Scottish Gaelic is an "Indo-European language with an "inflecting "morphology, a "verb–subject–object word order and "two grammatical genders.
Gaelic nouns inflect for four cases (nominative/accusative, vocative, genitive and dative) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural).
They are also normally classed as either masculine or feminine. A small number of words that used to belong to the neuter class show some degree of gender confusion. For example, in some dialects am muir "the sea" behaves as a masculine noun in the nominative case, but as a feminine noun in the genitive (na mara).
Nouns are marked for case in a number of ways, most commonly involving various combinations of "lenition, "palatalisation and "suffixation.
There are 12 irregular verbs. Most other verbs follow a fully predictable paradigm, although polysyllabic verbs ending in "laterals can deviate from this paradigm as they show "syncopation.
- Three "persons: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
- Three "numbers: singular, dual and plural
- Two "voices: traditionally called active and passive, but actually personal and impersonal.
- Three non-composed combined TAM forms expressing "tense, "aspect and "mood, i.e. non-past (future-habitual), conditional (future of the past), and past (preterite); several composed TAM forms, such as pluperfect, future perfect, present perfect, present continuous, past continuous, conditional perfect, etc. Two verbs, bi, used to attribute a notionally temporary state, action, or quality to the subject, and is, used to show a notional permanent identity or quality, have non-composed present and non-past tense forms: (bi) tha [perfective present], bidh/bithidh [imperfective non-past]; (is) is imperfective non-past.
- Three modes: independent (used in affirmative main clause verbs), relative (used in verbs in affirmative relative clauses), and dependent (used in subordinate clauses, anti-affirmative relative clauses, and anti-affirmative main clauses)
Word order is strictly verb–subject–object, including questions, negative questions and negatives. Only a restricted set of preverb particles may occur before the verb.
The majority of the vocabulary of Scottish Gaelic is native "Celtic. There are a large number of borrowings from "Latin, (muinntir, Didòmhnaich from (dies) dominica), ancient "Greek, especially in the religious domain (eaglais, Bìoball from Ekklesia and Biblia), Norse (eilean from eyland, sgeir from sker), "Hebrew (Sàbaid from shabbáth, Aba), "French (seòmar from chambre) and "Scots (aidh, bramar).["dubious ]
There are also many Brythonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but it is not always possible to disentangle P and Q Celtic words. However some common words such as monadh = Welsh mynydd Cumbric *monidh are clearly of P-Celtic origin.["citation needed]
In common with other "Indo-European languages, the "neologisms which are coined for modern concepts are typically based on "Greek or "Latin, although often coming through English; television, for instance, becomes telebhisean and computer becomes coimpiùtar. Native speakers frequently use an English word even if there is a Gaelic equivalent, applying the rules of Gaelic grammar. With verbs, for instance, they will simply add the verbal suffix (-eadh, or, in "Lewis, -igeadh, as in, "Tha mi a' watcheadh (Lewis, "watchigeadh") an telly" (I am watching the television), instead of "Tha mi a' coimhead air an telebhisean". This phenomenon was described over 170 years ago, by the minister who compiled the account covering the parish of "Stornoway in the New Statistical Account of Scotland, and examples can be found dating to the eighteenth century. However, as Gaelic medium education grows in popularity, a newer generation of literate Gaels is becoming more familiar with modern Gaelic vocabulary.["citation needed]
Loanwords into other languages
Scottish Gaelic has also influenced the "Scots language and "English, particularly "Scottish Standard English. Loanwords include: whisky, slogan, brogue, jilt, clan, "trousers, gob, as well as familiar elements of Scottish geography like ben (beinn), glen (gleann) and "loch. "Irish has also influenced Lowland Scots and English in Scotland, but it is not always easy to distinguish its influence from that of Scottish Gaelic.
Most varieties of Gaelic have either 8 or 9 vowel phonemes (/i e ɛ a ɔ o u ɤ ɯ/), which can be either long or short. There are also two "reduced vowels ([ə ɪ]) which only occur short. Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive "nasality are rare. There are about nine "diphthongs and a few "triphthongs.
