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Main articles: "Siege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777), "Battle of Hubbardton, and "Battle of Fort Anne

Burgoyne's army traveled up the lake and occupied the undefended "Fort Crown Point by June 30.[36] The screening activities of Burgoyne's Indian support were highly effective at keeping the Americans from learning the details of his movements.[37] General "Arthur St. Clair, who had been left in command of Fort Ticonderoga and its surrounding defenses with a garrison of about 3,000 regulars and militia, had no idea on July 1 of the full strength of Burgoyne's army, large elements of which were then just 4 miles (6.4 km) away.[38][39] St. Clair had been ordered by General Schuyler to hold out as long as possible, and had planned two avenues of retreat.[40]

Open skirmishing began on the outer defense works of Ticonderoga on July 2. By July 4, most of the American garrison was either at Fort Ticonderoga or nearby "Mount Independence, the extensive fortifications on the Vermont side of the lake. Unknown to the Americans, their withdrawal from an outer defensive position cleared a way for the British to place artillery on the hilltop known then as Sugar Loaf (now "Mount Defiance), whose heights commanded the fort.[41] St. Clair withdrew the night after spotting British cannon on Sugar Loaf on July 5, and Burgoyne's men "occupied the main fortification and the positions on Mount Independence on July 6.[42] The uncontested surrender of the supposedly impregnable fort caused a public and political uproar.[43] Although a later investigation cleared both Schuyler and St. Clair of any wrongdoing in the withdrawal, it caused the "Continental Congress to replace Schuyler with General "Horatio Gates as commander of the "Northern Department of the Continental Army in August.[44][45]

General "Arthur St. Clair, portrait by "Charles Willson Peale

Burgoyne sent forces out from his main body to pursue the retreating army, which St. Clair had sent south via two different routes. The British caught up with elements of the retreating Americans at least three times. General Fraser and elements of Baron Riedesel's troops faced determined resistance in "Battle of Hubbardton on July 7, and a skirmish that same day between the vanguard of the main army met "Pierse Long's retreating companies in a skirmish at "Skenesboro. These were followed by another standoff in the "Battle of Fort Anne on July 8, in which a forward company of the British army was nearly decimated. These actions cost the Americans about 50% more casualties than those incurred by the British, and they demonstrated to the British officers present that the Americans were capable of putting up stiff resistance. Burgoyne's army was reduced by about 1,500 men as a result of the Ticonderoga actions. He left 400 men to garrison the magazine at Crown Point and another 900 to defend Ticonderoga, and the battles that followed resulted in about 200 casualties.[46]

The bulk of St. Clair's army retreated through the "New Hampshire Grants (present-day "Vermont). St. Clair issued appeals to the states for militia support, and also arranged to have as much of the area's livestock and supplies delivered to Fort Edward on the Hudson River, where the American armies would regroup. St. Clair reached Fort Edward on July 12 after five days of grueling marches.[47] Some of the remnants that had been scattered at Hubbardton rejoined the army, but "Seth Warner and the remains of his regiment were stationed at "Manchester in the Grants.[48]

Reaction and delay[edit]

Burgoyne settled into the house of Loyalist "Philip Skene at Skenesboro while the pieces of his army regrouped and he considered his next steps. He penned letters describing the British victory, intended for public consumption. When this news reached the capitals of Europe, "King George was happy, and the Comte de Vergennes was not, as the news effectively scuttled an early proposal for French entry into the war. British diplomats increased pressure on the French and Spanish, demanding that they close their ports to American shipping. While this demand was refused, it markedly increased the tensions between the powers. The news was also harshly received by Congress and the American public, including slanders that St. Clair and Schuyler had been bribed.[49]

On July 10 Burgoyne issued orders for the next series of movements. Most of the army was to take the rough road from Skenesboro to Fort Edward via Fort Anne, while the heavy artillery was to be transported down Lake George to Fort Edward. Riedesel's troops were sent back up the road toward "Castleton, primarily as a diversion intended to suggest that he might be aiming for the "Connecticut River.[50] Burgoyne's decision to move the army overland via Fort Anne was a curious one, for it contradicted his own earlier commentaries on planning the expedition, in which he presciently observed that defenders could easily block the route. His decision appears to have been motivated by two factors; the first being the perception that moving the army over water via Lake George would require a retrograde movement that could be perceived as a "retreat, and the second being the influence of Philip Skene, whose property would benefit by the improved road Burgoyne would have to build.[51]

