The defeat at Lake Trasimene put the Romans in an immense state of panic, fearing for the very existence of their city. The Senate decided to resort to the traditional emergency measure of appointing a "dictator, a temporary commander-in-chief who would unite military authority, which was normally divided between the two consuls, for six months. The usual procedure required the presence of a consul to appoint the dictator. Since one consul (Flaminius) was dead and the other (Servilius) away with the only army left in Italy, the Senate resolved to elect a dictator itself. As this was unconstitutional, the person appointed, "Quintus Fabius Maximus, was given the title of "prodictator (acting dictator) although he held the same powers as a dictator. The Senate also appointed his "magister equitum ("master of cavalry", who acted as his second-in-command) instead of allowing the dictator to choose one himself as was the normal rule: "M. Minucius Rufus.:22.8
Departing from the Roman military tradition of engaging the enemy in pitched battle as soon as possible, Fabius invented the "Fabian strategy: refusing open battle with his opponent, but constantly skirmishing with small detachments of the enemy. This course was not popular among the soldiers, earning Fabius the nickname Cunctator ("delayer"), since he seemed to avoid battle while Italy was being ravaged by the enemy. Moreover, it was widely feared that, if Hannibal continued to plunder Italy unopposed, the terrified allies, believing that Rome was incapable of protecting them, might defect and pledge their allegiance to the Carthaginians. As a countermeasure, residents of villages were encouraged to post lookouts, so that they could gather their livestock and possessions in time and take refuge in fortified towns that the enemy could not yet take. Fabius' policy was to shadow Hannibal by moving on the heights parallel to the Carthaginian movements on the plains, to avoid Hannibal's cavalry which was supreme on flat terrain. This demanded great care, since the Carthaginian tried with all his skill to ambush the Romans. For this reason, a new marching formation, with three parallel columns of infantry, was developed instead of the single column that had been in use at Lake Trasimene.
Fabius' constant harassment of Hannibal's force handicapped the latter's command abilities and gained many prisoners. Both commanders decided that they would exchange prisoners under the same conditions as in the "First Punic War. Although the Carthaginians returned to the Romans several hundred more prisoners than they received and were thus expecting monetary compensation, the Senate was reluctant to pay. However, the estates of Fabius had not been touched by the Carthaginian pillage parties in order to incite distrust against him. Fabius now sold these estates to pay the enemy army for the received surplus of prisoners.
Having ravaged "Apulia without provoking Fabius into a battle, Hannibal decided to march through "Samnium to "Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. The latter was aware that there were excellent opportunities to trap the Carthaginian force on the Campanian plain and to force Hannibal to fight in the surrounding mountains on ground of his own choice. As the year wore on, Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated plains of Campania but Fabius had ensured that all the mountain passes offering an exit were blocked. This situation led to the "night battle of Ager Falernus in which the Carthaginians made good their escape by tricking the Romans into believing that they were heading to the heights above them. The Romans were thus decoyed and the Carthaginians slipped through the undefended pass with all their baggage train. This was a severe blow to Fabius’ prestige.
Minucius, the magister equitum, was one of the leading voices in the army against the adoption of the Fabian Strategy. As soon as he scored a minor success, by winning a skirmish with the Carthaginians, the Senate promoted Minucius to the same "imperium (power of command) as Fabius, whom he accused of cowardice. In consequence, the two men decided to split the army between them. Minucius' division was swiftly lured into an ambush by Hannibal in the flat country of "Geronium. Fabius rushed to his co-commander's assistance and Hannibal's forces immediately retreated. Subsequently, Minucius accepted Fabius' authority and ended their political conflict.
Seeking a decisive engagement
Fabius became unpopular in Rome, since his tactics did not lead to a quick end to the war. The Roman populace derided the Cunctator, and at the elections of 216 BC elected as consuls "Gaius Terentius Varro who advocated pursuing a more aggressive war strategy and "Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who advocated a strategy in the middle between the Fabian tactics and the tactics suggested by Varro.
