. SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by "Snøhetta, that has doubled the museum's size.
The "Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its "Lincoln Park building modeled after its "Parisian namesake. The "de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, while Asian art is housed in the "Asian Art Museum. Opposite the de Young stands the "California Academy of Sciences, a natural history museum that also hosts the "Morrison Planetarium and "Steinhart Aquarium. Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the "Exploratorium is an interactive science museum. The "Contemporary Jewish Museum is a non-collecting institution that hosts a broad array of temporary exhibitions. On Nob Hill, the "Cable Car Museum is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables.
"Major League Baseball's "San Francisco Giants have played in San Francisco since moving from New York in 1958. The Giants play at "AT&T Park, which opened in 2000. The Giants won "World Series titles in "2010, "2012, and in "2014. The Giants have boasted such stars as "Willie Mays, "Willie McCovey and "Barry Bonds. In 2012, San Francisco was ranked #1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.
The "San Francisco 49ers of the "National Football League (NFL) were the longest-tenured major professional sports franchise in the city until moving in 2013. The team began play in 1946 as an "All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into "Candlestick Park in 1971. The team began playing its home games at "Levi's Stadium in "Santa Clara in 2014, closer to the city of "San Jose. The 49ers won five "Super Bowl titles in the 1980s and 1990s.
The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962–1971, before being renamed the "Golden State Warriors prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of "California. The Warrior's stadium, "Oracle Arena, is currently located in "Oakland, California. They have won 4 championships, including their most recent in 2015.
At the collegiate level, the "San Francisco Dons compete in "NCAA "Division I. "Bill Russell led the Don's basketball team to "NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. There is also the "San Francisco State Gators, who compete in "NCAA Division II. AT&T Park hosted the annual "Fight Hunger Bowl college football game from 2002 through 2013 before it moved to Santa Clara.
The "Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. The "San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants. The "Escape from Alcatraz "triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race. The "Olympic Club, founded in 1860, is the oldest "athletic club in the United States. Its private golf course has hosted the "U.S. Open on five occasions. San Francisco hosted the "2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition.
With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of "bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city. San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country. "Golden Gate Park has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a "golf course and "disc golf course. Boating, sailing, "windsurfing and "kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the "Marina District.
Beaches and parks
Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional "Golden Gate National Recreation Area, one of the most visited units of the "National Park system in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are "Ocean Beach, which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant "surfing community, and "Baker Beach, which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the "Presidio, a former military base. Also within the Presidio is "Crissy Field, a former airfield that was restored to its natural "salt marsh "ecosystem. The GGNRA also administers "Fort Funston, "Lands End, "Fort Mason, and "Alcatraz. The National Park Service separately administers the "San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around "Aquatic Park.
There are more than "220 parks maintained by the "San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department. The largest and best-known city park is "Golden Gate Park, which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the "Conservatory of Flowers, "Japanese Tea Garden and "San Francisco Botanical Garden. "Lake Merced is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the "San Francisco Zoo, a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered. The only "park managed by the "California State Park system located principally in San Francisco, "Candlestick Point was the state's first urban recreation area.
Law and government
San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a "consolidated city-county, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now "San Mateo County. It is the only such consolidation in California. The "mayor is also the county executive, and the county "Board of Supervisors acts as the "city council. The government of San Francisco is a "charter city and is constituted of two co-equal branches. The executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service. The 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of "direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation.
The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city. Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, "Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of "George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. In 2011, "Edwin M. Lee was selected by the board to finish the term of "Gavin Newsom, who resigned to take office as "Lieutenant Governor of California.
Because of its unique city-county status, local government exercises jurisdiction over property that would otherwise be located outside of its corporation limit. "San Francisco International Airport, though located in "San Mateo County, is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco also has a county jail complex located in San Mateo County, in an "unincorporated area adjacent to "San Bruno. San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the "Hetch Hetchy Valley and "watershed in "Yosemite National Park by the "Raker Act in 1913.
