See more Shadow play articles on AOD.

Powered by
TTSReader
Share this page on
Article provided by Wikipedia


( => ( => ( => Shadow play [pageid] => 1442169 ) =>
""
""
Chinese shadow theatre figures

Shadow play which is also known as shadow puppetry is an ancient form of "storytelling and "entertainment which uses flat articulated cut-out figures (shadow puppets) which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or "scrim. The cut-out shapes of the puppets sometimes include translucent color or other types of detailing. Various effects can be achieved by moving both the puppets and the light source. A talented "puppeteer can make the figures appear to walk, dance, fight, nod and laugh.

Shadow play is popular in various cultures, among both children and adults in many countries around the world. Currently there are more than 20 countries known to have shadow show troupes. Shadow play is an old tradition and it has a long history in Southeast Asia; especially in "Indonesia, "Malaysia, "Thailand and "Cambodia. It has been an ancient art and a living folk tradition in "China, "India and "Nepal. is also known in "Egypt, "Turkey, "Greece, "Germany, "France and the "United States.[1][2][3]

Contents

History[edit]

Shadow play probably developed from "par" shows with narrative scenes painted on a large cloth and the story further related through song. As the shows were mostly performed at night the par was illuminated with an oil lamp. Shadow puppet theatre likely originated in Central Asia-China or in India in the 1st millennium BCE.[4][1] By at least around 200 BCE the figures on cloth seem to have been replaced with puppetry in Indian "tholu bomalatta" shows. These are performed behind a thin screen with flat, jointed puppets made of colorfully painted transparent leather. The puppets are held close to the screen and lit from behind, while hands and arms are manipulated with attached canes and lower legs swinging freely from the knee. [5]

The evidence of shadow puppet theatre is found in both ancient Chinese and Indian texts. The most significant historical centers of shadow play theatre have been China, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[1][2][6] According to Martin Banham, there is little mention of indigenous theatrical activity in the Middle East between 3rd century CE and the 13th-century, including the centuries that followed the Islamic conquest of the region.[7] The shadow puppet play, states Banham, probably came into vogue in the Middle East after the Mongol invasions and thereafter it incorporated local innovations by the 16th-century. Little mention of shadow play is found in Islamic literature of Iran, but much is found in Turkish and 19th-century Ottoman Empire influenced territories.[7] While shadow play theatre is an Asian invention, hand puppets have a long history in Europe.[8] As European merchant ships sailed in the search of sea routes to India and China, they helped diffuse popular entertainment arts and cultural practices into Europe. Shadow theatre became popular in France, Italy, Britain and Germany by the 17th-century.[9][10] In France, shadow play was advertised as Ombres Chinoises, while elsewhere they were called "Magic Lantern".[9] "Goethe helped build a shadow play theatre in Tiefurt in 1781.[10][11]

Prelude to cinematography[edit]

According to Stephen Herbert, the popular shadow theatre evolved nonlinearly into projected slides and ultimately into "cinematography. The common principle in these innovations were the creative use of light, images and a projection screen.[12] According to Olive Cook, there are many parallels in the development of shadow play and modern cinema, such as their use of music, voice, attempts to introduce colors and mass popularity.[13]

India[edit]

""
""
"Hanuman and "Ravana in Tholu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of "Andhra Pradesh, India

Shadow puppets have been a part of ancient Indian culture, particularly regionally as the Keelu Bomme and "Tholu Bommalata of "Andhra Pradesh, the "Togalu Gombeyaata in "Karnataka, the Charma Bahuli Natya in "Maharashtra, the Ravanachhaya in "Odisha, the Tholpava Koothu in "Kerala and the Thol Bommalatta in "Tamil Nadu.[4][1][14] Shadow puppet play is also found in pictorial traditions in India, such as temple mural painting, loose-leaf folio paintings, and the narrative paintings.[15] Dance forms such as the "Chhau of "Odisha literally mean shadow.[16] The shadow theatre dance drama theatre are usually performed on platform stages attached to "Hindu temples, and in some regions these are called Koothu Madams or Koothambalams.[17] In many regions, the puppet drama play is performed by itinerant artist families on temporary stages during major temple festivals.[18] Legends from the Hindu epics Ramayana and the Mahabharata dominate their repertoire.[18] However, the details and the stories vary regionally.[19][20]

