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The sit-in movement, or student sit-in movement, was a wave of "sit-ins that followed the "Greensboro sit-ins on February 1, 1960 in North Carolina. The sit-in movement employed the tactic of "nonviolent "direct action and was a pivotal event during the "Civil Rights Movement.

The youth of the United States powered the sit-in movement across the country. Many students across the country followed by example, as sit-ins provided a powerful tool for students to use to attract attention. The students of Baltimore made use of this in 1960 where many used the efforts to desegregate department store restaurants, which proved to be successful lasting about three weeks. This was one small role Baltimore played in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. The city facilitated social movements across the country as it saw bus and taxi companies hiring African-Americans in 1951-1952.

Morgan State College students saw the success of the sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina, and wanted to utilize this tactic in the department store restaurants. There were massive amounts of support from the community for the students’ efforts, but more importantly, white involvement and support grew in favor of desegregation of department store restaurants.[1]

Contents

List of sit-ins[edit]

Precursors to sit-in movement[edit]

Start date Sit-in Location Ref. Note
August 21, 1939 Alexandria Library sit-in "Alexandria, Virginia [2][3] [note 1]
1943 "Chicago, Illinois [4] [note 2]
1953 Baltimore sit-ins "Baltimore, Maryland
January 20, 1955 Baltimore sit-ins "Baltimore, Maryland [5][6] [note 3]
June 23, 1957 "Royal Ice Cream sit-in "Durham, North Carolina [7] [note 4]
July 19, 1958 "Dockum Drug Store sit-in "Wichita, Kansas [8]
August 19, 1958 "Oklahoma City sit-ins "Oklahoma City, Oklahoma [9][8] [note 5]
1959 Miami sit-ins "Miami, Florida

Beginning with Greensboro sit-ins[edit]

""
""
Student sit-in at Woolworth in "Durham, North Carolina on February 10, 1960.
Start date Sit-in University or College students State Ref. Note
February 1, 1960 "Greensboro sit-ins "North Carolina A&T State University "North Carolina [10][11]
February 8, 1960 Durham sit-ins "North Carolina College [11]
Fayetteville sit-ins "Fayetteville State Teachers College [11]
Winston-Salem sit-ins "Winston-Salem Teachers College [11]
February 9, 1960 Charlotte sit-ins "Johnson C. Smith University [11]
Concord sit-ins "Barber–Scotia College [11]
Elizabeth City sit-ins "Elizabeth City State Teachers College [11]
Henderson sit-ins [11]
High Point sit-ins [11]
February 10, 1960 Raleigh sit-ins "Saint Augustine's College [11]
"Shaw University
February 11, 1960 Hampton sit-ins "Hampton University "Virginia [11]
Portsmouth sit-ins [11]
February 12, 1960 Rock Hill sit-ins "Clinton Junior College "South Carolina [11]
Norfolk sit-ins "Virginia [11][12][13]
February 13, 1960 "Nashville sit-ins "Fisk University "Tennessee [11] [note 6]
Tallahassee sit-ins "Florida A&M University "Florida [11][14]
"Florida State University
February 14, 1960 Sumter sit-ins "Morris College "South Carolina [11]
February 16, 1960 Salisbury sit-ins "Livingstone College "North Carolina [11]
February 17, 1960 Chapel Hill sit-ins [11]
February 18, 1960 Charleston sit-ins "South Carolina [11]
Shelby sit-ins "North Carolina [11]
February 19, 1960 Chattanooga sit-ins "Tennessee [11][15]
February 20, 1960 Richmond sit-ins "Virginia Union University "Virginia [11][16] [note 7]
February 22, 1960 Baltimore sit-ins "Coppin State Teachers College "Maryland [11]
Frankfort sit-ins "State Normal School for Colored Persons "Kentucky [11]
February 25, 1960 Montgomery sit-ins "Alabama State College "Alabama [11] [note 8]
Orangeburg sit-ins "Claflin College "South Carolina [11]
February 26, 1960 Lexington sit-ins "Kentucky [11]
Petersburg sit-ins "Virginia State College "Virginia [11]
Tuskegee sit-ins "Tuskegee Institute "Alabama [11]
February 27, 1960 Tampa sit-ins "Florida [11]
March 2, 1960 Columbia sit-ins "Allen University "South Carolina [11]
"Benedict College
Daytona Beach sit-ins "Bethune–Cookman College "Florida [11]
St. Petersburg sit-ins [11]
March 4, 1960 Houston sit-ins "Texas Southern University "Texas [11][17] [note 9]
Miami sit-ins "Florida Memorial College "Florida [11]
March 7, 1960 Knoxville sit-ins "Knoxville College "Tennessee [11][21][22]
March 8, 1960 New Orleans sit-ins "Dillard University "Louisiana [11]
"Southern University
March 10, 1960 Little Rock sit-ins "Arkansas Baptist College "Arkansas [11]
March 11, 1960 Austin sit-ins "Huston–Tillotson College "Texas [11]
Galveston sit-ins [11]
March 12, 1960 Jacksonville sit-ins "Edward Waters College "Florida [11]
March 13, 1960 San Antonio sit-ins "Texas [11]
March 15, 1960 Atlanta sit-ins "Clark College "Georgia [11][23] [note 10]
"Morehouse College
"Morris Brown College
"Spelman College
Corpus Christi sit-ins "Texas [11]
St. Augustine sit-ins "Florida [11]
Statesville sit-ins "North Carolina [11]
March 16, 1960 Savannah sit-ins "Savannah State College "Georgia [11]
March 17, 1960 New Bern sit-ins "North Carolina [11]
March 19, 1960 Memphis sit-ins "Owen Junior College "Tennessee [11]
Wilmington sit-ins "North Carolina [11]
Arlington sit-ins "Virginia [11]
March 26, 1960 Lynchburg sit-ins "Virginia [11]
March 28, 1960 Baton Rouge sit-ins "Southern University "Louisiana [11] [note 11]
New Orleans sit-ins "Xavier University [11]
March 29, 1960 Marshall sit-ins "Wiley College "Texas [11][24]
March 31, 1960 Birmingham sit-ins Wenonah State Technical Institute "Alabama [11]
"Miles College
April 2, 1960 Danville sit-ins "Virginia [11]
April 4, 1960 Darlington sit-ins "South Carolina [11]
April 9, 1960 Augusta sit-ins "Paine College "Georgia [11]
April 12, 1960 Norfolk sit-ins "Virginia State College (Norfolk Division) "Virginia [11]
April 17, 1960 Biloxi sit-ins "Mississippi [11]
April 23, 1960 Starkville sit-ins [11]
April 24, 1960 Charleston sit-ins Burke High School "South Carolina [11][25] [note 12]
April 28, 1960 Dallas sit-ins "Paul Quinn College "Texas [11]
June 17, 1960 Baltimore sit-ins "Maryland [11][26] [note 13]