Most consonants have both "palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of "liquids, "nasals and "trills (i.e. 3 contrasting l sounds, 3 contrasting n sounds and 3 contrasting r sounds). The historically voiced stops [b d̪ ɡ] have lost their voicing, so the phonemic contrast today is between unaspirated [p t̪ k] and aspirated [pʰ t̪ʰ kʰ]. In many dialects, these stops may however gain voicing through secondary articulation through a preceding nasal, for examples doras [t̪ɔɾəs̪] "door" but an doras "the door" as [ən̪ˠ d̪ɔɾəs̪] or [ə n̪ˠɔɾəs̪].
In some fixed phrases, these changes are shown permanently, as the link with the base words has been lost, as in an-dràsta "now", from an tràth-sa "this time/period".
In medial and final position, the aspirated stops are "preaspirated rather than aspirated.
The modern Scottish Gaelic alphabet has 18 "letters:
- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U.
The letter h, now mostly used to indicate "lenition (or aspiration) of a "consonant, was in general not used in the oldest "orthography, as lenition was instead indicated with a "dot over the lenited consonant. The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees, but this custom has fallen out of use.
Long vowels are marked with a "grave accent (à, è, ì, ò, ù), indicated through "digraphs (e.g. ao is [ɯː]) or conditioned by certain consonant environments (e.g. a u preceding a non-intervocalic nn is [uː]). Traditional spelling systems also use the "acute accent on the letters á, é and ó to denote a change in vowel quality rather than length, but the reformed spellings have replaced these with the grave.
Certain 18th century sources sources used only an acute accent along the lines of Irish, such as in the writings of "Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair (1741–51) and the earliest editions (1768–90) of "Duncan Ban MacIntyre.
The 1767 "New Testament set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. The 1981 "Scottish Examination Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.
The quality of consonants (palatalised or non-palatalised) is indicated in writing by the "vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are "palatalised while "broad" consonants are neutral or "velarised. The vowels e and i are classified as slender, and a, o, and u as broad. The spelling rule known as caol ri caol agus leathann ri leathann ("slender to slender and broad to broad") requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group followed by a written i or e be also preceded by an i or e; and similarly if followed by a, o or u be also preceded by an a, o, or u.
This rule sometimes leads to the insertion of an orthographic vowel that does not influence the pronunciation of the vowel. For example, plurals in Gaelic are often formed with the suffix -an "[ən], for example, bròg [prɔːk] (shoe) / brògan [prɔːkən] (shoes). But because of the spelling rule, the suffix is spelled -ean (but pronounced the same, "[ən]) after a slender consonant, as in muinntir [mɯi̯ɲtʲɪrʲ] ((a) people) / muinntirean [mɯi̯ɲtʲɪrʲən] (peoples) where the written e is purely a graphic vowel inserted to conform with the spelling rule because an i precedes the r.
"Unstressed vowels omitted in speech can be omitted in informal writing. For example:
- Tha mi an dòchas. ("I hope.") > Tha mi 'n dòchas.
Gaelic orthographic rules are mostly regular; however, English sound-to-letter correspondences cannot be applied to written Gaelic.
Scots English "orthographic rules have also been used at various times in Gaelic writing. Notable examples of Gaelic verse composed in this manner are the "Book of the Dean of Lismore and the "Fernaig manuscript.
Gaelic has long suffered from its lack of use in educational and administrative contexts and was long suppressed.
The UK government has ratified the "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Gaelic. Along with Irish and Welsh, Gaelic is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture. It has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as "Welsh. With the advent of "devolution, however, Scottish matters have begun to receive greater attention, and it achieved a degree of official recognition when the "Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act was enacted by the "Scottish Parliament on 21 April 2005.
The key provisions of the Act are:
- Establishing the Gaelic development body, "Bòrd na Gàidhlig, (BnG), on a statutory basis with a view to securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language and to promote the use and understanding of Gaelic.
- Requiring BnG to prepare a National Gaelic Language Plan every five years for approval by Scottish Ministers.
- Requiring BnG to produce guidance on "Gaelic medium education and Gaelic as a subject for education authorities.
- Requiring public bodies in Scotland, both Scottish public bodies and cross-border public bodies insofar as they carry out devolved functions, to develop Gaelic language plans in relation to the services they offer, if requested to do so by BnG.