In the campaign of 217 BC, Hannibal had failed to obtain a following among the "Italics. In the spring of 216 BC, he took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at "Cannae in the Apulian plain. Thus, by seizing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial source of supply. The Roman Senate authorised the raising of double-sized armies by the consuls Varro and Aemilius Paullus. By some estimates, the Romans raised a force as large as 100,000 men, though this figure cannot be completely validated.["citation needed]
The consuls Aemilius Paullus and Varro resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to "Apulia. After a two-day march, they found him on the left bank of the "Aufidus River, and encamped 10 km (6.2 mi) away. Hannibal capitalized on Varro's eagerness and drew him into a trap by using an "envelopment tactic that eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in the centre of a semicircle, with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak centre, but the Libyan Mercenaries on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible, and the cavalry commander "Hasdrubal:22.45 (not to be confused with Hannibal's "brother who was campaigning in Iberia:23.26), routed the Roman cavalry on the Roman right wing and then swept around the rear of the Roman line and attacked Varro's cavalry on the Roman left, and then the legions, from behind. As a result, the Roman army was surrounded with no means of escape. Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal, with much inferior numbers, managed to destroy all but a small remnant of this force. Depending on the source, it is estimated that 50,000–70,000 Romans were killed or captured at Cannae.
As "Livy notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those which preceded it can be seen by the behaviour of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman power.":22.61 During that same year, the Greek cities in Sicily were induced to revolt against Roman political control, while the Macedonian king, "Philip V, "pledged his support to Hannibal – thus initiating the "First Macedonian War against Rome. Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed King "Hieronymous of "Syracuse, and "Tarentum also came over to him around that time. Hannibal now had the resources and personnel needed to launch a successful attack on the City of Rome. However, he was uncertain of the feasibility of such an attack and spent a great deal of time pondering it. While he hesitated, the Romans were able to regroup, and the opportunity was lost. The Romans looked back on Hannibal's indecision as what saved Rome from certain defeat. Hannibal sent a delegation to Rome to negotiate a peace and another one offering to release his Roman prisoners of war for ransom, but Rome rejected all offers.
Establishing a Carthaginian alliance in Italy
- For a detailed analysis of Hannibal's relations with Roman allies, see: "Socii
After Cannae, several south Italian cities allied themselves to Hannibal: the "Apulian towns of "Salapia, "Arpi and Herdonia and many of the "Lucanians. Mago marched south with a Carthaginian army detachment and, some weeks later, the "Bruttians joined him. Simultaneously, Hannibal marched north with part of his forces and was joined by the "Hirpini and the "Caudini, two of the three "Samnite cantons. The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, "Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into "Campania in 216 BC. The inhabitants of Capua held limited Roman citizenship and the aristocracy was linked to the Romans via marriage and friendship, but the possibility of becoming the supreme city of Italy after the evident Roman disasters proved too strong a temptation. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations, but provided the harbour through which Hannibal was reinforced.
By 215 BC, Hannibal's alliance system covered the bulk of southern Italy, save for the "Greek cities along the coast (except "Croton, which was conquered by his allies), "Rhegium, and the Latin colonies of "Beneventum, "Luceria in "Samnium, "Venusia in Apulia, "Brundisium and "Paestum. The independent Gaul he had established in northern Italy was still out of Roman control.
Hannibal had been able to win over a major allied base by his tremendous military success. He also regarded it as essential to take the city of "Nola, a Roman fortress in Campania, a region that linked his various allies geographically and contained his most important harbour for supply. Prior to his first attempt, the pro-Carthage faction in the city had been eliminated by the Romans, so there was no chance of the city being betrayed. Hannibal repeatedly tried to take this city by assault or siege, but was thwarted three times, in "216, "215 and "214, by forces led by "Marcus Claudius Marcellus. By 215 Hannibal was able to take "Casilinum, the other important site for controlling Campania.
"Syracuse, located on the sea routes Hannibal needed to secure supply, and "Lilybaeum both remained in Roman hands. Hannibal was aided by the fact that "Hiero II, the old tyrant of Syracuse and a staunch Roman ally, had died and his successor "Hieronymus was discontented with his position in the Roman alliance. Hannibal dispatched two of his lieutenants, who were of Syracusian origin to negotiate with "Hieronymus. They succeeded in winning Syracuse over, at the price, however, of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. The Syracusans' ambitions were great, but the army they fielded was no match for the arriving Roman force, leading to the "Siege of Syracuse from 214 BC onwards. During this siege, the ingenuity of "Archimedes' machines defeated all Roman attacks.
