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A silicide is a compound that has "silicon with (usually) more "electropositive elements.

Silicon is more "electropositive than "carbon. Silicides are structurally closer to "borides than to "carbides.

Similar to borides and carbides, the composition of silicides cannot be easily specified as covalent molecules. The chemical bonds in silicides range from "conductive metal-like structures to "covalent or "ionic. Silicides of all non-transition metals, with exception of "beryllium, have been described.

"Mercury, "thallium, "bismuth, and "lead are "immiscible with liquid silicon.

Silicon atoms in silicides can have many possible organizations:

A silicide prepared by a self-aligned process is called a "salicide. This is a process in which silicide contacts are formed only in those areas in which deposited metal (which after annealing becomes a metal component of the silicide) is in direct contact with silicon, hence, the process is self-aligned. It is commonly implemented in MOS/"CMOS processes for ohmic contacts of the source, drain, and poly-Si gate..

Group 1 and 2 silicides e.g. Na2Si and Ca2Si react with water, yielding hydrogen and/or silanes. At "Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2012 a safe and eco-friendly 1kW or 3kW mobile phone charger with sodium silicide that runs on water has introduced for 'people who spend time away from the electricity grid'. Any type of water can be used, including salt water and it can even run on puddle water providing it isn't thickened with mud or any other sediment.[1]

The "transition metal silicides are, in contrast, usually inert to aqueous solutions of everything with exception of "hydrofluoric acid; however, they react with more aggressive agents, e.g. melted "potassium hydroxide, or "fluorine and "chlorine when red-hot.

When magnesium silicide is placed into "hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), the gas "silane, SiH4, is produced. This gas is the silicon analogue of "methane, CH4, but is more reactive. Silane is "pyrophoric, that is, due to the presence of "oxygen, it spontaneously combusts in air:

Mg2Si(s) + 4HCl(aq) → SiH4(g) + 2MgCl2(s)
SiH4 + 2O2 → SiO2 + 2H2O

These reactions are typical of a "Group 2 silicide. Mg2Si reacts similarly with "sulfuric acid. "Group 1 silicides are even more reactive. For example, sodium silicide, Na2Si, reacts rapidly with water to yield "sodium silicate, Na2SiO3, and "hydrogen gas.



See "category for a list.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

"Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). "Butterworth-Heinemann. "ISBN "0-08-037941-9. 

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