Following a consultation period, in which the government received many submissions, the majority of which asked that the bill be strengthened, a revised bill was published; the main alteration was that the guidance of the Bòrd is now statutory (rather than advisory). In the committee stages in the Scottish Parliament, there was much debate over whether Gaelic should be given 'equal validity' with English. Due to executive concerns about resourcing implications if this wording was used, the Education Committee settled on the concept of 'equal respect'. It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is.
The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum, on 21 April 2005. Under the provisions of the Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an "official language of Scotland.
Some commentators, such as Éamonn Ó Gribín (2006) argue that the Gaelic Act falls so far short of the status accorded to Welsh that one would be foolish or naïve to believe that any substantial change will occur in the fortunes of the language as a result of Bòrd na Gàidhlig's efforts.
On 10 December 2008, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the "Scottish Human Rights Commission had the UDHR translated into Gaelic for the first time.
However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers, following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney (1982), involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the "High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.
Qualifications in the language
The "Scottish Qualifications Authority offer two streams of Gaelic examination across all levels of the syllabus: Gaelic for learners (equivalent to the modern foreign languages syllabus) and Gaelic for native speakers (equivalent to the English syllabus).
"An Comunn Gàidhealach performs assessment of spoken Gaelic, resulting in the issue of a Bronze Card, Silver Card or Gold Card. Syllabus details are available on An Comunn's website. These are not widely recognised as qualifications, but are required for those taking part in certain competitions at the annual "mods.
In October 2009, a new agreement was made which allows Scottish Gaelic to be used formally between Scottish Government ministers and "European Union officials. The deal was signed by Britain's representative to the EU, Sir "Kim Darroch, and the Scottish government. This does not give Scottish Gaelic "official status in the EU, but gives it the right to be a means of formal communications in the EU's institutions. The "Scottish government will have to pay for the translation from Gaelic to other European "languages. The deal was received positively in Scotland; "Secretary of State for Scotland "Jim Murphy said the move was a strong sign of the UK government's support for Gaelic. He said that "Allowing Gaelic speakers to communicate with European institutions in their mother tongue is a progressive step forward and one which should be welcomed". Culture Minister "Mike Russell said that "this is a significant step forward for the recognition of Gaelic both at home and abroad and I look forward to addressing the council in Gaelic very soon. Seeing Gaelic spoken in such a forum raises the profile of the language as we drive forward our commitment to creating a new generation of Gaelic speakers in Scotland."
The Scottish Gaelic used in "Machine-readable "British passports differs from "Irish passports in places. "Passport" is rendered Cead-siubhail (in "Irish, Pas); "The European Union", Aonadh Eòrpach (in Irish, An tAontas Eorpach), while "Northern Ireland" is Èirinn a Tuath in Gaelic (the Irish equivalent is Tuaisceart Éireann).
The "BBC operates a Gaelic-language radio station "Radio nan Gàidheal as well as a television channel, "BBC Alba. Launched on 19 September 2008, BBC Alba is widely available in the UK (on "Freeview, "Freesat, "Sky and "Virgin Media). It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites. The channel is being operated in partnership between BBC Scotland and "MG Alba – an organisation funded by the Scottish Government, which works to promote the Gaelic language in broadcasting. The ITV franchise in central Scotland, "STV Central, produces a number of Scottish Gaelic programmes for both "BBC Alba and its own main channel.
Until BBC Alba was broadcast on Freeview, viewers were able to receive the channel "TeleG, which broadcast for an hour every evening. Upon BBC Alba's launch on Freeview, it took the channel number than was previously assigned to TeleG.
There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the "independent commercial channels, usually subtitled in English. The "ITV franchise in the north of Scotland, "STV North (formerly Grampian Television) produces some non-news programming in Scottish Gaelic.
Bilingual road signs, street names, business and advertisement signage (in both Gaelic and English) are gradually being introduced throughout Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and Islands, including Argyll. In many cases, this has simply meant re-adopting the traditional spelling of a name (such as Ràtagan or Loch Ailleart rather than the anglicised forms Ratagan or Lochailort respectively).
Bilingual railway station signs are now more frequent than they used to be. Practically all the stations in the Highland area use both English and Gaelic, and the spread of bilingual station signs is becoming ever more frequent in the Lowlands of Scotland, including areas where Gaelic has not been spoken for a long time.["citation needed]
This has been welcomed by many supporters of the language as a means of raising its profile as well as securing its future as a 'living language' (i.e. allowing people to use it to navigate from A to B in place of English) and creating a sense of place. However in some places, such as Caithness, the Highland Council's intention to introduce bilingual signage has incited controversy.