During the 19th-century and early parts of the 20th-century of the colonial era, Indologists believed that shadow puppet plays had become extinct in India, though mentioned in its ancient Sanskrit texts.[18] In the 1930s and thereafter, states Stuart Blackburn, these fears of its extinction were found to be false as evidence emerged that shadow puppetry had remained a vigorous rural tradition in central Kerala mountains, most of Karnataka, northern Andhra Pradesh, parts of Tamil Nadu, Odisha and southern Maharashtra.[18] The Marathi people, particularly of low caste, had preserved and vigorously performed the legends of Hindu epics as a folk tradition. The importance of Marathi artists is evidenced, states Blackburn, from the puppeteers speaking Marathi as their mother tongue, in many non-Marathi speaking states of India.[18]

According to Beth Osnes, the Tholu Bommalata shadow puppet theatre dates back to 3rd-century BCE, and has attracted patronage ever since.[21] The puppets used in a Tholu Bommalata performance, states Phyllis Dircks, are "translucent, lusciously multicolored leather figures four to five feet tall, and feature one or two articulated arms".[22] The process of making the puppets is an elaborate ritual, where the artist families in India pray, go into seclusion, produce the craved and incised art work, then celebrate the "metaphorical birth of a puppet" with flowers and incense.[23]

The Tholu Pava Koothu performance of Kerala uses leather puppets whose images are projected on backlit screen. The shadows are used to creatively express characters and stories in the "Ramayana. A complete performance of the epic can take forty one nights, while an abridged performance lasts as few as seven days.[24] One feature of the Tholu Pava Koothu show is that it is a team performance of puppeteers, while other shadow plays such as Wayang of Indonesia is performed by a single puppeteer for the same Ramayana story.[24] There are regional differences within India in the puppet arts. For example, women play a major role in shadow play theatre in most parts of India, except in Kerala and Maharashtra.[18] Almost everywhere, except Odisha, the puppets are made from tanned deer skin, painted and articulated. Translucent leather puppets are typical in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, while opaque are typical in Kerala and Odisha. The artist troupes typically carry over a hundred puppets for their performance in rural India.[18]

Indonesia[edit]

""
""
"Wayang kulit shadowplay performance in Yogyakarta.

Shadow puppet theatre is called "Wayang in Indonesia,[25] wherein a dramatic story is told through shadows thrown by puppets and sometimes combined with human characters.[26][27] The art form celebrates the Indonesian culture and artistic talent, its origins are traced to medieval era spread of Hinduism and the arrival of leather-based puppet arts called Tholu bommalata from southern India.[26][28][29] Around 860 CE an Old Javanese charter issued by Maharaja Sri Lokapala mentions three sorts of performers: atapukan, aringgit, and abanol. Ringgit is described in an 11th-century Javanese poem as a leather shadow figure.[5]

"Wayang kulit, a style of Wayang shadow play, is particularly popular in "Java and "Bali. The term derived from the word wayang literally means shadow or imagination in "Javanese, also connotes "spirit". The word kulit means skin, as the material from which the puppet is made is thin perforated leather sheets made from buffalo skin.

The performances of shadow puppet theater in Bali is typically at night, lasting until dawn.[26][27] The complete wayang kulit troupes include dalang (puppet master), nayaga ("gamelan players), and sinden (female choral singer). Some of the nayaga also performed as male choral singer. The dalang (puppet master) play/ed the wayang behind the cotton screen illuminated by oil lamp or modern halogen lamp, creating visual effects similar to animation. The flat puppet has moveable joints that are animated by hand, using rods connected to the puppet. The handle of the rod is made of carved buffalo horn. On November 7, 2003, "UNESCO designated wayang kulit from Indonesia as one of the "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[30]

Cambodia[edit]

""Sita, Nang Sbek, Cambodia - Museu do Oriente - Lisbon, Portugal - DSC06801.JPG
""LocationCambodia.svg
Cambodian shadow puppet depicting Sita

