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"NASA's Earth-observing fleet as of June 2012.
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A full-size model of the "Earth observation satellite "ERS 2

In context of "spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into "orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from "natural satellites such as Earth's "Moon.

In 1957 the "Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, "Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and became "space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in "low-Earth orbit, 50 are in "medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in "geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen "space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the "Moon, "Mercury, "Venus, "Mars, "Jupiter, "Saturn, a few "asteroids,[4] and the "Sun.

Satellites are used for many purposes. Common types include military and civilian "Earth observation satellites, "communications satellites, "navigation satellites, "weather satellites, and "space telescopes. "Space stations and human "spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, "polar orbit, and "geostationary orbit.

A "launch vehicle is a "rocket that throws a satellite into orbit. Usually it lifts off from a "launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a "submarine or a "mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see "air launch to orbit).

Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, "thermal control, telemetry, "attitude control and orbit control.

Contents

History[edit]

Early conceptions[edit]

""Newton's cannonball", presented as a "thought experiment" in "A Treatise of the System of the World, by "Isaac Newton was the first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite.

The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a "short story by "Edward Everett Hale, "The Brick Moon.[5][6] The idea surfaced again in "Jules Verne's "The Begum's Fortune (1879).

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

In 1903, "Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices (in "Russian: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами), which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the "orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a "multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid "propellants could achieve this.

In 1928, "Herman Potočnik (1892–1929) published his sole book, The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor ("German: Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums — der Raketen-Motor). He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments.

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Animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in "medium Earth orbit.

In a 1945 "Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer "Arthur C. Clarke (1917–2008) described in detail the possible use of "communications satellites for mass communications.[7] He suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet.

The US military studied the idea of what was referred to as the earth satellite vehicle when Secretary of Defense "James Forrestal made a public announcement on 29 December 1948, that his office was coordinating that project between the various services.[8]

Artificial satellites[edit]

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"Sputnik 1: The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.

The first artificial satellite was "Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the "Soviet "Sputnik program, with "Sergei Korolev as chief designer (there is a crater on the lunar far side which bears his name). This in turn triggered the "Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high "atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the "ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the "Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the "Cold War.

"Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named "Laika.[9]

In May, 1946, "Project RAND had released the "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century."[10] The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the "Bureau of Aeronautics of the "United States Navy. The "United States Air Force's Project RAND eventually released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon. In 1954, the "Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program."[11] In February 1954 Project RAND released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle," written by R.R. Carhart.[12] This expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H.K. Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg.[13]

In the context of activities planned for the "International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the "White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as "Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.

Following pressure by the "American Rocket Society, the "National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Army and Navy were working on "Project Orbiter, two competing programs: the army's which involved using a "Jupiter C rocket, and the civilian/Navy Vanguard Rocket, to launch a satellite. At first, they failed: initial preference was given to the Vanguard program, whose first attempt at orbiting a satellite resulted in the explosion of the launch vehicle on national television. But finally, three months after Sputnik 2, the project succeeded; "Explorer 1 became the United States' first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.[14]

In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the Air Force used resources of the "United States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-orbiting satellites.[15]

Early satellites were constructed as ""one-off" designs. With growth in "geosynchronous (GEO) "satellite communication, multiple satellites began to be built on "single model platforms called "satellite buses. The first standardized satellite bus design was the "HS-333 GEO commsat, launched in 1972.

The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is the "International Space Station.

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1U "CubeSat "ESTCube-1, developed mainly by the students from the "University of Tartu, carries out a tether deployment experiment in "low Earth orbit.

Space Surveillance Network[edit]

The "United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the "United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the "Soviet Union opened the "Space Age with the launch of "Sputnik I. Since then, the SSN has tracked more than 26,000 objects. The SSN currently tracks more than 8,000 man-made orbiting objects. The rest have re-entered Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated, or survived re-entry and impacted the Earth. The SSN tracks objects that are 10 centimeters in diameter or larger; those now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds. About seven percent are operational satellites (i.e. ~560 satellites), the rest are "space debris.[16] The United States Strategic Command is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles.