The "Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in 2004 that they intended to correct them and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps.["citation needed] "Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ("Place names in Scotland") is the national advisory partnership for Gaelic place names in Scotland.
In the nineteenth century, Canadian Gaelic was the third-most widely spoken language in Canada and Gaelic-speaking immigrant communities could be found throughout the country. Gaelic poets in Canada produced a significant literary tradition. The number of Gaelic-speaking individuals and communities declined sharply, however, after the First World War.
"Nova Scotia is home to 1,275 Gaelic speakers as of 2011, of whom 300 claim to have Gaelic as their "mother tongue". The Nova Scotia government maintains an Office of Gaelic Affairs which works to promote the Gaelic language, culture, and tourism. As in Scotland, areas of North-Eastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton have bilingual street signs. Nova Scotia also has Comhairle na Gàidhlig (The Gaelic Council of Nova Scotia), a non-profit society dedicated to the maintenance and promotion of the Gaelic language and culture in "Maritime Canada.
Maxville Public School in "Maxville, "Glengarry, "Ontario, Canada offers Scottish Gaelic lessons weekly.["citation needed] In "Prince Edward Island, the Colonel Gray High School now offers both an introductory and an advanced course in Gaelic; both language and history are taught in these classes.["citation needed] This is the first recorded time that Gaelic has ever been taught as an official course on "Prince Edward Island.
The province of "British Columbia is host to the Comunn Gàidhlig Bhancoubhair (The Gaelic Society of Vancouver), the Vancouver Gaelic Choir, the Victoria Gaelic Choir, as well as the annual Gaelic festival Mòd Vancouver. The city of "Vancouver's Scottish Cultural Centre also holds seasonal Scottish Gaelic evening classes.
The Education (Scotland) Act 1872, which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. The first modern solely Gaelic-medium secondary school, "Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu ("Glasgow Gaelic School"), was opened at Woodside in "Glasgow in 2006 (61 partially Gaelic-medium primary schools and approximately a dozen Gaelic-medium secondary schools also exist). According to Bòrd na Gàidhlig, a total of 2,092 primary pupils were enrolled in Gaelic-medium primary education in 2008–09, as opposed to 24 in 1985.
The "Columba Initiative, also known as colmcille (formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille), is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish.
In May 2004, the provincial government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province. Several public schools in Northeastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton offer Gaelic classes as part of the high-school curriculum.
Maxville Public School in "Maxville, "Glengarry, "Ontario, Canada offers Scottish Gaelic lessons weekly. In "Prince Edward Island, Canada, the Colonel Gray High School is now offering two courses in Gaelic, an introductory and an advanced course; both language and history are taught in these classes. This is the first recorded time that Gaelic has ever been taught as an official course on Prince Edward Island.
Higher and further education
A number of Scottish and some Irish universities offer full-time degrees including a Gaelic language element, usually graduating as Celtic Studies.
"St. Francis Xavier University, the "Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts and "Cape Breton University (formerly University College Of Cape Breton) in "Nova Scotia, Canada also offer a Celtic Studies degrees and/or Gaelic language programs.
In Russia the "Moscow State University offers Gaelic language, history and culture courses.
Courses at the University of the Highlands and Islands
The "University of the Highlands and Islands offers a range of Gaelic courses at Cert HE, Dip HE, BA (ordinary), BA (Hons) and MA, and offers opportunities for postgraduate research through the medium of Gaelic. The majority of these courses are available as residential courses at "Sabhal Mòr Ostaig. A number of other colleges offer the one-year certificate course, which is also available on-line (pending accreditation).
"Lews Castle College's Benbecula campus offers an independent 1-year course in Gaelic and Traditional Music (FE, SQF level 5/6).
In the Western Isles, the isles of "Lewis, "Harris and "North Uist have a "Presbyterian majority (largely "Church of Scotland – Eaglais na h-Alba in Gaelic, "Free Church of Scotland and "Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland.) The isles of "South Uist and "Barra have a "Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles. Notable city congregations with regular services in Gaelic are "St Columba's Church, Glasgow and "Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, Edinburgh. Leabhar Sheirbheisean – a shorter Gaelic version of the English-language Book of Common Order – was published in 1996 by the Church of Scotland.