The shadow play is called Nang Sbek Thom,[31] or simply as Sbek Thom (literally "large leather hide"), Sbek Touch ("small leather hide") and Sbek Por ("colored leather hide") in "Cambodia.[32]

It is performed during sacred temple ceremonies, at private functions, and for the public in the villages. The popular plays include "Ramayana and "Mahabharata epics, also other Hindu myth and legends.[32] The performance is accompanied with "Pinpeat orchestra in Cambodia.[33]

The Sbek Thom is based on the Cambodian version of the Indian epic Ramayana, an epic story about good and evil involving "Rama, "Sita, "Lakshmana, "Hanuman and "Ravana.[34] It is a sacred performance, embodying Khmer beliefs built on the foundations and mythologies of "Brahmanism and "Buddhism.[34]

Cambodian shadow puppet are made of cow hide, and their size are usually quite large depicting a whole scene, the character including its background. Unlike its Javanese counterpart, Cambodian shadow puppets are usually not articulated which rendered the figure's hands unmovable, and also left uncolored which retains its original leather color. Main shadow puppet production center is "Roluos near Siem Reap. The Cambodian shadow puppet is one of the cultural performances being staged for tourist next to "Cambodian traditional dances.["citation needed]

The Sbek Thom figures are unlike puppets because they are large and heavy, with no moveable parts. The Sbek Touch, in contrast, are like puppets with movable parts, much smaller and their shows have been more popular.[34] The Sbek Thom shadow play involves many puppeteers dancing on the screen, each puppeteer playing one character of the Ramayana, while separate narrators recite the story accompanied with an orchestra.[33]

Thailand[edit]

""Nang Yai puppet.jpg
""Thailand in its region.svg
Thai shadow play puppet and puppeteer

Shadow theatre in "Thailand is called "Nang yai; in the south there is a tradition called "Nang Talung. Nang Yai puppets are normally made of "cowhide and "rattan. Performances are normally accompanied by a combination of "songs and "chants. Performances in Thailand were temporarily suspended in 1960 due to a fire at the national theatre. Nang drama has influenced modern "Thai cinema, including filmmakers like "Cherd Songsri and "Payut Ngaokrachang.[35]

Malaysia[edit]

""Rama, Kelanton, Malaysia - Museu do Oriente - Lisbon, Portugal - DSC06699.JPG
""LocationMalaysia.svg
"Rama in Malaysian shadow play

In "Malaysia, shadow puppet plays are also known as "wayang kulit. In both "Javanese and "Malay, Wayang means shadow or imagination, while Kulit means skin and refers to the leather that puppets are made from. Stories presented are usually "mythical and morality tales. There is an educational moral to the plays which usually portray a battle between Malay shadow plays are sometimes considered one of the earliest examples of "animation. The wayang kulit in northern states of Malaysia such as "Kelantan is influenced and similar to Thai shadow puppets, while the wayang kulit in southern Malay peninsula, especially in "Johor is brought from "Javanese "Indonesian wayang kulit with slightly different on the story and performance.

The puppets are made primarily of "leather and manipulated with sticks or "buffalo horn handles. Shadows are cast using an "oil lamp or, in modern times, a halogen light, onto a "cotton cloth background. They are often associated with "gamelan music.

Chinese[edit]

Mainland China[edit]

""
""
This Chinese shadow puppet is illustrative of the ornate detail that goes into the figures. In the collection of "The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.

There are several myths and legends about the origins of shadow puppetry in China. The most famous one has it that Chinese shadow puppetry originated when the favorite "concubine of "Emperor Wu of Han (156 BCE – 87 BCE) died and magician Shao-weng promised to raise her spirit. The emperor could see a shadow that looked like her move behind the curtains that the magician had placed around some lit torches. It is often told that the magician used a shadow puppet, but the original text in "Book of Han gives no reason to believe in a relation to shadow puppetry.[36] Although there are many earlier records of all kinds of puppetry in China, clear mention of Chinese shadow play does not occur until the "Northern Song dynasty (960–1127). A 1235 book mentions that the puppets were initially cut out of paper, but later made of colored leather or parchment. The stories were mostly based on history and half fact half fiction, but comedies were also performed.[37]