Non-military satellite services[edit]

There are three basic categories of non-military satellite services:[17]

Fixed satellite services[edit]

"Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the Earth's surface.

Mobile satellite systems[edit]

Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships, people and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems.

Scientific research satellites (commercial and noncommercial)[edit]

Scientific research satellites provide meteorological information, land survey data (e.g. remote sensing), Amateur (HAM) Radio, and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research.

Types[edit]

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International Space Station

Orbit types[edit]

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Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of "Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the "International Space Station (ISS).

The first satellite, "Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in "geocentric orbit. By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 1,459[20] artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, "inclination and "eccentricity.

The commonly used altitude classifications of geocentric orbit are "Low Earth orbit (LEO), "Medium Earth orbit (MEO) and "High Earth orbit (HEO). Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2,000 "km. Medium Earth orbit is any orbit between 2,000 and 35,786 km. High Earth orbit is any orbit higher than 35,786 km.

Centric classifications[edit]

The general structure of a satellite is that it is connected to the earth stations that are present on the ground and connected through terrestrial links.

Altitude classifications[edit]

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Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.

Inclination classifications[edit]

Eccentricity classifications[edit]

Synchronous classifications[edit]

Special classifications[edit]

Pseudo-orbit classifications[edit]

Satellite subsystems[edit]

The satellite's functional versatility is imbedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics. Looking at the "anatomy" of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules.[17] Note that some novel architectural concepts such as "Fractionated spacecraft somewhat upset this taxonomy.

Spacecraft bus or service module[edit]

The "bus module consists of the following subsystems:

Structural subsystem[edit]

The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure with adequate stiffness to withstand stress and vibrations experienced during launch, maintain "structural integrity and stability while on station in orbit, and shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage.

Telemetry subsystem[edit]

The "telemetry subsystem (aka Command and Data Handling, C&DH) monitors the on-board equipment operations, transmits equipment operation data to the earth control station, and receives the earth control station's commands to perform equipment operation adjustments.

Power subsystem[edit]

The power subsystem consists of solar panels to convert solar energy into electrical power, regulation and distribution functions, and batteries that store power and supply the satellite when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Nuclear power sources ("Radioisotope thermoelectric generator have also been used in several successful satellite programs including the "Nimbus program (1964–1978).[22]

Thermal control subsystem[edit]

The thermal control subsystem helps protect electronic equipment from extreme temperatures due to intense sunlight or the lack of sun exposure on different sides of the satellite's body (e.g. "Optical Solar Reflector)

Attitude and orbit control subsystem[edit]

The attitude and orbit control subsystem consists of sensors to measure vehicle orientation; control laws embedded in the flight software; and actuators (reaction wheels, "thrusters) to apply the "torques and forces needed to re-orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, keep the satellite in the correct orbital position and keep antennas positioning in the right directions.

Communication payload[edit]

The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders. A transponder is capable of :

End of life[edit]

When satellites reach the end of their mission this occurs in 3 or 4 years, satellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a "graveyard orbit. Historically, due to budgetary constraints at the beginning of satellite missions, satellites were rarely designed to be de-orbited. One example of this practice is the satellite "Vanguard 1. Launched in 1958, "Vanguard 1, the 4th manmade satellite put in Geocentric orbit, was still in orbit as of August 2009.[23]

Instead of being de-orbited, most satellites are either left in their current orbit or moved to a "graveyard orbit.[24] As of 2002, the FCC requires all geostationary satellites to commit to moving to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life prior to launch.[25] In cases of uncontrolled de-orbiting, the major variable is the "solar flux, and the minor variables the components and form factors of the satellite itself, and the gravitational perturbations generated by the Sun and the Moon (as well as those exercised by large mountain ranges, whether above or below sea level). The nominal breakup altitude due to aerodynamic forces and temperatures is 78 km, with a range between 72 and 84 km. Solar panels, however, are destroyed before any other component at altitudes between 90 and 95 km.[26]

Launch-capable countries[edit]

This list includes countries with an independent capability to place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle. Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first demonstrated. The list includes the "European Space Agency, a multi-national state organization, but does not include private consortiums.

