|Born||Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi
"Florence, "Republic of Florence, (now Italy)
|Died||May 17, 1510
(aged c. 64)|
Florence, Republic of Florence
"Andrea del Verrocchio
"The Birth of Venus
"The Adoration of the Magi
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (Italian: "[ˈsandro bottiˈtʃɛlli]; c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), was an "Italian painter of the Early "Renaissance. He belonged to the "Florentine School under the patronage of "Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that "Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a ""golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.
As well as the small number of mythological subjects which are his best known works, he painted a wide range of religious subjects and also portraits. Among Botticelli's best-known works are "The Birth of Venus and "Primavera.
Botticelli was born in the city of "Florence in a house in the Via Nuova, Borg'Ognissanti, to Mariano di Vanni d'Amedeo Filipepi. The date of his birth is not known, but his father's tax returns in following years give his age as two in 1447 and thirteen in 1458 so, allowing for arguments as to what these really meant, dates between 1444 and 1446 are given. Vasari reported that Botticelli was initially trained as a "goldsmith by his brother Antonio. There are very few details of Botticelli's life, but it is known that he became an apprentice when he was about fourteen years old, which would indicate that he received a fuller education than other Renaissance artists. By 1462 he was apprenticed to "Fra Filippo Lippi; many of his early works have been attributed to the elder master, and attributions continue to be uncertain. Influenced also by the monumentality of "Masaccio's painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner.
Lippi died in 1469 and by 1470 at the latest, but probably a year or two earlier, Botticelli had his own workshop, which included the young "Filippino Lippi, son of his master. Even at this early date, his work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modelled forms.
The "Adoration of the Magi for "Santa Maria Novella (c. 1475–76, now in the "Uffizi), contains the portraits of "Cosimo de Medici, his sons "Piero and "Giovanni, and his grandsons "Lorenzo and "Giuliano. The quality of the scene was hailed by Vasari as one of Botticelli's pinnacles.
A large "fresco for the customs house of Florence, that is now lost, depicted the execution by "hanging of the leaders of the "Pazzi conspiracy against the Medici. This was Botticelli's first major fresco commission, and may have led to his summons to Rome. It was destroyed after the expulsion of the Medici in 1494.
In 1481, "Pope Sixtus IV summoned Botticelli and other prominent Florentine and Umbrian artists to fresco the walls of the newly-completed "Sistine Chapel. This large project was to be the main decoration of the chapel; most of the frescos remain, but are now greatly overshadowed and disrupted by "Michelangelo's work of the next century, to make room for which some of them were destroyed.
The iconographic scheme was a pair of cycles, facing each other on the sides of the chapel, of the "Life of Christ and the Life of "Moses, together suggesting the supremacy of the Papacy. Botticelli's contribution included three of the original fourteen large scenes: the "Temptations of Christ, "Youth of Moses and "Punishment of the Sons of Corah, as well as several of the imagined portraits of popes in the level above, and paintings of unknown subjects in the "lunettes above, where Michelangelo's "Sistine Chapel ceiling now is. He may have also done a fourth scene on the end wall opposite the altar, now destroyed. Each painter bought a team of assistants from his workshop, as the space to be covered was considerable; each of the main panels is some 3.5 by 5.7 metres, and the work was done in a few months.
Vasari implies that Botticelli was given overall artistic charge of the project, but modern art historians think it more likely that "Pietro Perugino, the first artist to be employed, was given this role. The subjects and many details to be stressed in their execution were no doubt handed to the artists by the Vatican authorities; the schemes present a complex and coherent programme asserting Papal supremacy, and are more unified in this than in their artistic style, although the artists follow a consistent scale and broad compositional layout, with crowds of figures in the foreground and mainly landscape in the top half of the scene. Allowing for the painted "pilasters that separate each scene, the level of the horizon matches between scenes, and Moses wears the same yellow and green clothes in his scenes. Botticelli differs from his colleagues in imposing a more insistent "triptych-like composition, dividing each of his scenes into a main central group with two flanking groups at the sides, showing different incidents. In each the principal figure of Christ or Moses appears several times, seven in the case of the Youth of Moses.
In 1482 he returned to Florence, and "being of a sophistical turn of mind, he there wrote a commentary on a portion of "Dante and "illustrated the Inferno which he printed, spending much time over it, and this abstention from work led to serious disorders in his living." Thus Vasari characterized the first printed "Dante (1481) with Botticelli's decorations; he could not imagine that the new art of "printing might occupy an artist. Botticelli later began a "manuscript illustrated Dante, most of which was taken only as far as the "underdrawings.
