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Sochi (in English)
Сочи (Russian)
-  "City[1]  -
""Сочи-коллаж1.jpg
Views of Sochi, Top: Sochi Winter (Zimny) Theater, 2nd left: A monument of Mikhael archangel in Kurorthy Prospekt, 2nd right: Sochi Rail Station, 3rd left: Svobodny Perevlok Cinema, 3rd right: Cathedral of the Sochi Archangel Mikhael, Bottom: Sochi Port
""Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
""Sochi is located in Krasnodar Krai
Sochi
Sochi
Location of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai
"Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028"Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028
""Coat of Arms of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
""Flag of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
"Administrative status (as of May 2013)
Country "Russia
"Federal subject "Krasnodar Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to "City of Sochi[1]
"Administrative center of City of Sochi[1]
"Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrug Sochi Urban Okrug[2]
"Administrative center of Sochi Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[3] "Anatoly Pakhomov[3]
Representative body City Assembly["citation needed]
Statistics
"Area (city) (January 2008) 176.77 km2 (68.25 sq mi)[4]
Population ("2010 Census) 343,334 inhabitants[5]
- "Rank in 2010 52nd
"Density 1,942/km2 (5,030/sq mi)[6]
"Time zone "MSK ("UTC+03:00)[7]
Founded 1838[8][9]
"Previous names Dakhovsky (until 1896)[8]
"Postal code(s)[10] 354000, 354002–354004, 354008–354010, 354013, 354014, 354018, 354019, 354022, 354024, 354025, 354030, 354031, 354033, 354036, 354037, 354039, 354053–354055, 354057, 354059, 354061, 354065–354068, 354071, 354073, 354084, 354099, 354200, 354202–354214, 354216–354218, 354220, 354226, 354231, 354233, 354299, 354340, 354346, 354348, 354349, 354354, 354355, 354364, 354380, 354382, 354383, 354399, 993501
"Dialing code(s) +7 862["citation needed]
Official website
Sochi on "Wikimedia Commons

Sochi ("Russian: Со́чи; IPA: "[ˈsotɕɪ]) is a "city in "Krasnodar Krai, "Russia, located on the "Black Sea coast near the border between "Georgia/"Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers (1,361 sq mi)[4] and sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi)[11] along the shores of the Black Sea near the "Caucasus Mountains.["citation needed] The area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi).[4] According to the "2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334,[5] up from 328,809 recorded in the "2002 Census,[12] making it Russia's largest "resort city. Being part of the "Caucasian Riviera, it is one of the very few places in Russia with a "subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.

With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of "Roza Khutor in "Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi hosted the "XXII Olympic Winter Games and "XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020.[13][14] It will also be one of the host cities for the "2018 FIFA World Cup.

Contents

Geography[edit]

Greater Sochi is elongated along the Black Sea coast for 145 kilometers (90 mi). Sochi is in the north of "Western Asia, falling on the southern (Asian) side of the "Greater Caucasus.[15][16] Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from "Moscow.[17]

The city of Sochi borders with "Tuapsinsky District in the northwest, with "Apsheronsky District and with "Maykopsky District of the "Republic of Adygea in the north, with "Mostovsky District in the northwest, and with "Georgia/"Abkhazia in the southeast. From the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea.

""Map of Black Sea showing location of Sochi on the east coast
Map of Black Sea showing location of Sochi
""Sochi seen from the Black Sea
Sochi seen from the Black Sea
""Black sea common dolphins with a kite-surfer off beach

The vast majority of the population of Sochi lives in a narrow strip along the coast and is organized in independent microdistricts (formerly settlements). The biggest of these microdistricts, from the northwest to the southeast, are "Lazarevskoye, "Loo, "Dagomys, central Sochi ("Tsentralny City District), "Khosta, "Matsesta, and "Adler. The whole city is located on the slopes of the "Western Caucasus which descend to the Black Sea and are cut by the rivers. The biggest rivers in Sochi are the "Mzymta, which is in fact the longest Black Sea tributary in Russia, and the "Shakhe. Other rivers include the Ashe, the Psezuapse, the "Sochi, the Khosta, and the "Matsesta. The "Psou River makes the border with Abkhazia.

The northeastern part of the city belongs to the "Caucasian Biosphere Reserve which is a "World Heritage Site spanning vast areas in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea. Almost the whole area of the Greater Sochi, with the exception of the coast and of the area which belong to the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve, are included into "Sochi National Park.

Sochi has a "humid subtropical climate[18][19] with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.

History[edit]

Before the whole area was conquered by "Cimmerian, "Scythian and "Sarmatian invaders, the "Zygii people lived in "Lesser Abkhazia under the "Kingdom of Pontus, then the "Roman Empire's influence in "antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, the area successively belonged to the kingdom of "Lazica and kingdom of "Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading "Göktürks, "Khazars, "Mongols and other "nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century "Byzantine "basilica still stands in the "Loo Microdistrict.[20]

From the 14th to the 19th centuries, the region was dominated by the "Abkhaz, "Ubykh and "Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as "Ubykhia was part of historical "Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the "Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. The coastline was ceded to "Russia in 1829 as a result of a "Caucasian War and "Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the "Circassians did not admit the Russian control over "Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the "Circassian coast ("Adyghe: Адыгэ хы аушу).[9][21] Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the "Russian Empire and the "British Empire that occurred in 1836 over the "mission of the Vixen.[22]

The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route from "Gelendzhik to "Gagra, and across the mountains to "Kabarda, in the 1830s.["citation needed] In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the "Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. At the outbreak of the "Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on "Cape Adler soon after.