Shadow theatre became quite popular as early as the "Song Dynasty when holidays were marked by the presentation of many shadow plays. During the "Ming Dynasty there were 40 to 50 shadow show troupes in the city of "Beijing alone.["citation needed] The earliest shadow theatre screens were made of "mulberry paper. The storytellers generally used the art to tell events between various war kingdoms or stories of "Buddhist sources.[38] Today, puppets made of "leather and moved on sticks are used to tell dramatic versions of traditional fairy tales and myths. In "Gansu province, it is accompanied by "Daoqing music, while in "Jilin, accompanying "Huanglong music forms some of the basis of modern opera.[39]

Chinese shadow puppetry is shown in the 1994 "Zhang Yimou film "To Live.

Taiwan Ping[edit]

The origins of "Taiwan's shadow puppetry can be traced to the Chaochow school of shadow puppet theatre. Commonly known as leather monkey shows or leather shows, the shadow plays were popular in "Tainan, "Kaohsiung, and "Pingtung as early as the "Qing dynasty (1644-1911 A.D.). Older puppeteers estimate that there were at least a hundred shadow puppet troupes in southern Taiwan in the closing years of the Qing. Traditionally, the eight to 12-inch puppet figures, and the stage scenery and props such as furniture, natural scenery, pagodas, halls, and plants are all cut from leather. As shadow puppetry is based on light penetrating through a translucent sheet of cloth, the "shadows" are actually silhouettes seen by the audience in profile or face on. Taiwan's shadow plays are accompanied by Chaochow melodies which are often called "priest's melodies" owing to their similarity with the music used by Taoist priests at funerals. A large repertoire of some 300 scripts of the southern school of drama used in shadow puppetry and dating back to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries has been preserved in Taiwan and is considered to be a priceless cultural asset.

Terminology[edit]

A number of terms are used to describe the different forms.["citation needed]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

""
""
Shadow play Karagöz puppets from Turkey.

A more bawdy comedy tradition of shadow play was widespread throughout the "Ottoman Empire, possibly since the late 14th century. It was centered around the contrasting interaction between the figures "Karagöz and Hacivat: an unprincipled peasant and his fussy, educated companion. Together with other characters they represented all the major ethnic and social groups in Ottoman culture.[40][41] It was usually performed by a single puppet master, who voiced up to dozens of characters, and could be assisted by an apprentice handing him the puppets. The show could be introduced by a singer, accompanied by a tambourine player.[42] Its origins are obscure, though probably deriving from an Asian source.["citation needed]

Karagöz theatre puppets have jointed limbs and are made from camel or buffalo hide. The hide is made transparent and colored, resulting in colorful projections. Puppets are typically 35–40 centimeters in height.[42]

During the 19th century these characters were adapted to the Greek language and culture, Karagöz and Hacivat becoming "Karagiozis and "Hadjiavatis with each of the characters assuming stereotypically Greek personalities. This tradition thrived throughout "Greece after independence as popular entertainment for a largely adult audience, particularly before competition arose from television. The stories did, however, retain the period setting in the late years of the Ottoman Empire. Karagiozis theatre has undergone some revival in recent years, with the intended audience tending to be largely juvenile.["citation needed]

Karagöz theatre was also adapted in Egypt and North Africa.[43]

Europe[edit]

Via Italy the shadow theatre spread throughout Europe at the end of the 17th century. It is known that several Italian showmen performed in Germany, France and England during this period.[43] In 1675 German polymath and philosopher "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz imagined a kind of world exhibition that would show all kinds of new inventions and spectacles. In a handwritten document he supposed it should included shadow theatre.[44][45]

In 1775 Ambrogio (also known as Ambroise and Ambrose) staged ambitious shows in Paris and London. This and other shows were called Ombres chinoises ("French for "Chinese Shadows")" and reflected the "chinoiserie fashion of the days.[43]

French missionaries had taken the shadow show from China to "France in 1767 and put on performances in "Paris and "Marseilles, causing quite a stir.["citation needed] In time, the Ombres chinoises ("French for "Chinese Shadows") with local modification and embellishment, became the Ombres françaises and struck root in the country.["citation needed]

French showman "François Dominique Séraphin first presented his shadow spectacle in a "hôtel particulier in "Versailles in 1771. He would go on to perform at the "Palace of Versailles in front of royalty. In 1784 Séraphin moved to Paris, performing his shows at his permanent theatre in the newly opened "Palais-Royal from 8 September 1784. The performances would adapt to the political changes and survived the "French Revolution. Séraphin developed the use of "clockwork mechanisms to automate the show. His nephew took over the show after Séraphin's death in 1800 and it was continued by his heirs until the theatre closed in 1870.[43][46][47][48]

""
""
Stagehands moving zinc figures behind the screen of the Théatre d'Ombres in Le Chat Noir.