General Schuyler, at Albany when he received word of Ticonderoga's fall, immediately rode to Fort Edward, where there was a garrison of about 700 regulars and 1,400 militia.[52] He decided to make Burgoyne's passage as difficult as possible, using the axe as a weapon; as it was much easier to fell large trees in the enemy's path than to remove them after they were down, this brought Burgoyne's advance to a crawl, tiring his troops and forcing them to use up supplies. On July 11 Burgoyne wrote to Lord Germain, complaining that the Americans were systematically felling trees, destroying bridges, and damming streams along the road to Fort Edward.[53] Schuyler also employed "scorched earth tactics to deny the British access to local provisions. In spite of Burgoyne's lack of movement, his scouts were active; some of Schuyler's work crews were attacked.[54]

Schuyler's tactics required Burgoyne to build a road through the wilderness for his guns and troops, a task that took about two weeks. They moved out of Skenesboro on July 24, and reached Fort Edward on July 29, finding that Schuyler had already abandoned it, in a retreat that ended at "Stillwater, New York.[55] Before he left Skenesboro, Burgoyne was joined by about 500 Indians (mostly "Ottawas, but also "Fox, "Mississauga, "Chippewa, and "Ojibwe, as well as members of the "Iroquois) from the "Great Lakes region under the leadership of "St. Luc de la Corne and "Charles Michel de Langlade.[56][57]

St. Leger's expedition[edit]

Siege of Fort Stanwix and "Battle of Oriskany

Lieutenant Colonel St. Leger sailed up the St. Lawrence and crossed "Lake Ontario to arrive at "Oswego without incident. He had about 300 regulars, supported by 650 Canadian and "Loyalist "militia, and they were joined by 1,000 Indians led by "John Butler and the Iroquois war chiefs "Joseph Brant, "Sayenqueraghta and "Cornplanter. Leaving Oswego on July 25, they marched to "Fort Stanwix on the "Mohawk River, and began besieging it on August 2. About 800 members of the "Tryon County militia and their Indian allies marched to relieve the siege, but some of St. Leger's British and Indians ambushed them on August 6 at the bloody "Battle of Oriskany. While the Americans held the field of battle, they retreated because of the heavy casualties they suffered, including the mortal wounding of their leader, General "Nicholas Herkimer. Warriors from Iroquois nations fought on both sides of the battle, marking the beginning of a "civil war within the "Six Nations. During the Oriskany action, the besieged Americans staged a "sortie from Fort Stanwix and raided the nearly empty Indian camp. Combined with the significant Indian casualties at Oriskany, this was a significant blow to Indian morale.[58]

Burgoyne's march on Albany June–October 1777

On August 10, "Benedict Arnold left "Stillwater, New York for Fort Stanwix with 800 men of the "Continental Army from Schuyler's Northern Department. He expected to recruit members of the Tryon County militia when he arrived at "Fort Dayton on August 21. Arnold could only raise about 100 militia, as most of the militia men that had been at Oriskany were not interested in joining, so he instead resorted to subterfuge. He staged the escape of a Loyalist captive, who convinced St. Leger that Arnold was coming with a much larger force than he actually had. On this news, "Joseph Brant and the rest of St. Leger's Indians withdrew.[59] They took most of his remaining supplies with them, and St. Leger was forced to raise the siege and head back through Oswego to Quebec. Arnold sent a detachment a short way after them, and turned the rest of his force east to rejoin the American forces at Saratoga. St. Leger's remaining men eventually arrived at Fort Ticonderoga on September 27.[60] Their arrival was too late to effectively support Burgoyne, whose army was already being hemmed in by the growing American forces around him.[61]

Mounting difficulties[edit]

Battle of Bennington and "Jane McCrea

The advance of Burgoyne's army to Fort Edward was, as with the approach to Ticonderoga, preceded by a wave of Indians, which chased away the small contingent of troops left there by Schuyler.[62] These allies became impatient and began indiscriminate raids on frontier families and settlements, which had the effect of increasing rather than reducing local support to the American rebels.[63] In particular, the death at Indian hands of the attractive young "Loyalist settler "Jane McCrea was widely publicized and served as a catalyst for rebel support, as Burgoyne's decision to not punish the perpetrators was seen as unwillingness or inability to keep the Indians under control.[64]