The masterpieces "Primavera (c. 1482) and "The Birth of Venus (c. 1485) are not a pair, but are inevitably discussed together; both are in the Uffizi. They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the "Italian Renaissance. As depictions of subjects from "classical mythology on a very large scale they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity. They have been endlessly analysed by "art historians, with the main themes being: the emulation of ancient painters and the context of wedding celebrations (generally agreed), the influence of "Renaissance Neo-Platonism (somewhat controversial), and the identity of the commissioners (not agreed).
They were both seen by Vasari at the villa of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici at Castello in the mid-16th century, and until recently, it was assumed that both works were painted specifically for the villa. Recent scholarship suggests otherwise: the Primavera was painted for Lorenzo's townhouse in Florence, and The Birth of Venus was commissioned by someone else for a different site. By 1499, both had been installed at Castello.
In these works, the influence of "Gothic realism is tempered by Botticelli's study of the antique. But if the painterly means may be understood, the subjects themselves remain fascinating for their ambiguity. The complex meanings of these paintings continue to receive widespread scholarly attention, mainly focusing on the poetry and philosophy of humanists who were the artist's contemporaries. The works do not illustrate particular texts; rather, each relies upon several texts for its significance. Of their beauty, characterized by Vasari as exemplifying "grace" and by "John Ruskin as possessing linear rhythm, there can be no doubt. The pictures feature Botticelli's linear style emphasized by the soft continual contours and pastel colors.
In the mid-1480s, Botticelli worked on a major fresco cycle with "Perugino, "Domenico Ghirlandaio and "Filippino Lippi, for "Lorenzo the Magnificent's villa near "Volterra; in addition he painted many frescoes in Florentine churches. In 1491 he served on a committee to decide upon a façade for the "Cathedral of Florence.
Botticelli painted many portraits, as well as a number of idealized portrait-like paintings of women which probably do not represent a specific person (several closely resemble the Venus in his "Venus and Mars). Traditional gossip links these to the famous beauty "Simonetta Vespucci, who died aged twenty-two in 1476, but this seems unlikely. These figures represent a secular link to his Madonnas.
With one or two exceptions his small independent panel portraits show the sitter no further down the torso than about the bottom of the rib-cage. Women are normally in profile, full or just a little turned, whereas men are normally a "three-quarters" pose, but never quite seen completely frontally. Even when the head is facing more or less straight ahead, the lighting is used to create a difference between the sides of the face. Backgrounds may be plain, or show an open window, usually with nothing but sky visible through it. A few have developed landscape backgrounds. These characteristics were typical of Florentine portraits at the beginning of his career, but old-fashioned by his last years. Many portraits exist in several versions, probably most mainly by the workshop; there is often uncertainty in their attribution. Often the background changes between versions while the figure remains the same. His male portraits have also often held dubious identifications, most often of various Medicis, for longer than the real evidence supports.
Botticelli often slightly exaggerates aspects of the features to increase the likeness. He also painted portraits in other works, as when he inserted a self-portrait and the Medici into his early Adoration of the Magi. Several figures in the Sistine Chapel frescos appear to be portraits, but the subjects are unknown, although fanciful guesses have been made. Large allegorical frescos from a villa show members of the "Tornabuoni family together with gods and personifications; probably not all of these survive but ones with portraits of "a young man with the Seven Liberal Arts and "a young woman with Venus and the Three Graces are now in the "Louvre.
"Portrait of a Man with a Medal of Cosimo the Elder, 1474; the medal is an inserted "gesso cast of a real medal.
Portrait of a Young Woman, 1475
"Portrait of a Young Man c. 1482-1485
Perhaps early 1480s.
La Bella Simonetta "Simonetta Vespucci, c. 1480–1485
"Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, probably Giovanna Tornabuoni, who married in 1486
In later life, Botticelli became a follower of the deeply moralistic "Dominican friar "Girolamo Savonarola, who preached in Florence from 1490 until his "execution in 1498, though the full extent of Savonarola's influence remains uncertain.
Like much of Florence, Botticelli had come under the sway of Savonarola and his art had transformed from the decorative to the deeply devout – "The Mystical Nativity (c. 1500–1501) [for example] bears all the signs of this change
The story that he had destroyed his own paintings on pagan themes in the notorious ""Bonfire of the Vanities" is not told by "Vasari, who nevertheless asserts that regarding the sect of Savonarola "he was so ardent a partisan that he was thereby induced to desert his painting, and, having no income to live on, fell into very great distress. For this reason, persisting in his attachment to that party, and becoming a Piagnone he abandoned his work.