The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for the decline of Gaelic. The Church of Scotland is supportive today,["vague] but has a shortage of Gaelic-speaking ministers. The Free Church also recently announced plans to abolish Gaelic-language communion services, citing both a lack of ministers and a desire to have their congregations united at communion time.
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The most notable use of the language in sport is that of the "Camanachd Association, the "shinty society, who have a bilingual logo.
In the mid-1990s, the "Celtic League started a campaign to have the word ""Alba" on the Scottish "football and "rugby union tops. Since 2005, the "SFA have supported the use of Scottish Gaelic on their teams' strip in recognition of the language's revival in Scotland. However, the "SRU is still being lobbied to have "Alba" on the national rugby strip.
Some sports coverage, albeit at a small level, takes place in Scottish Gaelic broadcasting.["citation needed]
Gaelic has its own version of European-wide names which also have English forms, for example: Iain (John), Alasdair (Alexander), Uilleam (William), Catrìona (Catherine), Raibeart (Robert), Cairistìona (Christina), Anna (Ann), Màiri (Mary), Seumas (James), Pàdraig (Patrick) and Tòmas (Thomas). Not all traditional Gaelic names have direct equivalents in English: Oighrig, which is normally rendered as Euphemia (Effie) or Henrietta (Etta) (formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet), or, Diorbhal, which is "matched" with Dorothy, simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling. Many of these traditional Gaelic-only names are now regarded as old-fashioned, and hence are rarely or never used.
Some names have come into Gaelic from "Old Norse; for example, Somhairle ( < Somarliðr), Tormod (< Þórmóðr), Raghnall or Raonull (< Rögnvaldr), Torcuil (< Þórkell, Þórketill), Ìomhar (Ívarr). These are conventionally rendered in English as Sorley (or, historically, Somerled), Norman, Ronald or Ranald, Torquil and Iver (or Evander).
Some Scottish names are Anglicized forms of Gaelic names: Aonghas → (Angus), Dòmhnall→ (Donald), for instance. Hamish, and the recently established Mhairi (pronounced [vaːri]) come from the Gaelic for, respectively, James, and Mary, but derive from the form of the names as they appear in the "vocative case: Seumas (James) (nom.) → Sheumais (voc.), and, Màiri (Mary) (nom.) → Mhàiri (voc.).
The most common class of Gaelic surnames are those beginning with "mac (Gaelic for "son"), such as MacGillEathain/MacIllEathain (MacLean). The female form is nic (Gaelic for "daughter"), so Catherine MacPhee is properly called in Gaelic, Catrìona Nic a' Phì (strictly, "nic" is a contraction of the Gaelic phrase nighean mhic, meaning "daughter of the son", thus NicDhòmhnaill really means "daughter of MacDonald" rather than "daughter of Donald"). The "of" part actually comes from the genitive form of the patronymic that follows the prefix; in the case of MacDhòmhnaill, Dhòmhnaill ("of Donald") is the genitive form of Dòmhnall ("Donald").
However, East Sutherland Gaelic uses mac for both male and female surnames.
Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: bàn ("Bain – white), ruadh (Roy – red), dubh (Dow, "Duff – black), donn ("Dunn – brown), buidhe ("Bowie – yellow).