First launch by country
Order Country Date of first launch Rocket Satellite
1  "Soviet Union 4 October 1957 "Sputnik-PS "Sputnik 1
2  "United States 1 February 1958 "Juno I "Explorer 1
3  "France 26 November 1965 "Diamant-A "Astérix
4  "Japan 11 February 1970 "Lambda-4S "Ōsumi
5  "China 24 April 1970 "Long March 1 "Dong Fang Hong I
6  "United Kingdom 28 October 1971 "Black Arrow "Prospero
7  "India 18 July 1980 "SLV "Rohini D1
8  "Israel 19 September 1988 "Shavit "Ofeq 1
- [1]  "Russia 21 January 1992 "Soyuz-U "Kosmos 2175
- [1]  "Ukraine 13 July 1992 "Tsyklon-3 "Strela
9  "Iran 2 February 2009 "Safir-1 "Omid
10  "North Korea 12 December 2012 "Unha-3 "Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2

Attempted first launches[edit]

Other notes[edit]

Launch capable private entities[edit]

A few other "private companies are capable of "sub-orbital launches.

First satellites of countries[edit]

First satellites of countries including those launched indigenously or with the help of others[32]
Country Year of first launch First satellite Payloads in orbit as of April 2016 [33]["needs update]
 "Soviet Union
( "Russia)
1957
(1992)
"Sputnik 1
("Kosmos 2175)
1457
 "United States 1958 "Explorer 1 1252
 "United Kingdom 1962 "Ariel 1 0040
 "Canada 1962 "Alouette 1 0043
 "Italy 1964 "San Marco 1 0022
 "France 1965 "Astérix 0060
 "Australia 1967 "WRESAT 0014
 "Germany 1969 "Azur 0049
 "Japan 1970 "Ōsumi 0153
 "China 1970 "Dong Fang Hong I 0210
 "Netherlands 1974 "ANS 0005
 "Spain 1974 "Intasat 0009
 "India 1975 "Aryabhata 00173
 "Indonesia 1976 "Palapa A1 0013
 "Czechoslovakia 1978 Magion 1 0005
 "Bulgaria 1981 "Intercosmos Bulgaria 1300 0001
 "Saudi Arabia 1985 "Arabsat-1A 0012
 "Brazil 1985 "Brasilsat-A1 0015
 "Mexico 1985 "Morelos 1 0009
 "Sweden 1986 "Viking 0011
 "Israel 1988 "Ofeq 1 00011
 "Luxembourg 1988 "Astra 1A 005
 "Argentina 1990 Lusat[34] 009
 "Hong Kong 1990 "AsiaSat 1 0009
 "Pakistan 1990 "Badr-1 0003
 "South Korea 1992 "Kitsat A 0011
 "Portugal 1993 "PoSAT-1 0001
 "Thailand 1993 "Thaicom 1 0007
 "Turkey 1994 "Turksat 1B 0008
 "Czech Republic 1995 Magion 4 0005
 "Ukraine 1995 "Sich-1 0006
 "Malaysia 1996 "MEASAT 0006
 "Norway 1997 "Thor 2 9
 "Philippines 1997 "Mabuhay 1 0002
 "Egypt 1998 "Nilesat 101 0004
 "Chile 1998 "FASat-Bravo 0002
 "Singapore 1998 "ST-1[35][36] 0003
 "Taiwan 1999 "ROCSAT-1 0008
 "Denmark 1999 "Ørsted 0004
 "South Africa 1999 "SUNSAT 0002
 "United Arab Emirates 2000 "Thuraya 1 0006
 "Morocco 2001 Maroc-Tubsat 0001
 "Tonga[37] 2002 Esiafi 1 (former Comstar D4) 1
 "Algeria 2002 "Alsat 1 0001
 "Greece 2003 "Hellas Sat 2 0002
 "Cyprus 2003 "Hellas Sat 2 0002
 "Nigeria 2003 Nigeriasat 1 0004
 "Iran 2005 "Sina-1 0001
 "Kazakhstan 2006 "KazSat 1 0002
 "Colombia 2007 "Libertad 1 0001
 "Mauritius 2007 "Rascom-QAF 1 0002
 "Vietnam 2008 "Vinasat-1 0003
 "Venezuela 2008 "Venesat-1 0002
  "Switzerland 2009 "SwissCube-1[38] 0002
 "Isle of Man 2011 "ViaSat-1 0001
 "Poland[39] 2012 "PW-Sat 00002
 "Hungary 2012 "MaSat-1 0001
 "Romania 2012 "Goliat[40] 0001
 "Belarus 2012 BKA (BelKA-2)[41] N/A
 "North Korea 2012 "Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 1
 "Azerbaijan 2013 "Azerspace[42] 1
 "Austria 2013 "TUGSAT-1/"UniBRITE[43][44] 2
 "Bermuda[45] 2013 "Bermudasat 1 (former EchoStar VI) 1
 "Ecuador 2013 "NEE-01 Pegaso 1
 "Estonia 2013 "ESTCube-1 1
 "Jersey 2013 "O3b-1, -2, -3, -4 4
 "Qatar 2013 Es'hailSat1 1
 "Peru 2013 PUCPSAT-1[46] 1
 "Bolivia 2013 "TKSat-1 1
 "Lithuania 2014 "LituanicaSAT-1 and "LitSat-1 2
 "Belgium 2014 QB50P1 and QB50P2 2
 "Uruguay 2014 Antelsat 1
 "Iraq 2014 Tigrisat[47] 1
 "Turkmenistan 2015 "TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT 1
 "Laos 2015 Laosat-1 1
 "Finland 2017 Aalto-2 1
 "Latvia 2017 Venta-1 1
 "Slovakia 2017 skCUBE 1
 "Ghana 2017 "GhanaSat-1[48] 1
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  "orbital launch and satellite operation
  satellite operation, launched by foreign supplier
  satellite in development
  "orbital launch project at advanced stage or indigenous "ballistic missiles deployed