The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to fight the Romans by using local resources and raising recruits from among the local population. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in "Samnium, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the "Battle of Beneventum (214 BC) and eliminated them before they came under the feared leadership of Hannibal. Hannibal could win allies, but defending them against the Romans was a new and difficult problem, as the Romans could still field multiple armies greatly outnumbering his own forces. Thus Fabius was able to take the Carthaginian ally "Arpi in 213 BC.
Eastern Mediterranean and Ionian Sea (218–213 BC)
- 217 BC – letter from Hannibal after "Battle of Lake Trasimene leading to war preparations
- 217–216 BC – "Philip V of Macedon builds a fleet of 100 "lembi
- 216 BC – ambassadors to Hannibal after "Battle of Cannae
- 214 BC – "First Macedonian War officially starts
- 214 BC – naval expeditions from Macedonia
- 213 BC – land expedition to Lissus
Rome takes key cities (212–207 BC)
Western Mediterranean (212–207 BC)
Defeat of the first expedition
In Iberia, the Scipio brothers hired 20,000 Celtiberian mercenaries to reinforce their army of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. Observing that the Carthaginian armies were deployed separately from each other, with Hasdrubal Barca and 15,000 troops near Amtorgis, and Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco, both with 10,000 troops, further to the west of Hasdrubal, the Scipio brothers planned to split their forces. "Publius Scipio moved 20,000 Roman and allied soldiers to attack Mago Barca near "Castulo, while "Gnaeus Scipio took one double legion (10,000 troops) and the mercenaries to attack Hasdrubal Barca. This stratagem resulted in 2 battles, the "Battle of Castulo and the "Battle of Ilorca, which occurred within a few days of each other, usually combined as the "Battle of the Upper Baetis (211 BC). Both battles ended in clear defeats for the Romans as Hasdrubal had bribed the Roman mercenaries to desert and return home without a fight.
As a result of the battle, the Romans were forced to retreat to their stronghold of Northern Iberia, from which the Carthaginians could not expel them. It is notable that the Roman soldiers decided to elect a new leader, since both commanders had been killed, a practice hitherto known only in Carthaginian or Hellenistic armies.
Second Roman expedition to Iberia
In 210 BC, Scipio Africanus arrived in Iberia on the Senate's orders to avenge his father and uncle.
In a brilliant assault in 209 BC, Scipio succeeded in capturing "Cartago Nova, which was the centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia. He defeated Hasdrubal in the "Battle of Baecula (208 BC), but was not able to prevent him from continuing his march to Italy in order to reinforce his brother Hannibal.
In the "Battle of Ilipa (206 BC), Scipio defeated a combined army under the command of "Mago Barca, "Hasdrubal Gisco and "Masinissa, thus bringing to an end to the Carthaginian hold on Iberia.
Central Mediterranean (212–207 BC)
Climax and fall of Hannibal's alliance
The climax of Carthaginian expansion was reached when the largest Greek city in Italy, "Tarentum, switched sides in 212 BC. The "Battle of Tarentum (212 BC) was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction. There were two separate successful assaults on the gates of the city. This enabled the Carthaginian army, which had approached unobserved behind a screen of marauding Numidian horsemen, to enter the city by surprise and take all but the citadel where the Romans and their supporting faction were able to rally. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this Roman stronghold put the city under Carthaginian control. However, the harbour was blocked and warships had to be transported overland to be launched at sea.
The "Battle of Capua (212 BC) was a stalemate. The Romans decided to end the siege of Capua. As a result, the Capuan cavalry was reinforced with half of the available Numidian cavalry of 2,000.
In the "Battle of Beneventum (212 BC), Hanno the Elder was again defeated, this time by "Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, who also captured his camp. In the following "Battle of the Silarus, in the same year, the Romans under Marcus Centenius were ambushed and lost all but 1,000 of their 16,000 effectives. Also, in 212 BC, the "Battle of Herdonia resulted in another Roman defeat, with only 2,000 Romans out of a force of 18,000 surviving a direct attack by Hannibal's numerically superior forces, combined with an ambush that cut off the Roman line of retreat.
This phase of the war was marked by the fall of major and minor cities to the Romans, although Hannibal was still able to prevail on the battlefield and thus lift some sieges. The "Siege of Syracuse, from 214 BC onwards, was marked by Archimedes' ingenuity in inventing war machines that made it impossible for the Romans to make any gains with traditional methods of siege warfare. A Carthaginian army of 20,000 had been sent to relieve the city, but suffered more heavily than the Romans from pestilence and was thus forced to retreat to Agrigentum. The fall of Syracuse was finally achieved by the treachery of a Syracusan pro-Roman faction, that allowed the Romans to enter the city, resulting in the death of "Archimedes.
