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World's largest pair of shoes, Riverbank Center, Philippines—5.29 metres (17.4 ft) long and 2.37 metres (7.75 ft) wide, equivalent to a French shoe size of 753

A shoe size is an indication of the fitting size of a "shoe for a person.

There are a number of different shoe-size systems used worldwide. While all of them use a number to indicate the length of the shoe, they differ in exactly what they measure, what unit of measurement they use, and where the size 0 (or 1) is positioned. Some systems also indicate the shoe width, sometimes also as a number, but in many cases by one of more letters. Additionally, some regions use different shoe-size systems for different types of shoes (e.g., men's, women's, children's, sport, or safety shoes).

Contents

Deriving the shoe size[edit]

Foot versus shoe and last[edit]

The length of a "foot is commonly defined as the distance between two "parallel lines that are "perpendicular to the foot and in contact with the most prominent toe and the most prominent part of the heel. Foot length of the foot is measured with the subject standing barefoot and the weight of the body equally distributed on both feet.

The sizes of the left and right feet are often slightly different. In this case, both feet are measured, and purchasers of mass-produced shoes are advised to purchase a shoe size based upon the larger foot because, contrary to the reality of foot sizes, most manufacturers do not sell pairs of shoes in non-matching sizes. Each size of shoe is considered suitable for a small interval of foot lengths. The inner cavity of a shoe must typically be 15–20 mm longer than the foot, but this relation varies between different types of shoes.

A shoe-size system can refer to three characteristic lengths:

All these measures differ substantially from one another for the same shoe.

Length[edit]

Sizing systems also differ in what units of measurement they use. This also results in different increments between shoe sizes because usually, only "full" or "half" sizes are made.

The following length units are commonly used today to define shoe-size systems:

Zero point[edit]

The sizing systems also place size 0 (or 1) at different locations:

Width[edit]

Some systems also include the width of a foot, but do so in a variety of ways:

The width for which these sizes are suitable can vary significantly between manufacturers. The A–E width indicators used by most American, Canadian, and some British shoe manufacturers are typically based on the width of the foot, and common step sizes are 316 inch.

Common sizing systems[edit]

Mondopoint[edit]

The International Standard is ISO 9407:1991, "Shoe sizes—Mondopoint system of sizing and marking",[2] which recommends a shoe-size system known as Mondopoint.

It is based on the mean foot length and width for which the shoe is suitable, measured in millimetres. A shoe size of 280/110 indicates a mean foot length of 280 millimetres (11 in) and width of 110 millimetres (4.3 in).

Because Mondopoint also takes the foot width into account, it allows for better fitting than most other systems. It is, therefore, used by "NATO and other military services. Mondopoint is also used for ski boots.

United Kingdom and Ireland[edit]

Shoe size in the "United Kingdom and "Ireland is based on the length of the "last used to make the shoes, measured in "barleycorn (13 inch) starting from the smallest size deemed practical, which is called size zero. It is not formally standardised. Note that the last is typically longer than the foot heel to toe length by about 1/2 to ⅔ inch (13 to 17 mm).

A child's size zero is equivalent to 4 inches (a "hand = 12 barleycorns = 10.16 cm), and the sizes go up to size 13 12 (8 12 in, 25 12 barleycorns or 21.59 cm). Thus, the calculation for a children’s shoe size in the UK is:

equivalent to

An adult size one is then the next size up (8 23 in or 22.01 cm) and each size up continues the progression in barleycorns.[3] The calculation for an adult shoe size in the UK is thus:

equivalent to

Note: some manufacturers choose to use a constant other than 25, so sizes do vary in either direction e.g. A shoe marked as a European size 40 may also be marked as a UK: 6 by Jimmy Choo, Nike; a 6 12 by Adidas, Clarks, Dr Martens, Fred Perry, "Karrimor, Monsoon, New Balance, "Reebok, and "Slazenger; a 7 by Converse, Gap, Pavers, and Timberland; and a 7 12 by Crocs. Some retailers mark a larger size on women's European compatible which can cause confusion with the UK unisex sizes. A size 8 should be a European 42 in both male and female shoes, but this is often marked as a 9 for women.

Australia/New Zealand[edit]

For men and children's footwear the UK system is followed. Women's footwear has a slightly different sizing that is unique. It is in between the UK and US's sizings.["citation needed]

United States and Canada[edit]

In North America, there are different systems that are used concurrently. The size indications are usually similar but not exactly equivalent especially with athletic shoes at extreme sizes.

Customary[edit]

The traditional system is similar to English sizes but start counting at one rather than zero, so equivalent sizes are one greater. So the calculation for a male shoe size in the USA or Canada is:

Women's sizes are almost always determined with the "common" scale, in which women's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus 1.5 (for example, a men's 10.5 is a women's 12). In other words:

In the less popular scale, known as the "standard" or "FIA" (Footwear Industries of America) scale, women's sizes are men's sizes plus 1 (so a men's 10.5 is a women's 11.5).

Children's[edit]

Children's sizes are equal to men's sizes plus 12 13. Children’s sizes do not differ by gender even though adults’ do.

