Despite its size and lack of natural resources, "Singapore has overcome many of its challenges in 50 short years to become one of the world's most advanced and liveable countries. It has embarked on its next phase of transformation towards a Smart Nation, and endeavours to harness the power of networks, data and info-comm technologies to improve living, create economic opportunities and build closer communities.
"Stockholm's smart city technology is underpinned by the Stokab dark fibre system which was developed in 1994 to provide a universal fibre optic network across Stockholm. Private companies are able to lease fibre as service providers on equal terms. The company is owned by the City of Stockholm itself. Within this framework, Stockholm has created a Green IT strategy. The Green IT program seeks to reduce the environmental impact of Stockholm through IT functions such as energy efficient buildings (minimising heating costs), traffic monitoring (minimising the time spent on the road) and development of e-services (minimising paper usage). The e-Stockholm platform is centred on the provision of e-services, including political announcements, parking space booking and snow clearance. This is further being developed through GPS analytics, allowing residents to plan their route through the city. An example of district-specific smart city technology can be found in the Kista Science City region. This region is based on the triple helix concept of smart cities, where university, industry and government work together to develop ICT applications for implementation in a smart city strategy.
The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:
- A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban development.
- A smart city, as a scientifically planned city, would defy the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard. In that line of criticism, the smart city is seen as unattractive for citizens as they "can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace". Instead, people would prefer cities they can participate to shape.
- The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked infrastructures needed for a city to be smart.
- As a "globalized "business model is based on "capital mobility, following a business-oriented model may result in a losing long term strategy: "The 'spatial fix' inevitably means that mobile capital can often 'write its own deals' to come to town, only to move on when it receives a better deal elsewhere. This is no less true for the smart city than it was for the industrial, [or] manufacturing city."
- The high level of "big data collection and analytics has raised questions regarding "surveillance in smart cities, particularly as it relates to "predictive policing.
- "Automated vacuum collection
- "Collaborative innovation network
- "Collaborative intelligence
- "Collaborative software
- "Connected car
- "Conscious city
- "Digital divide
- "Future Internet
- "Hotspot (Wi-Fi)
- "Intelligent environment
- "Intelligent transportation system
- "Knowledge ecosystem
- "Knowledge Economy
- "Knowledge spillover
- "Metropolitan area network
- "Municipal wireless network
- "Open Data
- "Pervasive informatics
- "SafeTrek § Downtown St. Louis collaboration
- "Smart grid
- "Smart road
- "Smarter planet
- "Sustainable city
- "The Wisdom of Crowds
- "Ubiquitous computing
- "Urban computing
- "Urban informatics
- "2000-watt society
- "All pages with titles containing smart city
- Sam Musa. "Smart City Roadmap".
- "Building a Smart City, Equitable City - NYC Forward".
- Komninos, Nicos (2013-08-22). "What makes cities intelligent?". In Deakin, Mark. Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. Taylor and Francis. p. 77. "ISBN "978-1135124144.
- Dept Business(2013) Page 7 "As consumers of private goods and services we have been empowered by the Web and, as citizens, we expect the same quality from our public services. In turn, public authorities are seeking to reduce costs and raise performance by adopting similar approaches in the delivery of public services. However, the concept of a Smart City goes way beyond the transactional relationships between citizen and service provider. It is essentially enabling and encouraging the citizen to become a more active and participative member of the community"
- "MDPI Sciforum - The platform for open scholarly exchange". sciforum.net. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
- Dept Business(2013) Page 5 "Challenges Faced by Cities and the Need for Smarter Approaches"
- Komninos(2009) Pages 337–355
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- European Commission. "Digital Agenda for Europe". Retrieved 2015-05-30.
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- "Definitions and overviews". Smart Cities Council.
The smart city sector is still in the "I know it when I see it" phase, without a universally agreed definition. The Council defines a smart city as one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions
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- Gooch, Daniel; Wolff, Annika; Kortuem, Gerd; Brown, Rebecca (2015-01-01). "Reimagining the Role of Citizens in Smart City Projects". Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers. UbiComp '15. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 1587–1594. "doi:10.1145/2800835.2801622. "ISBN "978-1-4503-3575-1.
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|url=value ("help). Missing or empty
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- BCN Smart City. "New bus network". Retrieved 2015-05-30.
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- "Sentilo BCN:Platform Sensors and Actuators Barcelona". Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "We can't allow the tech giants to rule smart cities".
- "Buenas Prácticas de la Ciudad de Madrid" (PDF).
- "Madrid, Spain Launches IBM Smarter Cities Project".
- "From Barcelona to Madrid, Spain's smart cities inspire change".
- "MADRID DIGITAL START UP - CLEARCHANNEL 2015".
- , Manchester wins £10m prize to become world leader in 'smart city' technology.
- , Manchester announced as UK's Internet of Things (IoT) City Demonstrator and awarded £10m investment.
- , Platform of Platforms.
- Kwon Hyung LEE (2011). "Building a New Smart City in Asia: Songdo International City in Incheon, S. Korea" (PDF). Incheon Development Institute. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
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- Graham, S.; Marvin, S. (1996). Telecommunications and the city: electronic spaces, urban place. London: Routledge. "ISBN "9780203430453.
- Hollands, R. G (2008). "Will the real smart city please stand up?". City. 12 (3): 303–320. "doi:10.1080/13604810802479126.
- Komninos N. (2008). Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks. Routledge. "ISBN "9780415455923.
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- Cavada M.;et al. (2016) Do smart cities realise their potential for lower carbon dioxide emissions? = http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/abs/10.1680/jensu.15.00032
- National initiatives
- UK Budget 2015 funding for smart cities development
- British Standards Institute initiative on Smart Cities
- Future of Cities UK Government 'Foresight' Project on cities
- Future Cities Catapult A UK government funded 'global centre of excellence on urban innovation'.
- "About i-Canada Alliance". Aiming to make 'all Canadian communities – large and small, urban and rural – into Intelligent Communities