In a second "Battle of Capua (211 BC), Hannibal again tried to regain use of his main harbour as in the previous year, by luring the Romans into a pitched battle. He was unsuccessful, and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. So he tried a strategem of staging a march towards Rome, hoping in this way to compel the enemy to abandon the siege and rush to defend their home city. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and, under continued siege, Capua fell to Rome soon afterwards. Near Rome he fought another pitched battle.
The second "Battle of Herdonia (210 BC) was fought to lift the Roman siege of that allied city. Hannibal caught the proconsul "Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus off guard during his siege of Herdonia and destroyed his army in a pitched battle with up to 13,000 Romans dead of 20,000. The defection of the allied city of Salapia in Apulia in 210 BC was achieved by treachery: the inhabitants massacred the Numidian garrison and went over to the Romans.
In 210 BC, the "Battle of Numistro between Marcellus and Hannibal was inconclusive, but the Romans stayed on his heels until the also inconclusive "Battle of Canusium in 209 BC. In the meantime, this battle enabled another Roman army under Fabius to approach Tarentum and take it by treachery in the second "Battle of Tarentum (209 BC). Hannibal, at that time, had been able to disengage from Marcellus and was only 8.0 km (5 mi) away when the city, under the command of Carthalo, who was bound to Fabius by an agreement of hospitality, fell.
Hasdrubal's failed reinforcement
The "Battle of Grumentum was an inconclusive fight in 207 BC between "Gaius Claudius Nero and Hannibal. In the aftermath of the battle, Nero was able to trick Hannibal into believing that the whole Roman army was still in camp. In the meantime, Nero marched with a selected corps north and reinforced the Romans there to win the "Battle of the Metaurus, killing "Hasdrubal and scattering the survivors of his army. The Carthaginian force under Hasdrubal had left Iberia a year before, after the defeat at the "Battle of Baecula and had been reinforced by Gallic and Ligurian mercenaries and allies. It is notable that they took the same route as Hannibal 10 years previously, but suffered fewer casualties, being better supported by mercenaries from the mountain tribes.
- 210 BC – second expedition to Sardinia
- 210 BC – naval expedition to Tarentum
- 210 BC – Roman raids on Africa
Eastern Mediterranean and Ionian Sea (212–207 BC)
In 211 BC, Rome countered the Macedonian threat with a Greek alliance of the "Aetolians, "Elis, "Sparta, "Messenia and "Attalus I of "Pergamon, as well as two Roman clients, the "Illyrians "Pleuratus and "Scerdilaidas.
- 209 BC – Illyrian attack on Macedonia
- 209 BC – Carthaginian naval expedition to Corcyra
- 209 BC – "First Battle of Lamia
- 209 BC – "Second Battle of Lamia
- 208 BC – Roman and Pergamese attack on Lemnos
Seeking peace (206–202 BC)
Western Mediterranean (206–202 BC)
Carthage's last stand in Iberia
At the "Battle of Ilipa, large numbers of Celtiberian mercenaries in Carthaginian service confronted a mixed army of Romans and Iberians. Scipio Africanus Major employed a clever ruse. Every day for several days, he drew up his army for battle with the Romans stationed in the centre of the line and the Iberians on the wings. But when the enemy offered battle, he would eventually decline it. By this stratagem, he convinced the Carthaginian commanders "Mago and "Hasdrubal Gisco that they could expect the Romans to hold the centre of their line. On the day of the battle, the Roman force deployed earlier in the day and with the Romans posted on the wings of the line. In the rush to respond, the Carthaginians placed their best forces in the centre as usual, failing to spot the unusual Roman deployment. Thus the inferior Carthaginian mercenaries on the wings were severely beaten by the Romans. The Celtiberians deserted the Carthaginian camp that night. This catastrophic defeat sealed the fate of the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. It was followed by the Roman capture of "Gades in 206 BC after the city had already rebelled against Carthaginian rule. The Tribal leaders "Indibilis and "Mandonius (of the "Ausetani) thought that, after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, the Romans would leave and they would gain control of Spain again. This didn't happen, however, so they participated with the "mutineers at the Sucro camp against the Romans. This mutiny was ultimately squelched by Scipio Africanus.:28.24
In 205 BC, a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture "New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by a mutiny and an Iberian uprising against their new overlords; the attack was repulsed. So, in the same year, Mago left Iberia, setting sail from the "Balearic islands to Italy with his remaining forces.