The art was a popular entertainment in Paris during the 19th century, especially in the famous Paris nightclub district of "Montmartre.["citation needed] The cabaret "Le Chat noir ("The Black Cat") produced 45[49] Théatre d'ombres shows between 1885 and 1896 under the management of "Rodolphe Salis. Behind a screen on the second floor of the establishment, the artist "Henri Rivière worked with up to 20 assistants in a large, "oxy-hydrogen back-lit performance area and used a double optical "lantern to project backgrounds. Figures were originally cardboard cut-outs, but were replaced with zinc figures since 1887. Various artists took part in the creation, including "Steinlen, "Adolphe Willette and "Albert Robida. "Caran d'Ache designed circa 50 cut-outs for the very popular 1888 show L'Epopée. "Musée d'Orsay has circa 40 original zinc figures in its collection. Other cabarets would produce their own versions and the Ombres evolved into numerous theatrical productions and had a major influence on "phantasmagoria.[43][50][51][52]

""French shadow puppets
""
Part of the collection of the Museo del PRECINEMA, Padua

In Italy, the "Museum of Precinema collezione Minici Zotti in "Padua houses a collection of 70 French shadow puppets, similar to those used in the cabaret Le Chat Noir, together with an original theatre and painted backdrops, as well as two magic lanterns for projecting scenes. So far, the shadow plays identified are La Marche a l'étoile (introduced by Henri Rivière), Le Sphinx (introduced by Amédée Vignola), L'Âge d'or and Le Carneval de Venise, and it is supposed that the shadow puppets were created for a tour in France or abroad at the end of the 19th century.["citation needed]

Nowadays, several theatre companies in France are developing the practice of shadow puppets: Le Théâtre des Ombres,[53] Le Théâtre du Petit Miroir, Le Théâtre Les Chaises, and La Loupiote.

Australia[edit]

"Richard Bradshaw is a famous Australian shadow puppeteer. His character Super Kangaroo is just one in his varied repertoire.[54] The skill of Bradshaw has been featured in television programs made by "Jim Henson.

The Shadow Theatre of Anaphoria (relocated to Australia from California) combines a mixture of reconstructed and original puppets with multiple sources of lights. The company is under the direction of "Kraig Grady.

Shadow puppetry today[edit]

""
""
Shadow "puppeteer, 2006

In the 1910s the "German animator "Lotte Reiniger pioneered "silhouette animation as a format, whereby shadow-play-like puppets are filmed "frame-by-frame. This technique has been kept alive by subsequent animators and is still practised today, though "cel animation and "computer animation has also been used to imitate the look of shadow play and silhouette animation. Traditional Chinese shadow puppetry was brought to audiences in the United States in the 1920s and 1930s through the efforts of Pauline Benton. Contemporary artists such as "Annie Katsura Rollins have perpetuated the medium, sometimes combining the form with Western theatre.[55]

Shadow theatre itself is still popular in many parts of Asia. "Prahlad Acharya is one famous "Indian magician who incorporates it into his performances.