Related post-1960 sit-ins[edit]

Date Sit-in Location Ref. Note
January 31, 1961 Rock Hill sit-ins "South Carolina [note 14]
1962 "Sewanee, Tennessee [note 15]
May 28, 1963 Woolworth's sit-in "Jackson, Mississippi [29][30] [note 16]
March 7, 1964 Audubon Regional Library sit-in "Clinton, Louisiana [31] [note 17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Five men participated in the sit-in organized by "Samuel Wilbert Tucker.
  2. ^ Led by "Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
  3. ^ The sit-in was conducted at "Read's Drug Store.
  4. ^ Participants include "Douglas E. Moore.
  5. ^ Participants include "Clara Luper.
  6. ^ Participants during the February 20, 17 include "Patricia Stephens.
  7. ^ 34 students would participate and be arrested. They became known as the "Richmond 34.
  8. ^ The sit-in targeted a state capitol cafeteria and was led by "Bernard Lee accompanied by three dozen students.
  9. ^ Participants include Texas Southern University student and leader Holly Hogrobrooks. Also see Ku Klux Klan victim "Felton Turner.[18][19][20]
  10. ^ Participants include Morehouse College student "Charles Person.
  11. ^ Sit-in led to "Garner v. Louisiana (1961) case.
  12. ^ Led by James Blake and occurred at the Kress store on King Street.
  13. ^ Sit-in led to "Bell v. Maryland (1964) case that involved "Robert M. Bell.[27]
  14. ^ Students from "Friendship Junior College protested. A group of nine students known as the "Friendship Nine would use the "jail no bail" tactic later duplicated by other protestors. The sit-in is regarded as the first to use the tactic, but Christopher W. Schmidt challenges this assertion. "Patricia Stephens Due is sometimes credited as the first to use the tactic.[28]
  15. ^ Participants include "Bruce W. Klunder.
  16. ^ Participants include "Pearlena Lewis and "Anne Moody.
  17. ^ Sit-in led to "Brown v. Louisiana (1966) case.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Baltimore Sit-Ins". Nonviolent Datebase. 
  2. ^ Mitchell-Powell, Brenda (2017). "The 1939 Alexandria, Virginia, Public Library Sit-in Demonstration". In Kimball, Melanie A.; Wisser, Katherine M. Libraries - Traditions and Innovations: Papers from the Library History Seminar XIII. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 70–99. "ISBN "9783110448566. 
  3. ^ Smith, J. Douglas (2003). Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 259–270. "ISBN "9780807862261. 
  4. ^ Shah, Aarushi H. (November 2012). "All of Africa Will Be Free Before We Can Get a Lousy Cup of Coffee: The Impact of the 1943 Lunch Counter Sit-Ins on the Civil Rights Movement". The History Teacher. 46 (1): 127–147. 
  5. ^ Gunts, Edward (February 8, 2011). "Read's Drugstore Flap Brings Baltimore Civil Rights History to Life". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  6. ^ "Why the West Side Matters: Read's Drug Store and Baltimore's Civil Rights Heritage". Baltimore Heritage. January 7, 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  7. ^ Greene, Christina (2006). Our Separate Ways: Women and the Black Freedom Movement in Durham, North Carolina. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 65–69. "ISBN "9780807876374. 
  8. ^ a b Walters, Ronald (Spring 1996). "The Great Plains Sit In Movement, 1958-60". Great Plains Quarterly. 16: 85–94. 
  9. ^ Graves, Carl R. (Summer 1981). "The Right to Be Served: Oklahoma City's Lunch Counter Sit-ins, 1958-1964". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 59 (2): 152–155. 
  10. ^ Chafe, William Henry (1981). "The Sit-Ins Begin". Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–101. "ISBN "9780195029192. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn "The Sit-in Movement". International Civil Rights Center & Museum. Retrieved 20 March 2016. 