Common words and phrases with Irish and Manx equivalents
|Scottish Gaelic||"Irish||"Manx Gaelic||English|
|sinn [ʃiːɲ]||muid/sinn [mˠidʲ/ʃiɲ]||shin [ʃin]||we|
|aon [ɯːn]||aon [eːn]||nane [neːn]||one|
|mòr [moːɾ]||mór [mˠoːɾ]/[mˠuəɾ]||mooar [muːɾ]||big|
|iasg [iəs̪k]||iasc [iəsk]||eeast [jiːs]||fish|
gadhar [ gˠəiɾ]
|grian [kɾʲiən]||grian [gˠɾʲiən]||grian [gridn]||sun|
|crann [kʰɾa(u)nˠ]||billey [biʎə]||tree|
|cadal [kʰat̪əl̪ˠ]||codail [kʰodəlʲ]||cadley [kʲadlə]||sleep (verb)|
|ceann [kʲaun̪ˠ]||ceann [kʲaunˠ]/[kʲa:nˠ]||kione [kʲo:n̪ˠ]||head|
|cha do dh'òl thu [xa t̪ə ɣɔːl̪ˠ u]||níor ól tú [n̠ʲi:əɾ o:l̪ˠ t̪ˠu:]||cha diu oo [xa deu u]||you did not drink|
|bha mi a' faicinn [va mi fɛçkʲɪɲ]||bhí mé ag feiceáil [vʲi: mʲe: əg fʲɛca:il̠ʲ]
(bhíos ag feiscint [vʲi:ɔsˠ əg fʲɛʃcin̠ʲt])
|va mee fakin [vɛ mə faːɣin]||I was seeing|
|slàinte [s̪l̪ ˠaːɲtʲə]||"sláinte||slaynt||health, cheers! (toast)|
Note: Items in brackets denote archaic or dialectal forms
- "Languages of Scotland
- "Scottish Gaelic literature
- "An Comunn Gàidhealach
- "Book of Deer
- "Bungi creole
- "Canadian Gaelic
- "Clì Gàidhlig
- "Differences between Scottish Gaelic and Irish
- "Gaelic broadcasting in Scotland
- "Gaelic Digital Service
- "Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005
- "Gaelic medium education in Scotland
- "Gaelic music
- "Gaelic revival
- "Gaelic road signs in Scotland
- "Gaelic Society of Moscow
- "Galwegian Gaelic
- "Goidelic substrate hypothesis
- "Irish language
- "List of Celtic language media
- "List of Scottish Gaelic place names
- "List of television channels in Celtic languages
- "Nancy Dorian
- "The Mòd
- "Status of the Irish language
- "William J. Watson
- 2011 Census of Scotland, Table QS211SC. Viewed 30 May 2014.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Scottish Gaelic". "Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Withers, Charles W. J. (1984). Gaelic in Scotland, 1698–1981. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers Ltd. pp. 16–18. "ISBN "0859760979.
- Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL), Table UV12. Viewed 30 May 2014.
- "Census shows decline in Gaelic speakers 'slowed'". BBC News. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148 from the "Council of Europe.
- "Official text of the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005". Statutelaw.gov.uk. 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- Statistics Canada, 2011 NHS Survey
- "Gaelic: definition of Gaelic in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "Irish vs Gaelic". "YouTube. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- Companion to the Oxford English Dictionary, Tom McArthur, Oxford University Press, 1994
- Jones, Charles (1997). The Edinburgh history of the Scots language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 551. "ISBN "978-0-7486-0754-9.
- Nora Kershaw Chadwick, Myles Dyllon (1972). The Celtic Realms. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 66. "ISBN "978-0-7607-4284-6.
- Clarkson, pp. 238–244
- Broun, "Dunkeld", Broun, "National Identity", Forsyth, "Scotland to 1100", pp. 28–32, Woolf, "Constantine II"; cf. Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the "traditional" view.
- Clarkson, p. 276
- Colm Ó Baoill, "The Scots–Gaelic interface," in Charles Jones, ed., The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997, p. 554
- Withers, p. 19
- Magnusson, p. 68
- MacArthur, Margaret (1874). History of Scotland. New York: Henry Holt and Company. p. 33.
- Withers, pp. 19–23
- Whyte, Ian D. (2013). Scotland before the Industrial Revolution. Routledge. p. 57.
- Bower, Walter (1990). "The Stone of Scone and the Making of a King, 1249". In S. Taylor; D. E. R. Watt; B. Scott. Scotichronicon. Aberdeen.
- Ó Baoill, p. 553–6
- Withers, Charles W. J. (1988). "The Geographical History of Gaelic in Scotland". In Colin H. Williams. Language in Geographic Context. p. 139.
- Hunter, James (1976). The Making of the Crofting Community. pp. 178–9.
- "From Charles Mackintosh's waterproof to Dolly the sheep: 43 innovations Scotland has given the world". The independent. 3 January 2016.
- Mackenzie, Donald W. (1990–92). "The Worthy Translator: How the Scottish Gaels got the Scriptures in their own Tongue". Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness. 57: 168–202.
- Ross, David (2002). Scotland: History of a Nation. Geddes & Grosset.
- Storey, John (2011) "Contemporary Gaelic fiction: development, challenge and opportunity" Lainnir a’ Bhùirn' – The Gleaming Water: Essays on Modern Gaelic Literature, edited by Emma Dymock & Wilson McLeod, Dunedin Academic Press.