General "John Stark, the "Hero of Bennington"

Even though the bulk of his army made the trip from Skenesboro to Fort Edward in just five days, the army's lack of adequate transport served to delay the army again, as the supply train, hampered by a lack of draft animals and carts and wagons that were capable of dealing with the rough tracks through the wilderness, took time to follow.[21]

On August 3, messengers from General Howe finally succeeded in making their way through the American lines to Burgoyne's camp at Fort Edward. (Numerous attempts by the British generals to communicate were frustrated by the capture and hanging of their messengers by the Americans.) The messengers did not bring good news. On July 17 Howe wrote that he was preparing to depart by sea with his army to capture Philadelphia, and that General Clinton, responsible for New York City's defense, would "act as occurrences may direct".[65] Burgoyne refused to divulge the contents of this dispatch to his staff.[65]

Realizing that he now had a serious supply problem, Burgoyne decided to act on a suggestion that Baron Riedesel had made to him in July. Riedesel, whose forces Burgoyne had stationed at Castleton for a time while he was at Skenesboro, had observed that the area was rich in draft animals and horses, which might be seized for the army's benefit (including the mounting of Riedesel's currently unmounted "dragoons).[66] Pursuing this idea, Burgoyne sent Colonel "Friedrich Baum's regiment toward western "Massachusetts and the New Hampshire Grants on August 9, along with some Brunswick dragoons.[67] Most of Baum's detachment never returned from the August 16 "Battle of Bennington, and the reinforcements he had sent after them came back after they were ravaged in the same battle, which deprived Burgoyne of nearly 1,000 men and the much-needed supplies. What Burgoyne had been unaware of was that St. Clair's calls for militia support following the withdrawal from Ticonderoga had been answered, and General "John Stark had placed 2,000 men at "Bennington. Stark's force enveloped Baum's at Bennington, killing him and capturing much of his detachment.[68]

The death of Jane McCrea and the Battle of Bennington, besides acting as rallying cries for the Americans, had another important effect. Burgoyne blamed his Indian and Canadian allies for McCrea's death, and, even after the Indians had lost 80 of their number at Bennington, Burgoyne showed them no gratitude.[69] As a result, Langlade, La Corne, and most of the Indians left the British camp, leaving Burgoyne with fewer than 100 Indian scouts.[70] Burgoyne was left with no protection in the woods against the American rangers.[71] Burgoyne would later blame La Corne for deserting him, while La Corne countered that Burgoyne never respected the Indians. In the British Parliament, Lord Germain sided with La Corne.[72]

American change of fortune[edit]

While the tactic of delay worked well in the field, the result in the "Continental Congress was a different matter. General "Horatio Gates was in "Philadelphia when Congress discussed its shock at the fall of Ticonderoga, and Gates was more than willing to help assign the blame to reluctant generals. Some in the Congress had already been impatient with General "George Washington, wanting a large, direct confrontation that might eliminate occupation forces but which Washington feared would probably lose the war. "John Adams, the head of the War Committee, praised Gates and remarked that "we shall never hold a post until we shoot a general."[73] Over the objections of the New York delegation, Congress sent Gates to take command of the Northern Department on August 10. It also ordered states from Pennsylvania to Massachusetts to call out their militias.[73] On August 19, Gates arrived at Albany to take charge. He was cold and arrogant in manner, and pointedly excluded Schuyler from his first war council. Schuyler left for Philadelphia shortly after, depriving Gates of his intimate knowledge of the area.[74]

Throughout the month of August, and continuing into September, militia companies arrived at the Continental Army camps on the Hudson. These were augmented by troops Washington ordered north from the Hudson Highlands as part of General Arnold's operation to relieve Stanwix. Those troops arrived at the end of August and included the crack sharpshooters of "Daniel Morgan's rifle corps, which he sent north from his own army.[75][76] News of the American successes at Bennington and Fort Stanwix, combined with outrage over the death of Jane McCrea, rallied support, swelling Gates' army to over 6,000 rank and file.[77] This number did not include Stark's small army at Bennington, which was reduced in size by disease and the departure of some of its companies, but was also augmented by several hundred troops raised by General "Benjamin Lincoln, who was assigned to make attacks against Burgoyne's supply and communications.[78]


