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of Kunisada by Kunichika, 1864
Shini-e (死絵, "Memorial prints"), also called "death pictures" or "death portraits", are "Japanese "woodblock prints, particularly those done in the "ukiyo-e style popular through the "Edo period (1603–1867) and into the beginnings of the 20th century
When a "kabuki actor died, memorial portraits shini-e were conventionally published with his farewell poem and posthumous name.
Memorial portraits were created by ukiyo-e artists to honor a colleague or former teacher who had died.
- Keyes, Roger S. and Keiko Mizushima. (1973). The Theatrical World of Osaka Prints: a Collection of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Japanese woodblock Prints in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. OCLC 186356770
- Newland, Amy Reigle. (2005). The Hotei Encyclopedia of Japanese Woodblock Prints. Amsterdam : Hotei. "ISBN "9789074822657; OCLC 61666175