- Printed at the Office of Messrs. Arthur Guthrie and Sons Ltd., 49 Ayr Road, Cumnock
- For further discussion on the subject of Gaelic in the South of Scotland, see articles Gàidhlig Ghallghallaibh agus Alba-a-Deas ("Gaelic of Galloway and Southern Scotland") and Gàidhlig ann an Siorramachd Inbhir-Àir ("Gaelic in Ayrshire") by Garbhan MacAoidh, published in GAIRM Numbers 101 and 106.
- Kennedy, Michael (2002). Gaelic in Nova Scotia: An Economic, Cultural and Social Impact Study (PDF). Province of Nova Scotia. p. 131. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- MacAulay, Donald (1992). The Celtic Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. "ISBN "0521231272. – quoting census data. No data recorded for monolingual Gaelic speakers from 1981
- 2011 Census of Scotland, Table QS211SC. Viewed 23 June 2014.
- Scotland's Census Results Online (SCROL), Table UV12. Viewed 23 June 2014.
- "Census shows decline in Gaelic speakers 'slowed'". "BBC News Online. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Census shows Gaelic declining in its heartlands". "BBC News Online. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Pupil Census Supplementary Data". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Cox, Richard Brìgh nam Facal (1991) Roinn nan Cànan Ceilteach "ISBN 0-903204-21-5
- "Gaelic Orthographic Conventions" (PDF). sqa.org. Bòrd na Gàidhlig. October 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair. "Smeòrach Chlann Raghnaill". www.moidart.org.uk. Archaeology Archive Moidart History. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Macbain, Alexander (1896). An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (Digitized facsimile ed.). BiblioBazaar. "ISBN "978-1-116-77321-7.
- "Gaelic Orthographic Conventions" (PDF). sqa.org. Bòrd na Gàidhlig. October 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- O'Rahilly, T F, Irish Dialects Past and Present. Brown and Nolan 1932, "ISBN 0-901282-55-3, p. 19
- The Board of Celtic Studies Scotland (1998) Computer-Assisted Learning for Gaelic: Towards a Common Teaching Core. The orthographic conventions were revised by the "Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) in 2005: "Gaelic Orthographic Conventions 2005" (PDF). SQA publication BB1532. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- This should of course be spelt Dhùn, not Dùn
- See Kenneth MacKinnon (1991) Gaelic: A Past and Future Prospect. Edinburgh: The Saltire Society.
- Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005.
- Williams, Colin H., Legislative Devolution and Language Regulation in the United Kingdom["dead link], Cardiff University
- "Latest News – SHRC". "Scottish Human Rights Commission. 2008-10-12. Archived from the original on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- "UK Ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Working Paper 10 – R.Dunbar, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-27.
-  Archived 1 March 2012 at the "Wayback Machine.
- "Gàidhlig". www.sqa.org.uk. SQA. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
|last1=in Authors list ("help)
- "Gaelic (learners)". www.sqa.org.uk. SQA. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
|last1=in Authors list ("help)
- "An Comunn Gàidhealach - Royal National Mod : Royal National Mod". www.ancomunn.co.uk. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "EU green light for Scots Gaelic". "BBC News Online. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- BBC Reception advice – BBC Online
- About BBC Alba, from BBC Online
- "Caithness councillors harden resolve against Gaelic signs". "The Press and Journal. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba - Gaelic Place-Names of Scotland - About Us". www.ainmean-aite.org. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- Bumstead, J.M (2006). "Scots". Multicultural Canada. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- "Newton, Michael (2015). Seanchaidh na Coille / Memory-Keeper of the Forest: Anthology of Scottish Gaelic Literature of Canada. Cape Breton University Press. "ISBN "978-1-77206-016-4.
- Dembling, Jonathan (2006). "Gaelic in Canada: New Evidence from an Old Census". academia.edu. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- "National Household Survey Profile, Nova Scotia, 2011". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- "2011 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations, Detailed Mother Tongue, Nova Scotia". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- Pupils in Scotland, 2006 from scot.gov.uk. Published February 2007, Scottish Government.
- Pupils in Scotland, 2008 from scot.gov.uk. Published February 2009, Scottish Government.