General "Horatio Gates, portrait by "Gilbert Stuart
Battles of Saratoga

The "Battle of Saratoga" is often depicted as a single event, but it was actually a month-long series of maneuvers punctuated by two battles. At the beginning of September 1777, Burgoyne's army, now just over 7,000 strong, was located on the east bank of the Hudson.[79][80] He had learned of St. Leger's failure at Stanwix on August 28, and even earlier that Howe would not be giving him substantial support from New York City. Faced with the need to reach defensible winter quarters, which would require either retreat back to Ticonderoga or advance to Albany, he decided on the latter. Subsequent to this decision, he made two further crucial decisions. He decided to deliberately cut communications to the north, so that he would not need to maintain a chain of heavily fortified outposts between his position and Ticonderoga, and he decided to cross the Hudson River while he was in a relatively strong position.[79] He therefore ordered Riedesel, whose forces were in the rear, to abandon outposts from Skenesboro south, and ordered the army to cross the river just north of Saratoga, which it did between September 13 and 15.[81] Moving cautiously, since the departure of his Indian support had deprived him of reliable scouting, Burgoyne advanced to the south.[82] On September 18 the vanguard of his army had reached a position just north of Saratoga, about 4 miles (6.4 km) from the American defensive line, and skirmishes occurred between the leading elements of the armies.[83]

When Gates took over Schuyler's army, much of it was located near the mouth of the Mohawk River, south of Stillwater. On September 8 he ordered the army, then about 10,000 men (of whom about 8,500 were effective combat troops), to Stillwater with the idea of setting up defenses there. The Polish engineer "Tadeusz Kościuszko found the area inadequate for proper defensive works, so a new location was found about three miles further north (and about 10 miles (16 km) south of Saratoga). At this location Kosciusko laid out defensive lines stretching from the river to the bluffs called Bemis Heights.[84][85]

The right side of these defenses was nominally given to General Lincoln, but as he was leading troops intended for a diversion against Ticonderoga, Gates assumed command of that portion of the line himself. Gates put General Arnold, with whom he had previously had a good relationship, in command of the army's left, the western defenses on Bemis Heights. The relationship between the two soured when Arnold chose to staff his command with friends of Schuyler, whom Gates hated. Combined with the prickly natures of both Gates and Arnold, this eventually brought internal power squabbles to a boil.[86]

Artist's conception of General "Benedict Arnold, color "mezzotint by Thomas Hart

Freeman's Farm[edit]

Both Generals Burgoyne and Arnold recognized the importance of the American left flank. Burgoyne recognized that the American position could be flanked, and divided his forces, sending a large detachment to the west on September 19. Arnold, also recognizing that a British attack on the left was likely, asked Gates for permission to move his forces out to Freeman's Farm to anticipate that maneuver.[44] Gates refused to carry out a general movement, since he wanted to wait behind his defenses for the expected frontal attack;[87] but he did permit Arnold to send Daniel Morgan's riflemen and some light infantry out for a "reconnaissance in force. These forces precipitated the "Battle of Freeman's Farm when they made contact with Burgoyne's right flank.[88] In the ensuing battle, the British gained control of Freeman's Farm, but at the cost of 600 casualties, ten percent of their forces.[89]

After the battle the feud between Gates and Arnold erupted. Not only did Gates not mention Arnold at all in the official account of the battle he sent to Congress, but he also transferred Morgan's company (which had been technically independent but operated under Arnold's command in the battle) to his direct command. Arnold and Gates had a noisy argument in Gates' quarters, in which Gates said that General Lincoln would be replacing him. Following the argument Arnold drafted a letter to Gates outlining his grievances and requesting a transfer to Washington's command.[90] Gates gave Arnold a pass to leave, and continued to inflict petty indignities on Arnold.[91] A commonly referenced reason why Arnold chose to remain is that a petition signed by all of the line officers except Gates and Lincoln convinced him to stay.[91] While proposals for such a document were considered, there is no contemporary evidence of one actually being drafted and signed.[92]