  12. ^ "Hampton Roads Heritage Project". Norfolk Public Library. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  13. ^ Littlejohn, Jeffrey (2009). ""Sit Down Children, Sit Down": The Sit-In Movement in Norfolk, Virginia". In Alexander, William H.; Newby-Alexander, Cassandra L.; Ford, Charles H. Voices from within the Veil: African Americans and the Experience of Democracy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 330–344. "ISBN "9781443811767. 
  14. ^ White, Robert Melvin (1964). The Tallahassee Sit-ins and CORE, a Nonviolent Revolutionary Submovement (Ph.D.). Florida State University. "OCLC 7563086. 
  15. ^ Harris, Jessie (2011). Unfamiliar Streets: The Chattanooga Sit-ins, the Local Press, and the Concern for Civilities (M.A. thesis). Virginia Commonwealth University. "OCLC 727069042. 
  16. ^ Wallenstein, Peter (2013). "To Sit or Not to Sit: Scenes in Richmond from the Civil Rights Movement". Blue Laws and Black Codes: Conflict, Courts, and Change in Twentieth-Century Virginia. University of Virginia Press. pp. 114–141. "ISBN "9780813924878. 
  17. ^ Jensen, F. Kenneth (1992). "The Houston Sit-In Movement of 1960-61". In Beeth, Howard; Wintz, Cary D. Black Dixie: Afro-Texan History and Culture in Houston. Texas A&M University Press. "ISBN "9780890964941. 
  18. ^ Causey, Causey (February 3, 2016). "Houston Civil Rights Pioneer Holly Hogrobrooks Dies at 75". Chron.com. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  19. ^ "Houston Student Movement". Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  20. ^ Berman, David; Cole, Thomas R. (1998). The Strange Demise of Jim Crow: How Houston Desegregated Its Public Accommodations, 1959-1963 (Video recording). California Newsreel. "OCLC 44721721. 
  21. ^ Fleming, Cynthia Griggs (Spring 1990). "White Lunch Counters and Black Consciousness: The Story of the Knoxville Sit-ins". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 49 (1): 40–52. 
  22. ^ Zagumny, Lisa L. (Winter 2001). "Sit-Ins in Knoxville, Tennessee: A Case Study of Political Rhetoric". The Journal of Negro History. 86 (1): 45–54. "doi:10.2307/1350178. "JSTOR 1350178. 
  23. ^ Garrow, David J. (1989). Atlanta Georgia, 1960-1961: Sit Ins and Student Activism. Carlson Publishing. "ISBN "9780926019058. 
  24. ^ Seals, Donald Jr. (January 2003). "The Wiley-Bishop Student Movement: A Case Study in the 1960 Civil Rights Sit-Ins". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 106 (3): 418–440. 
  25. ^ Baker, R. Scott (2006). Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926-1972. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 142–143. "ISBN "9781570036323. 
  26. ^ "Recalling a 1960 Baltimore Sit-in". Politico. Associated Press. October 27, 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2016. 
  27. ^ Reynolds, William L. (2002). "Foreword: The Legal History of the Great Sit-in Case of Bell v. Maryland". Maryland Law Review. 61 (4): 761–794. 
  28. ^ Schmidt, Christopher W. (February 2015). "Divided by Law: The Sit-ins and the Role of the Courts in the Civil Rights Movement". Law and History Review. 33 (1): 93–149. "doi:10.1017/S0738248014000509. 
  29. ^ Pettus, Emily Wagster (February 10, 2015). "Anne Moody, Sat Stoically at Violent Woolworth's Sit-in, Dies at 74". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 December 2016. 
  30. ^ O'Brien, M. J. (2013). We Shall Not Be Moved: The Jackson Woolworth's Sit-In and the Movement It Inspired. University Press of Mississippi. "ISBN "9781617037443. 
  31. ^ Battles, David M. (2008). The History of Public Library Access for African Americans in the South: Or, Leaving Behind the Plow. Scarecrow Press. pp. 137–138. "ISBN "9781461672937. 

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External links[edit]

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