- Pupils in Scotland, 2009 from scotland.gov.uk. Published 27 November 2009, Scottish Government.
- "Scottish Government: Pupils Census, Supplementary Data". Scotland.gov.uk. 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2011 Spreadsheet published 3 February 2012 (Table 1.13)
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2012 Spreadsheet published 11 December 2012 (Table 1.13)
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2013 Spreadsheet (Table 1.13)
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2014 Spreadsheet (Table 1.13)
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2015 Spreadsheet (Table 1.13)
- Pupil Census, Supplementary data 2015 Spreadsheet (Table 1.13)
- Pagoeta, Mikel Morris (2001). Europe Phrasebook. "Lonely Planet. p. 416. "ISBN "1-86450-224-X.
- "Gael-force wind of change in the classroom". "The Scotsman. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- "Gaelic core class increasingly popular in Nova Scotia". "Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- MacLeod, Murdo (6 January 2008). "Free Church plans to scrap Gaelic communion service". "The Scotsman. Edinburgh.
- "Gaelic added to Scotland strips". "BBC News Online. 24 August 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Scottish Rugby Union: "Put 'Alba' on Scottish Ruby Shirt"". Facebook. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- "Gàidhlig air lèintean rugbaidh na h-Alba" (in Scottish Gaelic). BBC Alba.
- "Alba air Taghadh - beò à Inbhir Nis". BBC Radio nan Gàidheal. BBC. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "Catrìona Anna Nic a' Phì". BBC (in Scottish Gaelic). Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Woulfe, Patrick. "Gaelic Surnames". www.libraryireland.com. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- Dorian, Nancy C. Language death: the life cycle of a Scottish Gaelic dialect. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 88. "ISBN "9780812277852. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- Gillies, H. Cameron. (1896). Elements of Gaelic Grammar. Vancouver: Global Language Press (reprint 2006), "ISBN 1-897367-02-3 (hardcover), "ISBN 1-897367-00-7 (paperback)
- Gillies, William. (1993). "Scottish Gaelic", in Ball, Martin J. and Fife, James (eds). The Celtic Languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions). London: Routledge. "ISBN 0-415-28080-X (paperback), p. 145–227
- Lamb, William. (2001). Scottish Gaelic. Munich: Lincom Europa, "ISBN 3-89586-408-0
- MacAoidh, Garbhan. (2007). Tasgaidh – A Gaelic Thesaurus. Lulu Enterprises, N. Carolina
- McLeod, Wilson (ed.). (2006). Revitalising Gaelic in Scotland: Policy, Planning and Public Discourse. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, "ISBN 1-903765-59-5
- Robertson, Charles M. (1906–07). "Scottish Gaelic Dialects", The Celtic Review, vol 3 pp. 97–113, 223–39, 319–32.
- Withers, Charles W. J. (1984). Gaelic in Scotland, 1689–1984. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers Ltd. "ISBN 0-85976-097-9.
|""||Scottish Gaelic edition of "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scottish Gaelic language.|
|""||For a list of words relating to Scottish Gaelic, see the Scottish Gaelic language category of words in "Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|""||Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Scottish Gaelic|
|""||Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Scottish Gaelic.|
- BBC Alba – Scottish Gaelic language, music and news
- Bòrd na Gàidhlig – Scotland's Gaelic-language Board
- Gaelic Resource Database – founded by Comhairle nan Eilean Siar
- Scottish Gaelic Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)
- Faclair Dwelly air Loidhne – Dwelly's Gaelic dictionary online
- Gàidhlig air an Lìon – Sabhal Mòr Ostaig's links to pages in and about Scottish Gaelic
- Gàidhlig (Scottish Gaelic) Local Studies – Census information from 1881 to the present, 27 volumes covering all Gaelic-speaking regions
- Goidelic Dictionaries
- Pàrlamaid na h-Alba: Gàidhlig – Scottish Parliament site in Gaelic
- Gaelic psalms at Back Free Church, Isle Of Lewis (6:29)
- Sermons in Scottish Gaelic, Back Free Church, "Back, Isle of Lewis
- Comhairle na Gàidhlig – The Gaelic Council of Nova Scotia (Canada)
- Comunn Gàidhlig Bhancoubhair – The Gaelic Society of Vancouver (Canada)
- DASG - The Digital Archive of Scottish Gaelic