Burgoyne considered renewing the attack the next day, but called it off when Fraser noted that many men were fatigued from the previous day's exertions.[93] He therefore dug his army in, and waited for news that he would receive some assistance from the south, as a letter he received from General Clinton in New York on September 21 suggested that a movement up the Hudson would draw off some of Gates' army.[94] Although he was aware of the persistent desertions that were reducing the size of his army and that the army was running short of food and other critical supplies,[95] he did not know that the American army was also daily growing in size,[96] or that Gates had intelligence on how dire the situation was in his camp.[97]

Attack on Ticonderoga[edit]

Unknown to either side at Saratoga until after the battle, General Lincoln and Colonel "John Brown had staged an attack against the British position at Fort Ticonderoga. Lincoln had collected 2,000 men at Bennington by early September.[98] After marching north to "Pawlet, they received word that the guard at Ticonderoga might be susceptible to surprise. Lincoln sent three detachments of 500 men each to "annoy, divide, and distract the enemy."[99] One went to Skenesboro, which was found to be abandoned by the British. The second went to capture Mount Independence on the east side of Lake Champlain, while the third, led by John Brown, made the approach to Ticonderoga.[99]

General "Benjamin Lincoln, portrait by "Charles Willson Peale

On the morning of September 18, Brown surprised the British defenders at the southern end of the portage trail connecting Lake George to Lake Champlain. Rapidly moving up the trail his men continued to surprise British defenders and capture artillery pieces until they reached the height of land just before Ticonderoga, where they occupied the "old French lines" (so named because it was there that a French defense improbably held against a much larger British army in the 1758 "Battle of Carillon).[100] On the way he rescued 100 American prisoners (thus increasing the size of his force) and captured nearly 300 British. His demand for the fort's surrender was refused, and for the next four days Brown's men and the fort exchanged cannon fire, to little effect.[101] Since he had insufficient manpower to actually assault the fort, Brown then withdrew to Lake George, where he made an unsuccessful attempt to capture a storage depot on an island in the lake.[102]

General Gates wrote to Lincoln on the day of Freeman's Farm, ordering his force back to Saratoga and that "not one moment should be lost".[103] Lincoln reached Bemis Heights on September 22, but the last of his troops did not arrive until the 29th.[103]

Sir Henry Clinton attempts a diversion[edit]

Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery

General Howe, when he left New York for Philadelphia, had put General Sir "Henry Clinton in charge of New York's defense, with instructions to assist Burgoyne if opportunities arose. Clinton wrote to Burgoyne on September 12 that he would "make a push at [Fort] Montgomery in about ten days" if "you think 2000 men can assist you effectually."[104] When Burgoyne received the letter he immediately replied, appealing to Clinton for instruction on whether he should attempt to advance or retreat, based on the likelihood of Clinton's arrival at Albany for support.[105] Burgoyne indicated that if he did not receive a response by October 12 he would be forced to retreat.[106]

On October 3, Clinton sailed up the Hudson River with 3,000 men, and on October 6, one day after receiving Burgoyne's appeal, "captured the highland forts named Clinton and Montgomery.[107] Burgoyne never received Clinton's dispatches following this victory, as all three messengers were captured.[108] Clinton followed up the victory by dismantling the "chain across the Hudson, and sent a raiding force up the river that reached as far north as "Livingston Manor on October 16 before turning back.[109] Word of Clinton's movements only reached Gates after the battle of Bemis Heights.[110]

Bemis Heights[edit]

General "Daniel Morgan, portrait by "Charles Willson Peale

In addition to Lincoln's 2,000 men, militia units poured into the American camp, swelling the American army to over 15,000 men.[111] Burgoyne, who had put his army on short rations on October 3, called a council the next day. The decision of this meeting was to launch a reconnaissance in force of about 1,700 men toward the American left flank. Burgoyne and Fraser led this detachment out early on the afternoon of October 7. Their movements were spotted, and Gates wanted to order only Daniel Morgan's men out in opposition. Arnold said that this was clearly insufficient, and that a large force had to be sent. Gates, put off one last time by Arnold's tone, dismissed him, saying, "You have no business here."[112] However, Gates did accede to similar advice given by Lincoln. In addition to sending Morgan's company around the British right, he also sent "Enoch Poor's brigade against Burgoyne's left. When Poor's men made contact, the "Battle of Bemis Heights was underway.[113]