Children's shoe stores in the United States and Canada use a sizing scheme which ends at 13, after which the adult range starts at 1:

U.S. shoe sizes
Size Last length
Children's Women's Men's Inches Millimetres
(appr.)
Common FIA
5 559 141
6 589 150
7 629 158
8 659 167
9 689 175
10 729 183
11 759 192
1 756 199
12 789 200
1 8 203
2 816 207
13 829 209
2 1 813 212
3 812 216
3 2 823 220
4 856 224
4 3 9 229
5 916 233
5 4 913 237
6 912 241
6 5 923 246
7 956 250
7 6 10 254
8 7 1013 262

Alternatively, a scale running from K4 to K13 and then 1 to 7 is in use.[4] K4 to K9 are "toddler sizes, K10 to 3 are "pre-school and 1 to 7 are "grade school sizes.

Brannock Device[edit]

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Drawing of a "Brannock Device (from "U.S. Patent 1,725,334)

A slightly different sizing method is based on the "Brannock Device, a measuring instrument invented by "Charles F. Brannock in 1925 and now found in many shoe stores. The formula used by the Brannock device assumes a foot length ⅔ inch (1.7 cm) less than the length of the last; thus, men's size 1 is equivalent to a foot's length of 7 ⅔ inches.[5] Women's sizes are one size up.

[6]
[6]

The method also measures the length of the distance of the heel and the widest point of the foot. For that purpose, the device has another, shorter scale at the side of the foot. If this scale indicates a larger size, it is taken in place of the foot's length.[7]

For children's sizes, additional wiggle room is added to allow for growth.[7]

The device also measures the width of the foot and assigns it designations of AAA, AA, A, B, C, D, E, EE, or EEE. The widths are 3/16 in apart and differ by shoe length.[5]

Foot Scanner[edit]

Some shoe stores use optical devices to precisely measure the length and width of both feet and recommend the appropriate shoe model and size. [1]

Europe[edit]

The Continental European system is used in "France, "Germany,[8] "Italy, "Spain,[9] and most other continental European countries. It is also used in Middle Eastern countries (like "Iran), "Brazil—which uses the same method but subtracts 2 from the final result—["citation needed] and, commonly, "Hong Kong.

In this system, the shoe size is the length of the "last, expressed in "Paris points, for both sexes and for adults and children alike. Because a Paris point is ⅔ of a centimetre, the formula is as follows:

To compute the size based on actual foot length, one must first add a length of about 1.5 to 2 cm. For instance, for a shoe having an internal length 1.5 cm longer than the foot:

Asia[edit]

The Asian system is based on metric measurements and standardised as "JIS S 5037:1998, CNS 4800, S 1093, or KS M 6681. Foot length and girth are taken into account.[10]

The foot length is indicated in centimetres; an increment of 5 mm is used. This system was also used in the "GDR.

The length is followed by designators for girth (A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE, F, G), which is taken from a table indexed to girth and length. There are different tables for men's, women's, and children's (less than 12 years of age) shoes. The tables also include the width as supplemental indications. Not all designators are used for all genders and in all countries. For example, the largest girth for women in China is EEEE, whereas in Japan, it is F.

Mexico[edit]

Shoes are sized either according to the foot length they are intended to fit, in cm, or alternatively to another variation of the barleycorn system, with sizes calculated approximately as:

USSR (Russia/CIS)[edit]

Historically the USSR used the European (Paris point) system but an alternate metric system (State Standard 3927–64) was devised, with shoe sizes increasing in ½ rather than the ⅔ cm intervals found in the European scheme. This system has been refined by later standards:

Where used this system is sometimes described as a Pointe (ballet shoe) or Stych size:

Pointe/Stych Shoe Sizes
Foot Length (mm) 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 315
Children's 17 18 19 19½ 20 21 22 22½ 23 24 25 25½ 26 27 28 28½ 29 30 31 31½ 32 33 34 34½ 35 36 37 37½ 38 39 40
Women's 34 35 36 37 37½ 38 38½ 39 40 41 41½ 42 42½
Men's 38½ 39 40 41 41½ 42 42½ 43 44 45 46 47 47½

Difficulties in shoe size comparison[edit]

Please note that the following tables indicate theoretical sizes calculated from the standards and information given above. Differences between various shoe size tables, makers' tables or other tables found on the Web are usually due to the following factors:

Further, some tables available on the Web simply contain errors. For example, the wiggle room or different zero point is not taken into account, or tables based on different U.S. systems (traditional and athletic) are simply combined although they are incompatible.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andersson, Bendt. "Recommendations to suppliers and manufacturers of orthopedic footwear concerning sizes of shoes and lasts" (PDF) (in Swedish). Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  2. ^ International Standard ISO 9407:1991, Shoe sizes—Mondopoint system of sizing and marking
  3. ^ Cairns, Warwick. About the Size of It. Macmillan. "ISBN "978-0-230-01628-6. 
  4. ^ ASICS Oceania Pty Lyd., Asics Shoe Sizes, stating "Shoe sizes on product details pages are in US shoe size"; accessed 16 January 2017
  5. ^ a b Brannock Device Co. "History". Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  6. ^ a b Brannock Device Co. "Size Conversion Chart". Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  7. ^ a b c Brannock Device Co. "Instructions". Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  8. ^ German Standard "DIN 66074:1975, Shoe sizes
  9. ^ Spanish Standard "UNE 59850:1998, Shoes: Size designation
  10. ^ (Japanese) Rakuten.co.jp

External links[edit]

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