Shishak, Shishaq or Susac ("Hebrew: שישק, "Tiberian: "[ʃiʃaq], "Ancient Greek: Σουσακίμ, "translit. Sousakim) was, according to the "Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian "pharaoh who sacked "Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is usually identified with the pharaoh "Shoshenq I.
According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to "Jeroboam during the later years of "Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the "Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of "Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BCE), Shishak swept through the "Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally "Jeroboam, the king of "Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the "Lubim (Libyans), the "Sukkiim, and the "Kushites (""Ethiopians" in the "Septuagint). Shishak took away treasures of the "Temple of "Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made; Rehoboam replaced them with "brass ones.
According to "Second Chronicles,
When Shishak king of Egypt attacked Jerusalem, he carried off the treasures of the temple of the Lord and the treasures of the royal palace. He took everything, including the gold shields "Solomon had made." 2 Chronicles 12:9
"Flavius Josephus in "Antiquities of the Jews adds to this a contingent of 400,000 infantrymen. According to Josephus, his army met with no resistance throughout the campaign, taking Rehoboam's most fortified cities "without fighting." Finally, he conquered Jerusalem without resistance, because "Rehoboam was afraid." Shishak did not destroy Jerusalem, but forced King Rehoboam of Judah to strip the Temple and his treasury of their gold and movable treasures.
Texts written in various ancient languages seem to indicate that the first vowel was both "long and "round, and the final vowel was short. For example, the name is written in the "Hebrew Bible as שישק [ʃiːʃaq]. The variant readings in "Hebrew, which are due to confusion between the letters < י > Yod and < ו > Vav that are particularly common in the "Masoretic Text, indicate that the first vowel was long in pronunciation. The "Septuagint uses Σουσακιμ [susakim], derived from the "marginal reading שושק [ʃuːʃaq] of "Hebrew. This indicates during the 2nd century BC Hebrew-speakers or Alexandrian Greek-speakers pronounced the name with an initial long "close back rounded vowel [u]["citation needed].
In the very early years after the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs, on chronological, historical, and linguistic grounds, nearly all Egyptologists identified Shishak with "Shoshenq I of the 22nd dynasty, who invaded Canaan following the "Battle of Bitter Lakes. This position was maintained by most scholars ever since, and is still the majority position. The fact that Shoshenq I left behind "explicit records of a campaign into Canaan (scenes; a long list of Canaanite place-names from the Negev to "Galilee; stelae), including a stela [found] at "Megiddo" supports the traditional interpretation.. There are however some notable exceptions, such as Jerusalem itself which is not mentioned in any of his campaign records.["citation needed]
The "Bubastite Portal, a relief discovered at "Karnak, in "Upper Egypt, and similar reliefs on the walls of a small temple of "Amun at "el-Hibeh, shows Pharaoh "Shoshenq I holding in his hand a bound group of prisoners. The names of captured towns are located primarily in the territory of the "kingdom of Israel (including "Megiddo), with a few listed in the "Negeb, and perhaps "Philistia. Some of these include a few of the towns that Rehoboam had fortified according to Chronicles
The portal is generally believed to record a historical campaign of Sheshonq I in Judah, but it makes no mention of Jerusalem being sacked, nor of "Rehoboam or "Jeroboam. Various explanations of this omission of Jerusalem have been proposed: its name may have been erased, the list may have been copied from an older pharaoh's list of conquests, or Rehoboam's ransoming the city (as described in the Second Book of Chronicles) would have saved it from being listed.
It has been claimed that the numbers of Egyptian soldiers given in Chronicles can be "safely ignored as impossible" on "Egyptological grounds; similarly, the numbers of chariots reported in 2 Chronicles is likely exaggerated by a factor ten, leading 60,000 horses through the "Sinai and "Negev would have been logistically impossible, and no evidence of Egyptian cavalry exists from before the "27th Dynasty. The treasures taken by Shishak are also highly unlikely. Firstly, no "United Monarchy of Israel and Judah occurs in Shoshenq's list of conquered enemies; second, the "material culture of 10th century Jerusalem and surroundings was too primitive to allow for any treasure that an Egyptian pharaoh would have been interested in. "Israel Finkelstein concludes that the looting narrative "should probably be seen as a "theological construct rather than as historical references".:175
Other identifications of Shishak have been put forward by chronological revisionists, arguing that Shoshenq's account does not match the Biblical account very closely, but these are considered "fringe theories. In his book "Ages in Chaos, "Immanuel Velikovsky identified him with "Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty. More recently, "David Rohl's "New Chronology identified him with "Ramesses II of the 19th dynasty, and "Peter James has identified him with "Ramesses III of the 20th dynasty.
Shishak is mentioned in "Steven Spielberg's action-adventure film "Raiders of the Lost Ark as the pharaoh who seized the "Ark of the Covenant from the "Temple of Solomon during his raids on "Jerusalem and hid it in the "Well of Souls in "Tanis.