The initial American attack was highly effective, and Burgoyne attempted to order a withdrawal, but his aide was shot down before the order could be broadcast.[114] In intense fighting, the flanks of Burgoyne's force were exposed, while the Brunswickers at the center held against Learned's determined attack.[115] General Fraser was mortally wounded in this phase of the battle.[116] While frequently claimed to be the work of "Timothy Murphy, one of Morgan's men, the story appears to be a 19th-century fabrication.[117] After Fraser's fall and the arrival of additional American troops, Burgoyne ordered what was left of the force to retreat behind their entrenched lines.[116]

General Arnold, frustrated by the sound of fighting he was not involved in, rode off from the American headquarters to join the fray. Arnold, who some claimed was in a drunken fury,[118] took the battle to the British position. The right side of the British line consisted of two earthen "redoubts that had been erected on Freeman's Farm, and were manned by Brunswickers under Heinrich Breymann and light infantry under "Lord Balcarres. Arnold first rallied troops to attack Balcarres' redoubt, without success.[119] He then boldly rode through the gap between the two redoubts, a space guarded by a small company of Canadian irregulars. Learned's men followed, and made an assault on the open rear of Breymann's redoubt.[120] Arnold's horse was shot out from under him, pinning him and breaking his leg. Breymann was killed in the fierce action, and his position was taken. However, night was falling, and the battle came to an end.[121] The battle was a bloodbath for Burgoyne's troops: nearly 900 men were killed, wounded, or captured, compared to about 150 for the Americans.[122]


Monument at "Victory, New York

Simon Fraser died of his wounds early the next day, but it was not until nearly sunset that he was buried.[123] Burgoyne then ordered the army, whose entrenchments had been subjected to persistent harassment by the Americans, to retreat. (One consequence of the skirmishing was that General Lincoln was also wounded. Combined with Arnold's wounds, this deprived Gates of his top two field commanders.)[124]

It took the army nearly two days to reach Saratoga, in which heavy rain and American probes against the column slowed the army's pace. Burgoyne was aided by logistical problems in the American camp, where the army's ability to move forward was hampered by delays in bringing forward and issuing rations. However, Gates did order detachments to take positions on the east side of the Hudson to oppose any attempted crossings.[125] By the morning of October 13 Burgoyne's army was completely surrounded,[126] so his council voted to open negotiations.[127] Terms were agreed on October 16 that Burgoyne insisted on calling a ""convention" rather than a "capitulation.[128]

"Baroness Riedesel, wife of "the commander of the "German troops, vividly describes in her journal the confusion and besetting starvation of the retreating British army. Her account of the tribulation and death of officers and men, and of the terrified women who had taken shelter in the cellar of what later became known as "the Marshall House dramatizes the desperation of the besieged army.

On October 17, following a ceremony in which Burgoyne gave his sword to Gates, only to have it returned, Burgoyne's army (approaching 6,000 strong) marched out to surrender their arms while the American musicians played ""Yankee Doodle".[129]


British troops withdrew from Ticonderoga and Crown Point in November, and Lake Champlain was free of British troops by early December.[130] American troops, on the other hand, still had work to do. Alerted to General Clinton's raids on the Hudson, most of the army marched south toward Albany on October 18, while other detachments accompanied the ""Convention Army" east.[131] Burgoyne and Riedesel became guests of General Schuyler, who had come north from Albany to witness the surrender.[132] Burgoyne was allowed to return to England on "parole in May 1778, where he spent the next two years defending his actions in Parliament and the press. He was eventually exchanged for more than 1,000 American prisoners.[133]

In response to Burgoyne's surrender, Congress declared December 18, 1777 as a national day "for solemn "Thanksgiving and praise" in recognition of the military success at Saratoga; it was the nation's first official observance of a holiday with that name.[134]

Convention Army[edit]