San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the "U.S. Court of Appeals, the "Federal Reserve Bank, and the "U.S. Mint. Until "decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the "Presidio, "Treasure Island, and "Hunters Point—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of "Fleet Week. The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the "state supreme court and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco.
The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion, and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States. The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015-2016. The city employs around 27,000 workers.
The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
|Population and crime rates (2012)|
|Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter||69||0.08|
|Motor vehicle theft||5,339||6.51|
In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people. There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts. The "Tenderloin area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. The Tenderloin also sees high rates of drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution. Another area with high crime rates is the "Bayview-Hunters Point area. In the first six months of 2015 there were 25 murders compared to 14 in the first six months of 2014. However, the murder rate is still much lower than in past decades. That rate, though, did rise again by the close of 2016. According to the San Francisco Police Department, there were 59 murders in the city in 2016, an annual total that marked a 13.5% increase in the number of homicides (52) from 2015.
Several street gangs operate in the city, including "MS-13, the "Sureños and "Norteños in the Mission District,. African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the "Crips, have struggled to establish footholds in San Francisco, while police and prosecutors have been accused of liberally labeling young African-American males as gang members. Criminal gangs with shotcallers in China, including "Triad groups such as the "Wo Hop To, have been reported active in San Francisco. In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a "shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. None of the victims in this attack were gang members. Five members of the "Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown. In 1998, six teenagers were shot and wounded at the Chinese Playground; a 16-year-old boy was subsequently arrested.
The "San Francisco Police Department was founded in 1849. The portions of "Golden Gate National Recreation Area located within the city, including the "Presidio and "Ocean Beach, are patrolled by the "United States Park Police.
The "San Francisco Fire Department provides both fire suppression and emergency medical services to the city.
Colleges and universities
The "University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the "University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States and operates the "UCSF Medical Center, which ranks among the top 15 hospitals in the country. UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government. A 43-acre (170,000 m2) "Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in "Parnassus Heights. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise. All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco. The "University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in "Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy.
"San Francisco State University is part of the "California State University system and is located near "Lake Merced. The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines. The "City College of San Francisco, with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year "community colleges in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program.
Founded in 1855, the "University of San Francisco, a private "Jesuit university located on "Lone Mountain, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. "Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the "Financial District. With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the "Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation. Founded in 1871, the "San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest "art school west of the Mississippi. The "California College of the Arts, located north of "Potrero Hill, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing. The "San Francisco Conservatory of Music, the only independent "music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The "California Culinary Academy, associated with the "Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. "California Institute of Integral Studies, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation.
Primary and secondary schools
"Public schools are run by the "San Francisco Unified School District as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. "Lowell High School, the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi, and the smaller "School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's "magnet schools at the secondary level. Public school students attend schools based on an assignment system rather than neighborhood proximity.
Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 "private or "parochial schools, compared to a 10% rate nationwide. Nearly 40 of those schools are "Catholic schools managed by the "Archdiocese of San Francisco.
The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the "San Francisco Chronicle, which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper. The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late "Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The "San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of "William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of "Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership. "Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area. "SF Weekly is the city's "alternative weekly newspaper. "San Francisco Magazine and "7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine "Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco.
The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest "TV market and the fourth-largest "radio market in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, "KCBS (AM), began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. "KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. The city's first television station was "KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948.
All major U.S. television networks have "affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. "CNN, "MSNBC, "BBC, "Al Jazeera America, "Russia Today, and "CCTV America also have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. "Bloomberg West was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero and "CNBC broadcasts from "One Market Plaza since 2015. "ESPN uses the local ABC studio for their broadcasting. The "regional sports network, "Comcast SportsNet Bay Area and its sister station "Comcast SportsNet California, are both located in San Francisco. The "Pac-12 Network is also based in San Francisco.