In the 2010s, performer Tom McDonagh introduced "3-D shadow puppets and use of laser-cut objects.[56]

It also appears occasionally in "western "popular culture, for example in:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Orr, Inge C. (1974). "Puppet Theatre in Asia". Asian Folklore Studies. Nanzan University. 33 (1): 69–84. "doi:10.2307/1177504. 
  2. ^ a b Beth Osnes (2001). Acting: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 302. "ISBN "978-0-87436-795-9. 
  3. ^ Beth Osnes (2010). The Shadow Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study of Wayang Kulit with Performance Scripts and Puppet Designs. McFarland. pp. 61–63. "ISBN "978-0-7864-5792-2. 
  4. ^ a b Fan Pen Chen (2003), Shadow Theaters of the World, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 62, No. 1 (2003), pp. 25-64
  5. ^ a b Rawlings, Keith (1999,2003,2011). "Observations on the historical development of puppetry".  Check date values in: |date= ("help)
  6. ^ Martin Banham (1996). The Cambridge Paperback Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. pp. 434, 526–531, 906, 1114–1115. "ISBN "978-0-521-44654-9. 
  7. ^ a b Martin Banham (1996). The Cambridge Paperback Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. pp. 241–242. "ISBN "978-0-521-44654-9. 
  8. ^ Martin Banham (1996). The Cambridge Paperback Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. pp. 887–888. "ISBN "978-0-521-44654-9. 
  9. ^ a b Annette Kuhn; Guy Westwell (2012). A Dictionary of Film Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 371. "ISBN "0-19-958726-4. 
  10. ^ a b Max von Boehn (2013). A Photographic Guide to the History of the Shadow Puppet Theatre in the West. Read. pp. 352–355. "ISBN "978-1-4474-8098-3. 
  11. ^ Evelyn K. Moore; Patricia Anne Simpson (2007). The Enlightened Eye: Goethe and Visual Culture. Rodopi. pp. 255–256. "ISBN "90-420-2124-1. 
  12. ^ Stephen Herbert (2000). A History of Pre-cinema. Taylor & Francis. pp. iv–ix, Introduction chapter. "ISBN "978-0-415-21148-2. 
  13. ^ Olive Cook (1963), Movement in Two Dimensions, Hutchinson, pages 47-58
  14. ^ "Puppet Forms of India". Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT), Ministry of Culture, Government of India. 
  15. ^ Lopes, Rui Oliveira. (2016) "A new light on the shadows of heavenly bodies. Indian shadow puppets: from still paintings to motion pictures". Religion and the Arts, vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 160-196. DOI: 10.1163/15685292-02001008
  16. ^ Claus, Peter J.; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 108–110. "ISBN "0-415-93919-4. 
  17. ^ Beth Osnes (2001). Acting: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 152, 179–180. "ISBN "978-0-87436-795-9. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Stuart Blackburn (2003). Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond and Margaret Ann Mills, ed. South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Taylor & Francis. pp. 543–544. "ISBN "978-0-415-93919-5. 
  19. ^ Arjun Appadurai; Frank J. Korom; Margaret Ann Mills (1991). Gender, Genre, and Power in South Asian Expressive Traditions. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 379–391. "ISBN "0-8122-1337-8. 
  20. ^ Stuart Blackburn (1998), Looking Across the Contextual Divide: Studying Performance in South India, South Asia Research, Volume 18, Issue 1, pages 1-11, Quote: "If performance is the cultural organisation of behaviour, it is interesting that these cultural forms vary so widely from area to area. To return to south India, tales are told and songs sung throughout the region, but the same is not true for long narrative singing (epic and the like), or for dance, or for drama; even masks, so widespread in Kerala and other parts of south India, are not significant in Tamil culture."
  21. ^ Beth Osnes (2001). Acting: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 335. "ISBN "978-0-87436-795-9. 
  22. ^ Phyllis T. Dircks (2004). American Puppetry: Collections, History and Performance. McFarland. p. 110. "ISBN "978-0-7864-1896-1. 
  23. ^ John Bell (1999). Puppets, Masks, and Performing Objects. MIT Press. pp. 146–147. "ISBN "978-0-262-52293-9. 
  24. ^ a b Beth Osnes (2001). Acting: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 335–336. "ISBN "978-0-87436-795-9. 