Convention Army

Under the terms of the convention Burgoyne's army was to march to "Boston, where British ships would transport it back to England, on condition that its members not participate in the conflict until they were formally exchanged. Congress demanded that Burgoyne provide a list of troops in the army so that the terms of the agreement concerning future combat could be enforced. When he refused, Congress decided not to honor the terms of the convention, and the army remained in captivity. The army was kept for some time in sparse camps throughout "New England. Although individual officers were exchanged, much of the "Convention Army" was eventually marched south to "Virginia, where it remained prisoner for several years.[135] Throughout its captivity, a large number of men (more than 1,300 in the first year alone) escaped and effectively deserted, settling in the United States.[136]


Erected 1887 By

Brev: Maj: Gen: S.N.Y.
2nd V. Pres't Saratoga Mon't Ass't'n:
In memory of
the most brilliant soldier of the
Continental Army
who was desperately wounded
on this spot the sally port of
7th October, 1777
winning for his countrymen
the decisive battle of the
American Revolution
and for himself the rank of

Major General
Inscription on the "Boot Monument

On December 4, 1777, word reached "Benjamin Franklin at "Versailles that Philadelphia had fallen and that Burgoyne had surrendered. Two days later, King Louis XVI assented to negotiations for an alliance.[137] The "treaty was signed on February 6, 1778, and France declared war on Britain one month later, with hostilities beginning with naval skirmishes off "Ushant in June.[138] Spain did not enter into the war until 1779, when it entered the war as an ally of France pursuant to the secret "Treaty of Aranjuez.[139] Vergennes' diplomatic moves following the French entry into the war also had material impact on the later entry of the "Dutch Republic into the war, and "declarations of neutrality on the part of other important geopolitical players like "Russia.[140]

The British government of "Lord North came under sharp criticism when the news of Burgoyne's surrender reached London. Of Lord Germain it was said that "the secretary is incapable of conducting a war", and "Horace Walpole opined (incorrectly, as it turned out) that "we are ... very near the end of the American war."[141] Lord North issued a proposal for peace terms in Parliament that did not include independence; when these were finally delivered to Congress by the "Carlisle Peace Commission they were rejected.[142]


Most of the battlefields of the campaign have been preserved in some way, usually as "state or "national parks, but also as historic sites under state or federal control. Some monuments erected to mark the battles are listed as "National Historic Landmarks and some are separately listed on the "National Register of Historic Places. Many of the battles are regularly reenacted, and the Battle of Bennington (although it was actually fought in present-day "Walloomsac, New York) is marked in the state of Vermont by "Bennington Battle Day.[143]

