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|slovenčina, slovenský jazyk|
|Native to||"Slovakia, the "Czech Republic, "Poland, "Hungary, bordering regions of western "Ukraine|
|5.2 million (2011–2012)|
|"Latin ("Slovak alphabet)
Official language in
" "Serbia, ("Vojvodina)
|"Regulated by||"Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic|
The Slovak-speaking world:
regions where Slovak is the language of the majority
regions where Slovak is the language of a significant minority
Slovak ("/, - / ("" listen)) is an "Indo-European language that belongs to the "West Slavic languages (together with "Czech, "Polish, "Silesian, "Kashubian and "Sorbian). It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced "[ˈsloʋenskiː ˈjazik] ("" listen)) or slovenčina ("[ˈsloʋent͡ʃina]) in the language itself.
Slovak is the official language of "Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the "United States, the "Czech Republic, "Argentina, "Serbia, "Ireland, "Romania, "Poland, "Canada, "Hungary, "Croatia, the "United Kingdom, "Australia, "Austria, "Ukraine and many other countries worldwide.
Slovak uses the "Latin script with small modifications that include the four "diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-č; d-ď; dz-dž; e-é; i-í; l-ľ,ĺ; n-ň; o-ó,ô; r-ŕ; s-š; t-ť; u-ú; y-ý; z-ž)
The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the "phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced almost, but usually the same way.
Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice – singular versus pekní = nice – plural).
In addition, the following rules are present:
Most "foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" – softvér, "gay" – gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita. Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").
Slovak features some "heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne /ˈkraːsne/ (beautiful) versus krásne /ˈkraːsɲe/ (beautifully).
The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:
Some examples include the following:
Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong "inflection enables the identification of "grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey "topic and emphasis.
Some examples are as follows:
The "unmarked order is "subject–verb–object. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten veľký muž cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible:
And the following is stylistically not correct:
Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: tá, neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where "definiteness must be made explicit.
Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.
The numerals between 0–10 have unique forms, and numerals between 1-4 do have even specific gendered representations as well (gender rules are bit more complex for these words). 11–19 are formed by the numeral plus násť. For the tens, sať is used up to 40 and desiat from 50. Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsaťjeden, literally "twenty one").
The numerals are as follows:
|1||jeden (number, masculine), jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine)||11||jedenásť||10||desať|
|2||dva (number, masculine), dve (neuter, feminine), dvaja (special masculine)||12||dvanásť||20||dvadsať|
|3||tri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), traja (special masculine)||13||trinásť||30||tridsať|
|4||štyri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), štyria (special masculine)||14||štrnásť||40||štyridsať|
Some higher numbers: (200) dvesto,... (300) tristo,... (900) deväťsto,... (1,000) tisíc,... (1,100) tisícsto,... (2,000) dvetisíc,... (100,000) stotisíc,... (200,000) dvestotisíc,... (1,000,000) milión,... (1,000,000,000) miliarda,...
Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. päť domov = five houses or stodva žien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2-4, etc., is usually the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ženy = two women) but gender rules do apply in many cases.
Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several "conjugation paradigms exist as follows:
|volať, to call||Singular||Plural||Past participle (masculine – feminine – neuter)|
|1st person||volám||voláme||volal – volala – volalo|
|bývať, to live||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||bývam||bývame||býval – bývala – bývalo|
|vracať, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomit||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vraciam||vraciame||vracal – vracala – vracalo|
|robiť, to do, work||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||robím||robíme||robil – robila – robilo|
|vrátiť, to return||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vrátim||vrátime||vrátil – vrátila – vrátilo|
|vidieť, to see||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||vidím||vidíme||videl – videla – videlo|
|kupovať, to buy||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||kupujem||kupujeme||kupoval – kupovala – kupovalo|
|zabudnúť, to forget||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||zabudnem||zabudneme||zabudol – zabudla – zabudlo|
|minúť, to spend, miss||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||miniem||minieme||minul – minula – minulo|
|niesť, to carry||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||nesiem||nesieme||niesol – niesla – nieslo|
|stučnieť, to carry (be fat)||Singular||Plural||Past participle|
|1st person||stučniem||stučnieme||stučnel – stučnela – stučnelo|
|byť, to be||jesť, to eat||vedieť, to know|
|Past participle||bol, bola, bolo||jedol, jedla, jedlo||vedel, vedela, vedelo|
Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e / -y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Examples include the following:
The comparative/superlative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)ší or -(ej)šie. Examples include the following:
Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must appear in the case required by the preposition in the given context (e.g. from friends = od priateľov). Priateľov is the genitive case of priatelia. It must appear in this case because the preposition od (= from) always calls for its objects to be in the genitive.