"Public broadcasting outlets include both a "television station and a "radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the "Potrero Hill neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to "National Public Radio affiliate in the country. Another local broadcaster, "KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971. "CNET, founded 1994, and "Salon.com, 1995, are based in San Francisco.
San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. During the 1870s, "Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a "zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, "Philo Farnsworth's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.
Freeways and roads
Due to its unique geography, and the "freeway revolts of the late 1950s, "Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the "Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. "U.S. Route 101 connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward "Silicon Valley. Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the "Golden Gate Bridge, the only direct automobile link to "Marin County and the North Bay.
"State Route 1 also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge and bisects the city as the "19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, joining with "Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues south from San Francisco, and also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the "South of Market neighborhood. After the "1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, city leaders demolished the "Embarcadero Freeway and a portion of the "Central Freeway, converting them into street-level boulevards.
"State Route 35 enters the city from the south as "Skyline Boulevard and terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. "State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as "Mission Street, and terminates shortly thereafter at its junction with 280.
The Western Terminus of the historic transcontinental "Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, is in San Francisco's "Lincoln Park.
32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation in daily commuting to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States. The "San Francisco Municipal Railway, known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006. The system operates both a combined light rail and subway system, the "Muni Metro, and a large bus network. Additionally, it runs a "historic streetcar line, which runs on Market Street from "Castro Street to "Fisherman's Wharf. It also operates the famous "cable cars, which have been designated as a "National Historic Landmark and are a major tourist attraction.
"BART, a regional Rapid Transit system, connects San Francisco with the "East Bay through the underwater "Transbay Tube. The line runs under Market Street to "Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern "San Mateo County, to the "San Francisco International Airport, and "Millbrae.
Another Commuter Rail system, "Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the "San Francisco Peninsula to "San Jose. Historically, trains operated by "Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to "Los Angeles, via "Palo Alto and "San Jose.
"Amtrak California "Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from San Francisco to its "rail station across the Bay in "Emeryville. Lines from "Emeryville Station include the "Capitol Corridor, "San Joaquin, "California Zephyr, and "Coast Starlight. Thruway service also runs south to "San Luis Obispo, California with connection to the "Pacific Surfliner.
"San Francisco Bay Ferry operates from the "Ferry Building and "Pier 39 to points in "Oakland, "Alameda, "Bay Farm Island, "South San Francisco, and north to "Vallejo in "Solano County. The "Golden Gate Ferry is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and "Marin County. "Soltrans runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo.
San Francisco was an early adopter of "carsharing in America. The non profit "City Carshare opened in 2001. "Zipcar closely followed.
To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the "Silicon Valley daily, companies like "Google and "Apple have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations to the tech start-up hotspot. These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as "protesters claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses.
Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated "San Mateo County, "San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for "United Airlines and "Virgin America. SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America. In 2011, SFO was the 8th busiest airport in the U.S. and 22nd busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers.
Located across the bay, "Oakland International Airport is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across "San Francisco Bay, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.
Cycling and walking
Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco. 75,000 residents commute by bicycle per day. "Bay Area Bike Share launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco and selected cities south to San Jose. The "San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and "Bay Area Air Quality Management District are responsible for the operation with management provided by "Alta Bicycle Share. The system will be expanded in the future. Pedestrian traffic is a major mode of transport. In 2015, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second-most walkable city in the United States.
San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001, which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5 deaths per 100,000 population.
"Cycling is growing in San Francisco. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the "Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts. In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips. Since 2002, improvements in "cycling infrastructure in recent years, including additional bike lanes and parking racks, have made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient. Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the "League of American Bicyclists.
Consulates and sister cities
San Francisco participates in the "Sister Cities program. A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.
