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Further information: "Songdo International Business District

[93][94]

Santa Cruz[edit]

An alternative use of smart city technology can be found in "Santa Cruz, California, where local authorities analyse historical crime data in order to "predict police requirements and maximise police presence where it is required.[95] The analytical tools generate a list of 10 places each day where "property crimes are more likely to occur, and then placing police efforts on these regions when officers are not responding to any emergency. This use of ICT technology is different to the manner in which European cities utilise smart city technology, possibly highlighting the breadth of the smart city concept in different parts of the world.

Smart cities in India[edit]

Smart Cities Mission

It's a retrofitting and urban renewal program being spearheaded by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. The Government of India has the ambitious vision of developing 100 cities by modernizing existing mid-sized cities.[96]

Smart Nation Singapore[edit]

Smart Nation

Despite its size and lack of natural resources, "Singapore has overcome many of its challenges in 50 short years to become one of the world's most advanced and liveable countries. It has embarked on its next phase of transformation towards a Smart Nation, and endeavours to harness the power of networks, data and info-comm technologies to improve living, create economic opportunities and build closer communities.

Stockholm[edit]

""
""
The "Kista Science City from above.

"Stockholm's smart city technology is underpinned by the Stokab dark fibre system[97] which was developed in 1994 to provide a universal fibre optic network across Stockholm.[98] Private companies are able to lease fibre as service providers on equal terms. The company is owned by the City of Stockholm itself.[16] Within this framework, Stockholm has created a Green IT strategy.[99] The Green IT program seeks to reduce the environmental impact of Stockholm through IT functions such as energy efficient buildings (minimising heating costs), traffic monitoring (minimising the time spent on the road) and development of e-services (minimising paper usage). The e-Stockholm platform is centred on the provision of e-services, including political announcements, parking space booking and snow clearance.[100] This is further being developed through GPS analytics, allowing residents to plan their route through the city.[100] An example of district-specific smart city technology can be found in the Kista Science City region.[101] This region is based on the triple helix concept of smart cities,[28] where university, industry and government work together to develop ICT applications for implementation in a smart city strategy.

Criticism[edit]

Surveillance issues in smart cities

The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:[28]

  • A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban development.[102]
  • A smart city, as a scientifically planned city, would defy the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard. In that line of criticism, the smart city is seen as unattractive for citizens as they "can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace".[103] Instead, people would prefer cities they can participate to shape.
  • The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked infrastructures needed for a city to be smart.[104]
  • As a "globalized "business model is based on "capital mobility, following a business-oriented model may result in a losing long term strategy: "The 'spatial fix' inevitably means that mobile capital can often 'write its own deals' to come to town, only to move on when it receives a better deal elsewhere. This is no less true for the smart city than it was for the industrial, [or] manufacturing city."[28]
  • The high level of "big data collection and analytics has raised questions regarding "surveillance in smart cities, particularly as it relates to "predictive policing.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ Dept Business(2013) Page 7 "As consumers of private goods and services we have been empowered by the Web and, as citizens, we expect the same quality from our public services. In turn, public authorities are seeking to reduce costs and raise performance by adopting similar approaches in the delivery of public services. However, the concept of a Smart City goes way beyond the transactional relationships between citizen and service provider. It is essentially enabling and encouraging the citizen to become a more active and participative member of the community"
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Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

National initiatives
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