The Numidian struggle
In 206 BC, there was a quick succession of kings in Eastern "Numidia that temporarily ended with the division of the land between Carthage and the Western Numidian king "Syphax, a former Roman ally. For this bargain, Syphax was to marry "Sophonisba, daughter of "Hasdrubal Gisco. "Massinissa, who had thus lost his "fiancee, went over to the Romans with whom he had already established contact during his military service in Iberia.
Central Mediterranean (206–202 BC)
Carrying the war to Africa
In 205, Mago landed in "Genua by sea the remnants of his Spanish army. This was the third Carthaginian force invading Italy. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's "Battle of Crotona in 204 in the south of the peninsula. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of the Boii and Insubres, Carthage's main Gallic allies and a place of retreat for Hasdrubal's defeated remnants. His move was checked by the Romans in the "Po Valley Raid in 203. This hindered the third attempted invasion of Italy early, by preventing Mago from uniting with Hannibal's army in the south. The split Carthaginian armies were less dangerous, allowing for Roman manpower to be directed to the invasion of Africa, despite the "Damocles sword of the enemy troops on and around Roman lands.
At the same time, "Scipio Africanus Major was given command of the legions in "Sicily and was allowed to levy volunteers for his plan to end the war by an invasion of Africa. The legions in Sicily were mainly the survivors of Cannae, who were not allowed home until the war was finished. Scipio was also one of the survivors but, unlike the ordinary soldiers, had been allowed to return to Rome along with the other surviving "tribunes, and had run successfully for public office and had been given command of the troops in Iberia.
Within a year of his landing in Africa, Scipio twice routed the regular Carthaginian forces, under "Hasdrubal Gisco, and his "Numidian allies. The main native supporter of the Carthaginians, king "Syphax of the "Massaesylians (western Numidians), was defeated and taken prisoner. "Masinissa, a Numidian rival of Syphax and, at that time, an ally of the Romans, seized a large part of his kingdom with their help. These setbacks persuaded some of the Carthaginians that it was time to sue for peace. Others pleaded for the recall of the sons of "Hamilcar Barca, "Hannibal and "Mago, who were still fighting the Romans in "Bruttium and "Cisalpine Gaul respectively.
In 203 BC, while "Scipio was carrying all before him in Africa and the Carthaginian peace party were arranging an "armistice, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party at Carthage. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in "Punic and "Greek upon bronze tablets in the temple of "Juno at "Crotone, he sailed back to Africa. These records were later quoted by "Polybius. Hannibal's arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, who placed him in command of a combined force of "African "levies and his mercenaries from Italy. But Hannibal was opposed to this policy and tried to convince them not to send the untrained African levies into battle. In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a peace conference. Despite the two generals' mutual admiration, negotiations foundered, according to the Romans due to "Punic faith", meaning bad faith. This Roman expression referred to the alleged breach of protocols which ended the "First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, Hannibal's perceived breaches of what the Romans perceived as military etiquette (i.e., Hannibal's numerous ambuscades), as well as the armistice violated by the Carthaginians in the period before Hannibal's return.
Broken armistice and final peace treaty
The decisive battle soon followed. Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians had superiority in infantry. The Roman army was generally better armed and trained than the Carthaginians. Hannibal had refused to lead this army into battle, because he did not expect them to be able to perform. There had been very bitter arguments between him and the oligarchy. His co-general, "Hasdrubal Gisco, was forced to commit suicide by a violent mob after he spoke in support of Hannibal's view that such troops should not be led into battle. Before the battle, Hannibal gave no speech to his new troops, only to his veterans.
Scipio countered an expected Carthaginian elephant charge, which caused some of Hannibal's elephants to turn back into his own ranks, throwing his cavalry into disarray. The Roman cavalry was able to capitalize on this and drive the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. The battle remained closely fought and, at one point, it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory. However, Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry returned from chasing the Carthaginian cavalry and attacked Hannibal's rear. This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to disintegrate and collapse. After their defeat, "Hannibal convinced the Carthaginians to accept peace. Notably, he broke the rules of the assembly by forcibly removing a speaker who supported continued resistance. Afterwards, he was obliged to apologize for his behaviour.