(not including other types of municipal partnerships such as "friendship cities")
- " "Abidjan, "Cote d'Ivoire
- " "Amman, "Jordan
- " "Assisi, "Umbria, "Italy
- " "Barcelona, "Spain
- " "Bengaluru, "India
- " "Cork, "Ireland
- " "Haifa, "Israel
- " "Ho Chi Minh City, "Vietnam
- " "Krakow, "Poland
- " "Manila, "Philippines
- " "Osaka, "Japan
- " "Paris, "France
- " "Seoul, "South Korea
- " "Shanghai, "China
- " "Sydney, "Australia
- " "Taipei, "Taiwan
- " "Thessaloniki, "Greece
- " "Zürich, "Switzerland
- "Architecture of San Francisco
- "California earthquake forecast
- "Gold Mountain (Chinese name for part of North America)
- "List of cities and towns in California
- "List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay Area
- "List of counties in California
- "List of largest California cities by population
- "Ships lost in San Francisco
- This name, like Frisco, has often been discouraged among Bay Area natives.
- The coordinates of the station are . Precipitation, high temperature, low temperature, snow, and snow depth records date from 1 October 1849, 1 June 1874, 1 January 1875, 1 January 1876, and 1 January 1922, respectively.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Sullivan, James (October 14, 2003). "Frisco, that once-verboten term". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- "Don't Call It Frisco". San Francisco Examiner, San Francisco Chronicle. April 3, 1918. p. 6. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Though many residents still maintain that the nickname "Frisco" is taboo, many residents, especially younger and working-class natives, have kept this term alive and well. In any case, this is a matter of ongoing speculation that reflects certain cultural divisions within the city. Sullivan, James (October 14, 2003). "Frisco, that once-verboten term for the city by the bay, is making a comeback among the young and hip. Herb Caen is spinning at warp speed.". San Francisco Chronicle. p. D-1. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- Some tourists refer to San Francisco as "Frisco." However, locals discourage this. Samuel D. Cohen writes that many credit "Friscophobia" to newspaper columnist "Herb Caen, whose first book, published in 1953, was "Don't Call it Frisco" after a 1918 newspaper article of the same name. Caen was considered by many to be the recognized authority on what was, and what was not, beneath the city's dignity, and to him, Frisco was intolerable. Cohen, Sam (September 11, 1997). "Locals know best: only tourists call it 'Frisco'". Golden Gater Online. San Francisco State University. Archived from the original on November 23, 1997. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- "PPIE: The City That Knows How". Amusing America. San Francisco Public Library. March 29, 2005. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- "Caen, Herb (1949). Baghdad-by-the-Bay. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. "ISBN "978-0-89174-047-6. "OCLC 31060237. LC F869.S3 C12.
- Kompes, Gregory A. (2005). 50 Fabulous Gay-Friendly Places to Live. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press. p. 66. "ISBN "1-56414-827-0.
- Edward F. O'Day (October 1926). "The Founding of San Francisco". San Francisco Water. Spring Valley Water Authority. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- "San Francisco: Government". SFGov.org. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
San Francisco was incorporated as a City on April 15th, 1850 by act of the Legislature.
- "Office of the Mayor : Home". City & County of San Francisco. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Board of Supervisors". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "Communities of Interest – City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Members Assembly". California State Assembly. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Communities of Interest – City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Directory of Representatives". U.S. House of Representatives.
- "GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – Census Tract". "2010 United States Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "San Francisco". "Geographic Names Information System. "United States Geological Survey.
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". US Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California". US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "ZIP Code(tm) Lookup". "United States Postal Service. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
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- Garling, Caleb (June 30, 2013). "Don't Call It Frisco: The History of San Francisco's Nicknames". "The Bold Italic. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- "Charter of the United Nations | United Nations". www.un.org. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- "History of the United Nations | United Nations". www.un.org. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- "San Francisco — the birthplace of the United Nations". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- "Board of Supervisors – Does San Francisco have a City Council?". SFGov SF311. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
- After New York City, only for cities with greater than 200,000 population. Otherwise it is not 2nd."2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density". Demographia. Retrieved August 23, 2007.
- Coy, Owen Cochran (1919). Guide to the County Archives of California. Sacramento, California: California Historical Survey Commission. p. 409.