Botticelli biographer Ernst Steinmann searched for the artist's psychological development through his Madonnas. In the "deepening of insight and expression in the rendering of Mary's "physiognomy", Steinmann discerned proof of Savonarola's influence over Botticelli. (In Steinmann's assessment, the dates of a number of Madonnas were placed at a later point in the artist's life). Steinmann disagreed with Vasari's assertion that Botticelli produced nothing after coming under the influence of Savonarola, asserting instead that the spiritual and emotional Virgins followed directly from the teachings of the Dominican monk.["citation needed]
Vasari mentions that Botticelli produced very fine drawings, which were sought out by artists after his death. Apart from the Dante illustrations, only a small number of these survive, none of which can be connected with surviving paintings although they appear to be preparatory drawings rather than independent works. Some may be connected with the work in other media that we know Botticelli did. Three "vestments survive with embroidered designs by him, and he developed a new technique for decorating banners for religious and secular processions, apparently in some kind of "appliqué technique.
"The Mystical Nativity a relatively small and very personal painting, perhaps for his own use, appears to be dated to the end of 1500. Botticelli apparently produced relatively little work after 1501, or perhaps earlier. In late 1502 "Isabella d'Este wanted a painting done in Florence. Her agent Francesco Malatesta wrote to inform her that her first choice, Perugino, was away, Filippino Lippi had a full schedule for six months, but Botticelli was free to start at once, and ready to oblige. She preferred to wait for Perugino's return. This casts serious doubt on Vasari's assertion that he had abandoned painting under the influence of Savonarola, who was by then dead for some four years. In 1504 he was a member of the committee appointed to decide where "Michelangelo's "David would be placed.
His later work, especially as seen in the four panels with "Scenes from the Life of Saint Zenobius, witnessed a diminution of scale, expressively distorted figures, and a non-naturalistic use of colour reminiscent of the work of "Fra Angelico nearly a century earlier.
He continued to pay his dues to the Compagnia di San Luca (a "confraternity rather than the "artist's guild) until at least October 1505; the tentative date ranges assigned to his late paintings run no further than this. By then he was aged sixty or more, in this period definitely into old age. Vasari, who lived in Florence from around 1527, says that Botticelli died "ill and decrepit, at the age of seventy-eight", after a period when he was "unable to stand upright and moving around with the help of crutches". He died in May 1510, but is now thought to have been something under seventy at the time. He was buried outside the "Ognissanti Church in a spot the church has now built over. This had been his parish church as a child, and contained paintings by him.
After his death, Botticelli's reputation was eclipsed longer and more thoroughly than that of any other major European artist. His paintings remained in the churches and villas for which they had been created, and his frescoes in the "Sistine Chapel were upstaged by those of Michelangelo.
The English collector "William Young Ottley bought Botticelli's "The Mystical Nativity in Italy, bringing it to London in 1799. After Ottley's death, its next purchaser, "William Fuller Maitland of Stansted, allowed it to be exhibited in a major art exhibition held in "Manchester in 1857, the "Art Treasures Exhibition, where among many other art works it was viewed by more than a million people.
The first nineteenth-century art historian to have looked with satisfaction at Botticelli's Sistine frescoes was "Alexis-François Rio; "Anna Brownell Jameson and "Charles Eastlake were alerted to Botticelli as well, and works by his hand began to appear in German collections. The "Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood incorporated elements of his work into their own. "Walter Pater created a literary picture of Botticelli, who was then taken up by the "Aesthetic movement. The first "monograph on the artist was published in 1893; then, between 1900 and 1920 more books were written on Botticelli than on any other painter.
The main belt asteroid 29361 Botticelli discovered on 9 February 1996, is named after him.
Botticelli never married, and expressed a strong disliking to the idea of marriage, a prospect he claimed gave him nightmares.
Some modern historians have also examined other aspects of his sexuality. In 1938, "Jacques Mesnil discovered a summary of a charge in the Florentine Archives for November 16, 1502, which read simply "Botticelli keeps a boy", under an accusation of "sodomy. The painter would then have been fifty-eight; the charges were eventually dropped. Mesnil dismissed it as a customary slander by which partisans and adversaries of "Savonarola abused each other. Opinion remains divided on whether this is evidence of homosexuality. Many have firmly backed Mesnil, but others have cautioned against hasty dismissal of the charge. Yet while speculating on the subject of his paintings, Mesnil nevertheless concluded "woman was not the only object of his love".
"St. Sebastian, 1474
"Adoration of the Magi, 1475
"Madonna of the Magnificat, detail, 1481
"Madonna of the Book (c.1480–3)
"Madonna of the Pomegranate (Madonna della Melagrana), c. 1487
"Cestello Annunciation, 1489
"Annunciation, c. 1490
"Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1490–92
"Calumny of Apelles, detail, c. 1494
During the colouring Botticelli strengthened many of the contours by means of a pointed instrument, probably to give them the bold clarity so characteristic of his linear style.
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