  25. ^ James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 44–56, 143–145, 352–353. "ISBN "978-0-674-02874-6. 
  26. ^ a b c Wayang: Indonesian Theatre, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2012)
  27. ^ a b Don Rubin; Chua Soo Pong; Ravi Chaturvedi; et al. (2001). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Asia/Pacific. Taylor & Francis. pp. 184–186. "ISBN "978-0-415-26087-9. 
  28. ^ Miyao, J. (1977). "P. L. Amin Sweeney and Akira Goto (ed.) An International Seminar on the Shadow Plays of Asia". Southeast Asia: History and Culture. Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (7): 142–146. "doi:10.5512/sea.1977.142. 
  29. ^ Yves Bonnefoy (1993). Asian Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. p. 162. "ISBN "978-0-226-06456-7. 
  30. ^ ""Wayang puppet theatre", Inscribed in 2008 (3.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (originally proclaimed in 2003)". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  31. ^ Martin Banham (1995). The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. "ISBN "978-0-521-43437-9. 
  32. ^ a b Pech Tum Kravel (1995). Sbek Thom: Khmer Shadow Theater. SEAP Publications. pp. iii–iv, 2–8. "ISBN "978-0-87727-620-3. 
  33. ^ a b Martin Banham (1995). The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. "ISBN "978-0-521-43437-9. 
  34. ^ a b c Pech Tum Kravel (1995). Sbek Thom: Khmer Shadow Theater. SEAP Publications. pp. 3–5. "ISBN "978-0-87727-620-3. 
  35. ^ Nang Yai from "Mahidol University.
  36. ^ Fan Pen Li Chen (2007). Chinese Shadow Theatre: History, Popular Religion, and Women Warriors. 
  37. ^ Dolby, William (1978). The Origins of Chinese Puppetry. p. 112-113. 
  38. ^ Ewart, Franzeska G. [1998] (1998). Let the Shadows speak: developing children's language through shadow puppetry. "ISBN "1-85856-099-3
  39. ^ Chinavista. "Chinavista.com." The Shadow show. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  40. ^ Emin Şenyer: Karagoz Traditional Turkish Shadow Theatre
  41. ^ Schneider, Irene (2001). "Ebussuud". In Michael Stolleis (ed.). Juristen: ein biographisches Lexikon; von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert (in German) (2nd ed.). München: Beck. p. 193. "ISBN "3-406-45957-9. 
  42. ^ a b Ersin Alok, "Karagöz-Hacivat: The Turkish Shadow Play", Skylife - Şubat ("Turkish Airlines inflight magazine), February 1996, p. 66–69.
  43. ^ a b c d e David Robinson in Light and Movement", Chapter 1, 1995
  44. ^ Rossell, Deac (2002). Leibniz and the Lantern. 
  45. ^ Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1675). Drôle de Pensée, touchant une nouvelle sorte de représentations. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  46. ^ Altick, Richard Daniel (January 1978). The Shows of London. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. "ISBN "978-0674807310. 
  47. ^ "Full text of "Les pupazzi noirs"". Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  48. ^ Stafford, Barbara; Terpak, Frances (1 February 2002). Devices of Wonder: From the World in a Box to Images on a Screen. Getty Research Institute, U.S. p. 77. "ISBN "978-0892365906. 
  49. ^ "Musée d'Orsay: Le Cabaret du Chat Noir (1881-1897)". 
  50. ^ The Spirit of Montmartre: Cabarets, Humour and the Avant-Garde, 1875-1905. edited by Phillip Dennis Cate and Mary Shaw (1996) , excerpted on line as Henri Riviere: Le Chat noir and 'Shadow Theatre', "Australian Centre for the Moving Image
  51. ^ "Musée d'Orsay - Works in focus: Infantry mounting an assault". 
  52. ^ "montmartre-secret.com - Montmartre: Le cabaret du Chat Noir (2) rue Victor Massé". 
  53. ^ "Theatre des Ombres : une compagnie spécialisée dans le théâtre d'ombreset les ombres chinoises, la réalisation de spectacles d'ombres, lesreprésentations de spectacles d'ombre chinoise, atelier et spectacle de théâtre d'ombre, stage de theatre d'ombres, shadow puppets, shadows show, shadowtheater". 
  54. ^ Logan, D, Puppetry, p.13
  55. ^ Hayter-Menzies, Grant (2013). Shadow Woman: The Extraordinary Career of Pauline Benton. McGill-Queen's Press. pp. 158–159. "ISBN "978-0-7735-8909-4. 
  56. ^ "Dark Art". Science Friday. 
  57. ^ "Disney's "What A Life!" with the Seki Family and Shadow Puppets". YouTube. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

) )