- Montagne, Renée (April 11, 2006). "Remembering the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake". People & Places. NPR. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Port of Embarkation Essay—World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area". A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary:. US Department of the Interior. August 28, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Top U.S. Destinations for International Visitors. The Hotel Price Index. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- "2016 quality of living rankings". Mercer. February 23, 2016.
- Stewart, Suzanne B. (November 2003). "Archaeological Research Issues For The Point Reyes National Seashore – Golden Gate National Recreation Area" (PDF). Sonoma State University – Anthropological Studies Center. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Visitors: San Francisco Historical Information". City and County of San Francisco. n.d. Archived from the original on March 1, 2006. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco (July 16, 2004). "From the 1820s to the Gold Rush". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 4–5. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- Sourdough bread was a staple of western explorers and miners of the 19th century. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today.Tamony, Peter (October 1973). "Sourdough and French Bread". Western Folklore. Western States Folklore Society. 32 (4): 265–270. "doi:10.2307/1498306.
- "San Francisco's First Brick Building". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. July 16, 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Richards, Rand (1992). Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide. Heritage House. "ISBN "978-1-879367-00-5. "OCLC 214330849.
- Harris, Ron (November 14, 2005). "Crews Unearth Shipwreck on San Francisco Condo Project". Associated Press. Retrieved September 4, 2006.
- Filion, Ron S. "Buried Ships". SFgenealogy. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 31–33. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- "The miners came in forty-nine, / The whores in fifty-one, / And when they got together / They produced the native son." Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 237–238. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- Construction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the ""City and County of San Francisco Pacific Railroad Bond issue under the provisions of "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto." approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the "Compromise Act of 1864" approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 ("The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco" 25 Cal 635) and 1865 ("The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs. The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk" 27 Cal 655)
- "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Under Three Flags" (PDF). Golden Gate National Recreation Area Brochures. US Department of the Interior. November 2004. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 44–55. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- Kalisch, Philip A. (Summer 1972). "The Black Death in Chinatown: Plague and Politics in San Francisco 1900–1904". Arizona and the West. Journal of the Southwest. 14 (2): 113–136. "JSTOR 40168068.
- "1906 Earthquake: Fire Fighting". Golden Gate National Recreation Area. US Department of the Interior. December 24, 2003. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Casualties and Damage after the 1906 earthquake". Earthquake Hazards Program – Northern California. US Geological Survey. January 25, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "1906 Earthquake and the Army". Golden Gate National Recreation Area. US Department of the Interior. August 25, 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Jack London Writes of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire". Sfmuseum.org. May 5, 1906. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 56–62. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- "SPUR Our Mission and History". Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- O'Brien, Tricia (2008). San Francisco's Pacific Heights and Presidio Heights. San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. "ISBN "978-0-7385-5980-3.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 9. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- "Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco – M.M. O'Shaughnessy Employed as City Engineer". Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "San Francisco Gold Rush Banking – 1849". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. June 24, 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Fang, Eric (February 1999). "Urban Renewal Revisited: A Design Critique". SPUR Newsletter. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- Rubin, Jasper (November 1999). "The Decline of the Port – A look at the transformation of the Port of San Francisco". SPUR Newsletter. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
The final, insurmountable decline in San Francisco's shipping activity was heralded in 1958 by the departure of the first containerized freighter from San Francisco Bay.
- Terplan, Egon (June 7, 2010). "Organizing for Economic Growth – A new approach to business attraction and retention in San Francisco". SPUR Report. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
During the 1960s and 1970s San Francisco's historic maritime industry relocated to Oakland. ... San Francisco remained a center for business and professional services (such as consulting, law, accounting and finance) and also successfully developed its tourism sector, which became the leading local industry.