Eastern Mediterranean and Ionian Sea (218–201 BC)
- 206 BC – the Aetolians make peace with Macedonia
- 205 BC – Rome lands with 11,000 men and 35 ships in "Durrës but achieve no military objective
- 205 BC – the "First Macedonian war ends with the peace "Treaty of Phoenice
Carthage lost Hispania forever, and Rome firmly established her power there over large areas. Rome imposed a war indemnity of 10,000 "talents (300 "tonnes/660,000 pounds), limited the Carthaginian navy to 10 ships (to ward off pirates), and forbade Carthage from raising an army without Roman permission. The Numidians took the opportunity to capture and plunder Carthaginian territory. Half a century later, when Carthage raised an army to defend itself from these incursions, Rome destroyed her in the "Third Punic War (149–146 BC). Rome, on the other hand, by her victory, had taken a key step towards what ultimately became her domination of the "Mediterranean world.
The end of the war did not meet with a universal welcome in Rome. When the Senate decided upon a peace treaty with Carthage, "Quintus Caecilius Metellus, a former consul, said he did not look upon the termination of the war as a blessing to Rome, since he feared that the Roman people would now sink back again into its former slumbers, from which it had been roused by the presence of Hannibal. Others, most notably "Cato the Elder, feared that if Carthage was not completely destroyed it would soon regain its power and pose new threats to Rome; he pressed for harsher peace conditions. Even after the peace, Cato insisted on the destruction of Carthage, ending all his speeches with ""Carthage must be destroyed", even if they had nothing to do with Carthage.
Archaeology has discovered that the famous circular military harbour at Carthage, the "Cothon, received a significant buildup during or after this war. Though shielded from external sight, it could house and quickly deploy about 200 "triremes. This appears a surprising development as, after the war, one of the terms of surrender restricted the Carthaginian fleet to only ten triremes. One possible explanation: as has been pointed out for other Phoenician cities, "privateers with warships played a significant role besides trade, even when the Roman Empire was fully established and officially controlled all coasts. In this case it is not clear whether the treaty included private warships. The only reference to Carthaginian privateers comes from the First Punic War: one such privateer, Hanno the Rhodian, owned a "quinquereme (faster than the serial production models that the Romans had copied), manned with about 500 men and then among the heaviest warships in use. Later pirates in Roman waters are all reported with much smaller vessels, which could outrun naval vessels, but operated with lower personnel costs. Thus piracy was probably highly developed in Carthage and the state did not have a monopoly of military forces. Pirates probably played an important role in capturing slaves, one of the most profitable trade-goods, but merchant ships with tradeable goods and a crew were also their targets. No surviving source reports the fate of Carthaginian privateers in the periods between and after the Punic Wars.
Hannibal became a "businessman for several years and later enjoyed a leadership role in Carthage. However, the Carthaginian nobility, upset by his policy of democratisation and his struggle against corruption, persuaded the Romans to force him into exile in "Asia Minor, where he again led armies against the Romans and their allies on the battlefield. He eventually committed suicide (ca. 182 BC) to avoid capture.
Carthage and Numidia after the war
Constant low-level warfare persisted between Carthage and Numidia, but, by the time of the "Third Punic War (149–146 BC), Carthage had lost most of her African territories and the Numidians traded independently with the Greeks.
In this conflict intelligence played an important role on both sides. Hannibal mastered an intelligence service that enabled him to achieve outstanding victories. Likewise, Scipio Africanus Major's victories depended on information. In 217 BC a Carthaginian resident spy in Rome—probably a Roman citizen—was caught and had his hands cut off as a punishment.:22.33.1
Opinions on the war
According to "Livy it was "the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged: the war which the Carthaginians, under the conduct of Hannibal, maintained with the Roman people. For never did any states and nations more efficient in their resources engage in contest; nor had they themselves at any other period so great a degree of power and energy. They brought into action too no arts of war unknown to each other, but those which had been tried in the "first Punic war; and so various was the fortune of the conflict, and so doubtful the victory, that they who conquered were more exposed to danger. The hatred with which they fought also was almost greater than their resources".:21.1
In popular culture
- "G. A. Henty's 1887 historical novel The Young Carthaginian tells the story of "Hannibal and the Second Punic War from the perspective of the fictional character Malchus, a cousin of Hannibal.