Po has a different meaning depending on the case of its governed noun.
The Slovak language is a descendant of "Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of "Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other "West Slavic languages, primarily to "Czech and "Polish. Czech also influenced the language in its later development. To lesser degrees, moreover, Slovak has been influenced by "German, "Latin, "Hungarian, and recently "English.
Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are "mutually intelligible (see "Comparison of Slovak and Czech), "eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and more so closer to Polish and mutual contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.
Since the "dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and—like any other language of the world—during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language"; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e. the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.
Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of "Czechoslovakia in 1918, a state which existed until 1993. "Literary Slovak shares significant "orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary "differences do exist.
Slavic language varieties tend to be closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.
"Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with "Polish of all the Slovak dialects followed by "Rusyn, but both lack technical terminology and upper "register expressions. Polish and "Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken "Rusyn, "Ukrainian, and even "Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the "Cyrillic script.
|to buy||kupovať||kupovat||куповати (kupovaty)||купувати (kupuvaty)||купляць (kupliać)||kupować||kupovati / куповати||купува (kupuva)||kupovati|
|Welcome||Vitajte||Vítejte||Вітайте (vitajte)||Вітаю (vitaju)||Вітаю (vitaju)||Witajcie||Dobro došli / Добро дошли||добре дошли (dobre došli)||Dobrodošli|
|morning||ráno||ráno/jitro||рано (rano)||рано/ранок (rano/ranok)||рана/ранак (rana/ranak)||rano/ranek||jutro / јутро||утро (utro)||jutro|
|Thank you||Ďakujem||Děkuji||Дякую (diakuju)||Дякую (diakuju)||Дзякуй (dziakuj)||Dziękuję||Hvala / Хвала||благодаря (blagodarja)||Hvala|
|How are you?||Ako sa máš?||Jak se máš?||Як ся маєш/маш?
(jak śa maješ/maš?)
|Як справи? (jak spravy?)||Як справы? (jak spravy?)||Jak się masz? (colloquially "jak leci?")||Kako si? / Како си?||Как си? (Kak si?)||Kako se imaš?/Kako si?|
|Як ся маєш?
(jak śa maješ?)
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Servus is commonly used as a greeting or upon parting in Slovak-speaking regions and some German-speaking regions, particularly Austria. Papa is also commonly used upon parting in these regions. Both servus and papa are used in colloquial, informal conversation.
Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the "Carpathian area. Until the 19th century, Hungarian was used as the literary language in the Slovak areas. Hungarians also adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of "Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:
"Romanian words entered the Slovak language in the course of the so-called "Wallachian colonization" in the 14th–16th century when sheep breeding became common in Slovak mountains. Many of today's Slovak rustic-pastoral words like bača ("shepherd"; Romanian baci), valach ("young shepherd"; cf. the dated exonym for Romanians, ""Valach"), magura ("hill"; Romanian măgura), koliba ("chalet"; Romanian coliba), "bryndza (a variety of sheep cheese; Romanian brânză), striga ("witch", "demon"; Romanian ""strigă/strigoi"), etc. were introduced into the Slovak language by Romanian shepherds during the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Times. The Romanian influence is most strongly felt in the dialects of the "Moravian Wallachia region.
There are many Slovak dialects, which are divided into the following four basic groups:
The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. Štolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).
For an external map of the three groups in Slovakia see here.
The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the western Slovakia to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia and the other way around.
The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia (USA, Canada, Croatian "Slavonia, and elsewhere), and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).
The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. Štolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and "areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, and Romanian).
|Slovak edition of "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Slovak.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slovak language.|