- Willis, James; Habib, Jerry; Brittan, Jeremy (April 19, 2004). "San Francisco Planning Department Census Data Analysis". San Francisco State University. Archived from the original (PPT) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Minton, Torri (September 20, 1998). "Race Through Time". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. p. SC-4. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 240–242. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- "American Experience: Summer of Love: Film Description". Website for American Experience documentary on the Summer of Love. PBS. March 14, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- "Fear in the Streets of San Francisco". Time. April 29, 1974. Archived from the original on October 18, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2006.
- "San Francisco History: The 1970s and 1980s: Gay Rights". Destinations: San Francisco. Frommers.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2001. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- "Pyramid Facts and Figures". Company Profile. Transamerica Insurance and Investment Group. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 95–96. "ISBN "978-0-471-19120-9. "OCLC 44313415.
- Fagan, Kevin (August 4, 2006). "S.F.'s Homeless Aging on the Street / Chronic health problems on the rise as median age nears 50". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
The findings support what many social workers have long suspected – that there was a "big bang" homeless population explosion as federal housing programs were slashed and the closing of mental hospitals hit home in the mid-1980s and that this core group constitutes the bulk of the street population.
- Nieves, Evelyn (November 5, 2000). "Mission District Fights Case of Dot-Com Fever". The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- Nolte, Carl (January 2, 2008). "High-rises are a sign of the times in changing San Francisco". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- Ted Egan (April 3, 2006). "City and County of San Francisco: An Overview of San Francisco's Recent Economic Performance" (PDF). Report prepared for Mayor's Office of Economic and Workforce Development. ICF Consulting. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2008.
Another positive trend for the future is San Francisco's highly entrepreneurial, flexible and innovative economy...San Francisco's very high reliance on small business and self-employment is typical of other dynamic, fast-growing, high-technology areas across the country.
- Graham, Tom (November 7, 2004). "Peak Experience". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. p. PK-23. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Lee, Henry K. (January 16, 1997). "Mount Davidson Cross Called Landmark by Panel". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
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- Bronson, William (2006). The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned. Chronicle Books. "ISBN "978-0-8118-5047-6. "OCLC 65223734.
- Cassady, Stephen (1987). Spanning the Gate. Square Books. "ISBN "978-0-916290-36-8. "OCLC 15229396.
- Dillon, Richard H. (1998). High Steel: Building the Bridges Across San Francisco Bay. Celestial Arts (Reissue edition). "ISBN "978-0-88029-428-7. "OCLC 22719465.
- Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1980). Literary San Francisco: A pictorial history from its beginnings to the present day. Harper & Row. "ISBN "978-0-06-250325-1. "OCLC 6683688.
- Hartman, Chester (2002). City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco. University of California Press. "ISBN "978-0-520-08605-0. "OCLC 48579085.
- Holliday, J. S. (1999). Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. University of California Press. "ISBN "978-0-520-21402-6. "OCLC 37545551.
- Lotchin, Roger W. (1997). San Francisco, 1846–1856: From Hamlet to City. University of Illinois Press. "ISBN "978-0-252-06631-3. "OCLC 35650934.
- Margolin, Malcolm (1981). The Ohlone Way: Indian Life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area. Heydey Books. "ISBN "978-0-930588-01-4. "OCLC 4628382.
- Maupin, Armistead (1978). Tales of the City. Harper Collins. "ISBN "978-0-06-096404-7. "OCLC 29847673.
- Solnit, Rebecca. Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas (University of California Press, 2010). 144 pp. "ISBN 978-0-520-26250-8; online review
- Thomas, Gordon & Witts, Max Morgan (1971). The San Francisco Earthquake. Stein and Day. "ISBN "978-0-8128-1360-9. "OCLC 154735.
- Winfield, P.H., The Charter of San Francisco (The fortnightly review Vol. 157–58:2 (1945), p. 69–75)
- San Francisco (article) (1870) The Overland Monthly, January 1870 Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 9–23. San Francisco: A. Roman & Co., Publishers
- Bay Watched – How San Francisco's New Entrepreneurial Culture is Changing the Country (article) (October 2013), Nathan Heller, "The New Yorker
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