While Canada was the third country to build a satellite which was launched into space,[49] it was launched aboard an "American rocket from an American spaceport. The same goes for Australia, who launched first satellite involved a donated U.S. "Redstone rocket and American support staff as well as a joint launch facility with the "United Kingdom.[50] The first Italian satellite "San Marco 1 launched on 15 December 1964 on a U.S. "Scout rocket from "Wallops Island (Virginia, United States) with an Italian launch team trained by "NASA.[51] By similar occasions, almost all further first national satellites was launched by foreign rockets.

Attempted first satellites[edit]

†-note: Both Chile and Belarus used Russian companies as principal contractors to build their satellites, they used Russian-Ukrainian manufactured rockets and launched either from Russia or Kazakhstan.

Planned first satellites[edit]

Attacks on satellites[edit]

In recent times["timeframe?], satellites have been hacked by militant organizations to broadcast propaganda and to pilfer classified information from military communication networks.[103][104]

For testing purposes, satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth. Russia, the United States and China have demonstrated the ability to eliminate satellites.[105] In 2007 the "Chinese military shot down an aging weather satellite,[105] followed by the "US Navy shooting down a "defunct spy satellite in February 2008.[106]

Jamming[edit]

Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions, they are prone to "jamming by land-based transmitters. Such jamming is limited to the geographical area within the transmitter's range. GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming,[107][108] but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.[109][110]

Also, it is trivial to transmit a carrier radio signal to a geostationary satellite and thus interfere with the legitimate uses of the satellite's transponder. It is common for Earth stations to transmit at the wrong time or on the wrong frequency in commercial satellite space, and dual-illuminate the transponder, rendering the frequency unusable. Satellite operators now have sophisticated monitoring that enables them to pinpoint the source of any carrier and manage the transponder space effectively.["citation needed]