The commemorations of Benedict Arnold's contributions to the American success of the campaign are particularly noteworthy. The "obelisk at "Saratoga National Historical Park has, on three of its four sides, alcoves bearing statues of three generals instrumental in the success at Saratoga: Gates, Schuyler, and Morgan. The fourth alcove, representing Arnold, is empty.[144] The park also contains the "Boot Monument which, though again without identifying Arnold by name, clearly honors his contribution in the second Saratoga battle.[145]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Oneida
  2. ^ "Ottawas, "Fox, "Mississauga, "Chippewa, "Ojibwe, "Huron, "Nipissing First Nation
  3. ^ This number is an estimate of the total number of American combatants involved in the campaign. While Nickerson details a significant number of the troop counts during the campaign (pp. 435–451), Pancake (1977) provides a more ready source of numbers for recruitments. The Northern Department (under Schuyler and then Gates), started with about 5,500 men (Pancake, pp. 151–152), and the Highland Department under Putnam, based on troop deployments ordered, had about 3,000 men (pp. 153,180). Militia recruitment after the fall of Ticonderoga and the killing of Jane McCrea was substantial: known recruitments included Stark and Warner 2,000 (p. 153), Lincoln 1,500 (p. 178), and Herkimer 800. Gates had 15,000 to 18,000 men when Burgoyne surrendered (p. 189), which did not include about one-half of Putnam's and Stark's men, the Mohawk River outposts, Herkimer's troops, or earlier losses due to battle, disease, or expiring enlistments. It did include Morgan's 300+ riflemen, dispatched from Washington's main army. Considering that Putnam's forces were also swollen by militia following the "Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery (one British report claimed 6,000 men were following them on October 16, Pancake p. 188), the number of Americans in the field in mid-October was probably well over 20,000.
  4. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 437, and other sources report Burgoyne starting with 7,800 men. Nickerson notes (p. 105) that this number does not include officers and non-combatant staff and camp followers, who would also require supplies. That number also does not include Indians and "Loyalists who arrived after the capture of Ticonderoga (about 700, Nickerson p. 439).
  5. ^ See "Siege of Fort Stanwix for details.
  6. ^ See "Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery for details. This number includes all troops Clinton sent north from New York, not all of which were involved in battle.
  7. ^ Edmund Morgan, The Birth of the Republic: 1763–1789 (1956) pp 82–83
  8. ^ John Martin Carroll; Colin F. Baxter (2007). The American Military Tradition: From Colonial Times to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 14. 
  9. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 42, 51, 65
  10. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 78
  11. ^ Black (1991), p. 127
  12. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 19, 77–82
  13. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 79–84
  14. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 84
  15. ^ Samuel B. Griffith, The War for American Independence: From 1760 to the Surrender at Yorktown in 1781
  16. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 104
  17. ^ Black, p. 126
  18. ^ Fisher, Sydney George. The Struggle for American Independence Vol. II (1908) pp. 73–74
  19. ^ Adams, Charles Francis. Campaign of 1777 Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Volume 44 (1910–11) pp. 25–26
  20. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 87–88
  21. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), pp. 188–189
  22. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 137
  23. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 138
  24. ^ Pancake (1977), p. 139
  25. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 139
  26. ^ Pancake (1977), pp. 151–152
  27. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 65–66
  28. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 55, 75
  29. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 106–107
  30. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 111
  31. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 107
  32. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 104
  33. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 129
  34. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 136–137
  35. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 195–197
  36. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 163
  37. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 160–161
  38. ^ Pancake (1977), pp. 121–122
  39. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 172
  40. ^ Nickerson, pp. 138–140
  41. ^ Pancake (1977), p. 122
  42. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 146–147
  43. ^ Pancake (1977), p. 125
  44. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 356
  45. ^ Smith (1882), p. 95
  46. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 146–157, 438
  47. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 217–220
  48. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 180
  49. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 161–62
  50. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 160-61
  51. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 240
  52. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 173
  53. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 244
  54. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 249
  55. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 179–180
  56. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 178
  57. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 265–268
  58. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 195–211
  59. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 271–275
  60. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 276–277
  61. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 354–355
  62. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 273
  63. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 183
  64. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 275–278
  65. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 283
  66. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 233
  67. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 240
  68. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 285–323
  69. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 281–282,322
  70. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 322
  71. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 269
  72. ^ Tousignant
  73. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 335
  74. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 337
  75. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 338
  76. ^ Scott (1927), pp. 267, 292
  77. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 288
  78. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 268
  79. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), pp. 290–295
  80. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 230
  81. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 296
  82. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 299
  83. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 300
  84. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 346–347
  85. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 210
  86. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 350–353
  87. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 355
  88. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 356–360
  89. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 360–368
  90. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 386–387
  91. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 388
  92. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 271
  93. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 248
  94. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 375
  95. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 381
  96. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 327
  97. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 380
  98. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 376
  99. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 377
  100. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 324
  101. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 325
  102. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 379
  103. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 326
  104. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 320
  105. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 344
  106. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 345
  107. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 343–344
  108. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 384
  109. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 405
  110. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 394
  111. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 249
  112. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 394
  113. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 361
  114. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 398
  115. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 362
  116. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 400
  117. ^ Luzader (2008), p. xxii
  118. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 399
  119. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 402
  120. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 365–366
  121. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 403
  122. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 405
  123. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 406
  124. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 371
  125. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 410
  126. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 417
  127. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 387
  128. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 420–425
  129. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 428–430, 437
  130. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 439
  131. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 437–439
  132. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 400–404
  133. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 436
  134. ^ Bennett (2008), p. 456
  135. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 435
  136. ^ Ferling (2007), p. 432
  137. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 411
  138. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 412
  139. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 413
  140. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 415
  141. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 442
  142. ^ Mary A. Giunta, J. Dane Hartgrove (1998). Documents of the emerging nation. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 72. "ISBN "978-0-8420-2664-2. 
  143. ^ See the individual battle articles for more detailed information about a battle's remembrances.
  144. ^ Walworth (1891), p. 82
  145. ^ Murphy (2007), p. 2


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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