- Hannibal's exploits, as well as Archimedes and the Siege of Syracuse, are dramatically reenacted in the classic early Italian silent film "Cabiria (1914).
- In the novel The Sword of Hannibal by Terry McCarthy you can read about Hannibal from the view of one of his soldiers.
- In the BBC TV Series On Hannibal's Trail (2009)
- "Equestrian order
- "Carthaginian peace
- "Scipio Africanus Major
- "War elephant
- "List of battles of the Second Punic War
- "Polybius wrote a detailed history, showing contemporary insight into the political process of this time.
- "Silius Italicus, who dramatised the war in his poem "Punica
- "Petrarch, who wrote an epic on the war entitled "Africa
- "Plutarch's Lives for lives of two of the Roman generals, "Fabius Maximus and "Gaius Flaminius. Plutarch's life of "Scipio Africanus is lost.
- Bagnell, p. vii.
- Phoenicians: Carthage & Hannibal at phoenician.org
- Sidwell, Keith C; Peter V. Jones (1997). The World of Rome: an introduction to Roman culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. "ISBN "0-521-38600-4.
- Mahaney, W.C., 2008, Hannibal's Odyssey: Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia. "Gorgias Press, Piscataway, N.J., 221 pp. "ISBN 978-1-59333-951-7.
- "Livy. "The History of Rome by Titus Livius: Books Nine to Twenty-Six, trans. D. Spillan and Cyrus Edmonds. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1868.
- "Polybius. "The Histories, 3.35.1
- Polybius, 3.35.4–5
- Lazenby 41
- Hoyos 139
- Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Fall of Carthage. p. 151. "ISBN "0-304-36642-0.
- "Liddell Hart, B. H., Strategy, New York City, New York, Penguin Group, 1967
- Goldsworthy (2000) 49, 52
- Polybius, 3.114
- Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (1891). Hannibal. Cambridge, Mass., Da Capo Press. p. 242. "ISBN 0-306-81362-9
- Polybius, 3.95
- Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (1891). Hannibal. Cambridge, Mass., Da Capo Press. p. 403. "ISBN 0-306-81362-9
- Healy, Mark, Cannae: Hannibal Smashes Rome's Army, Steerling Heights, Missouri, Osprey
- Hoyos 122f
- Hoyos 132
- Livy, XXVI.40. According to "F. W. Walbank, p. 84, note 2, "Livy accidentally omits Messenia and erroneously describes Pleuratus as king of Thrace."
- "Livy. The History of Rome by Titus Livius: Books Twenty-Seven to Thirty-Six, trans. Cyrus Edmonds. London: 1850.
- "Valerius Maximus vii. 2. §3.
- "Plutarch, Life of Cato
- Zlattner 1997
- Austin&Rankov 1995, p. 93
- "Bagnall, Nigel (1990). The Punic Wars. "ISBN "0-312-34214-4.
- "Goldsworthy, Adrian (2006). The Fall of Carthage. "ISBN "978-03043-6642-2.
- Lazenby, John Francis (1978). Hannibal's War. "ISBN "978-0-8061-3004-0.
- Lancel, Serge (1995). Hannibal (in French).
- "Polybius, Histories, "Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (translator); London, New York. Macmillan (1889); Reprint Bloomington (1962).
- Palmer, Robert E. A. (1997). Rome and Carthage at Peace. Stuttgart.
- Barceló, Pedro A. (1988). Karthago und die iberische Halbinsel vor den Barkiden: Studien zur karthagischen Präsenz im westlichen Mittelmeerraum von der Gründung von Ebusus bis zum Übergang Hamilkars nach Hispanien (in German). Bonn. "ISBN "3-7749-2354-X.
- Ameling, Walter (1993). Karthago: Studien zu Militär, Staat und Gesellschaft (in German). Munich. "ISBN "3-406-37490-5.
- Zlattner, Max (1997). Hannibals Geheimdienst im Zweiten Punischen Krieg (in German). Konstanz. "ISBN "3-87940-546-8.
- Mahaney, W.C, 2008. "Hannibal's Odyssey, Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia," "Gorgias Press, Piscataway, N.J, 221 pp.
- Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (1891). Hannibal. Reprinted by Da Capo Press, Cambridge, Mass. "ISBN 0-306-81362-9
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