Satellite services[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rising, David (11 November 2013). "Satellite hits Atlantic — but what about next one?". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. 
  2. ^ "Global Experts Agree Action Needed on Space Debris". European Space Agency. 25 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Cain, Fraser (24 October 2013). "How Many Satellites are in Space?". Universe Today. 
  4. ^ "NASA Spacecraft Becomes First to Orbit a Dwarf Planet". NASA. 
  5. ^ "Rockets in Science Fiction (Late 19th Century)". "Marshall Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on 2000-09-01. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
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  7. ^ Rhodes, Richard (2000). Visions of Technology. "Simon & Schuster. p. 160. "ISBN "978-0-684-86311-5. 
  8. ^ Corporation, Bonnier (May 1949). "Is US Building A New Moon". Popular Science. 
  9. ^ Gray, Tara; Garber, Steve (2 August 2004). "A Brief History of Animals in Space". "NASA. 
  10. ^ "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship". "RAND. Retrieved 6 March 2008. 
  11. ^ Rosenthal, Alfred (1968). Venture Into Space: Early Years of Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA. p. 15. 
  12. ^ R.R. Carhart, Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle, Project RAND Research Memorandum. (Rand Corporation, Santa Monica) 12 February 1954.
  13. ^ 2. H.K Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg, Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite, Project RAND Research Memorandum. (Rand Corporation, Santa Monica) 8 June 1955.
  14. ^ Chang, Alicia (30 January 2008). "50th anniversary of first U.S. satellite launch celebrated". SFGate. "Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. 
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  16. ^ "Orbital Debris Education Package" (PDF). "Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2008. 
  17. ^ a b Grant, A.; Meadows, J. (2004). Communication Technology Update (ninth ed.). "Focal Press. p. 284. "ISBN "0-240-80640-9. 
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  19. ^ "Earth Observations from Space" (PDF). "National Academy of Science. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-12. 
  20. ^ a b "UCS Satellite Database". Union of Concerned Scientists. 31 Dec 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  21. ^ "Oberg, James (July 1984). "Pearl Harbor In Space". "Omni. pp. 42–44. 
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  26. ^ "Object SL-8 R/B - 29659U - 06060B". Forecast for Space Junk Reentry. Satview. 11 March 2014. 
  27. ^ "UNMOVIC report" (PDF). United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission. p. 434 ff. 
  28. ^ "Deception Activities - Iraq Special Weapons". FAS. Archived from the original on 22 April 1999. 
  29. ^ "Al-Abid LV". 
  30. ^ The video tape of a partial launch attempt which was retrieved by "UN weapons inspectors later surfaced showing that the rocket prematurely exploded 45 seconds after its launch.[27][28][29]
  31. ^ a b Malik, Tariq (28 September 2008). "SpaceX Successfully Launches Falcon 1 Rocket Into Orbit". "Space.com. 
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  33. ^ "SATCAT Boxscore". celestrak.com. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  34. ^ The first satellite built by Argentina, Arsat 1, was launched later in 2014
  35. ^ The first satellite built by Singapore, "X-Sat, was launched aboard a "PSLV rocket later on 20 April 2011
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  37. ^ Esiafi 1 (former private American Comstar D4) satellite was transferred to Tonga being at orbit after launch in 1981
  38. ^ "India launches Switzerland's first satellite". Swiss Info. 23 September 2009. 
  39. ^ In a difference of first full "Bulgarian "Intercosmos Bulgaria 1300 satellite, "Poland's near first satellite, Intercosmos Copernicus 500 in 1973, were constructed and owned in cooperation with "Soviet Union under the same "Interkosmos program.
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  43. ^ "Austria's first two satellites, "TUGSAT-1 and "UniBRITE, were launched together aboard the same carrier rocket in 2013. Both were based on the Canadian Generic Nanosatellite Bus design, however TUGSAT was assembled by Austrian engineers at "Graz University of Technology while UniBRITE was built by the "University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies for the "University of Vienna.
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  45. ^ "Bermudasat 1 (former private American EchoStar VI) satellite was transferred to Bermuda being at orbit after launch in 2000
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