The last battle of the "Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 "O.S., where the Ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern "Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 "O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of "Emperor "Alexander II read aloud by "Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.[9]

After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the "Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the "Circassian Genocide or expelled to the "Ottoman Empire (see "Circassian Genocide). Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Germans, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.[9][21]

In 1874–1891, the first "Russian Orthodox church, "St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky "Posad on April 13, 1874 ("O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. In 1896, the Dakhovsky "Posad was renamed Sochi "Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed "Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 ("O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.[9]

During the "Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw "sporadic armed clashes involving the "Red Army, "White movement forces, and the "Democratic Republic of Georgia. As a result of the war Sochi has become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a "railway which runs from "Tuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the "Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.[9]

Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under "Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite "dacha built in the city. Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public.[23] During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing "Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. The centerpiece of this early period is "Shchusev's "Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–1931). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.[9]

Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the "Crimean Peninsula ("transferred from the "Russian SFSR to the "Ukrainian SSR in 1954 by "Nikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial "summer capital of the country.[24] In 1961, Soviet officials decided to expand the city limits by forming a Greater Sochi which extended for 140 kilometers from the southern parts of "Tuapse to "Adler. In July 2005, Russia submitted a successful bid for hosting the "2014 Winter Olympics in the city, spending around $51 billion in the process.[25] Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many "treaties, especially those between the "Georgian, separatist "Abkhazian, and separatist "South Ossetian governing authorities.["citation needed]

Administrative and municipal status and city divisions[edit]

""
""
Sochi Urban Okrug on the map of Krasnodar Krai

Within the "framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one "urban-type settlement ("Krasnaya Polyana) and seventy-nine "rural localities, incorporated as the "City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the "districts.[1] As a "municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.[2]

Sochi is administratively subdivided into four city districts: "Tsentralny City District, "Lazarevsky City District, "Khostinsky City District, and "Adlersky City District. Tsentralny City District, comprising the central portion of, is by far the smallest out of four in terms of the area, and the other three have comparable areas, with Lazarevsky City District being the biggest. In terms of the population, Tsentralny City District is approximately twice as big as each of the other three city districts.

City District Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
"Tsentralny 32 137,677
"Lazarevsky 1,744 63,894
"Khostinsky 374 65,229
"Adlersky 1,352 76,534

Tsentralny City District[edit]

""
""
The "Sochi Symphony Orchestra conducted by "Oleg Soldatov during a concert with the Austrian guitarist "Johanna Beisteiner at Organ and Chamber Music Hall in Sochi (13 December 2013)

"Tsentralny City District, or central Sochi, covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the "2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.[5] The highlights include:

Lazarevsky City District[edit]

""
""
The Summer Theater

"Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894 people.[5] It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising several "microdistricts:

Khostinsky City District[edit]

"Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census.[5] The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars").

Adlersky City District[edit]

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""
A "trout farm in Adler

"Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census,[5] is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient "Sadz village and a medieval "Genoese trading post.

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages ("auls), the "Estonian colony at "Estosadok, and the ski resort of "Krasnaya Polyana which hosted the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the "2014 Winter Olympics.

Also located here are the largest "trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for "great apes.

Demographics[edit]

Sochi has an ethnic "Russian majority (~70%).

The city is home to a sizable "Armenian minority (~20%), which is especially notable in the "Adlersky City District where they compose more than half of the total population.[26] Most of Sochi's Armenian community are descendants of "Hamshen Armenians from Turkey's northeastern "Black Sea coast who came in the late 19th century and on.[27] The rest are "Armenians from Georgia (particularly from "Abkhazia and "Samtskhe-Javakheti) and Armenia (especially from "Shirak Province due to the "1988 earthquake).[28]

Year Total population Urban Russians Armenians Ukrainians Georgians
1887 98 N/A
1891 460 N/A
1897[29] 1,352 N/A 37.9% 6.0% 19.9% 17.1%
1904 8,163 N/A
1916 13,254 N/A
1926 13,000 N/A
1939 72,597 49,813
1959 127,000 81,912
1970 245,300 203,100
1979 292,300 245,600
1989[30] 385,851 339,814
1992 369,900 322,400 68.7% 14.2% 5.9% 1.5%
1994 378,300 N/A
1997 388,200 N/A
2002[12][31] 397,103 332,778 67.5% 20.2% 3.7% 2.3%
2006 395,012 329,481
2007 402,043 331,059
2008 406,800 334,282
2009 410,987 337,947
2010[5] 420,589 347,932 69.92% 20.09% 2.29% 2.03%
Source, unless otherwise marked:[8][32][33][34]

Education[edit]

Sochi is home to the following high educational institutions (masters level degree and PhD): Sochi State University, Russian International Innovative University, and Russian International Olympic University.

Religion[edit]

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""
In the Church of the "Holy Mandylion

The "Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the Sochi region in the "Middle Ages.[35] The region was relatively isolated before 1829.[35] In the North, a few hundred Sunni Muslim "Shapsugs, a part of the "Circassian nation, lived around Tkhagapsh, near "Lazarevskoye. The Circassians (also known as Adyghe) converted to "Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.[36] In the nineteenth century, Islam spread to the region.[35]

Currently, Sochi is a large predominantly "Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims (5% of inhabitants) living there now (the majority are "Adyghe) plus other Eastern "Caucasians, Turks, "Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.[37]

A "mosque was built in 2008 by "United Arab Emirates in the central area of Bytkha, in addition to the old mosque being around 40 km (25 miles) north of the city center[37][38] in the Adyghe "aul of Tkhagapsh.

There are around thirty "Russian Orthodox churches, the largest being St. Michael's, and two monasteries, plus two "Catholic churches, one in the center of Sochi and the other in Lazarevskoye. The "Armenian community, which is important in Sochi, gathers in about ten churches.

Climate[edit]

Sochi has a "humid subtropical climate ("Köppen climate classification Cfa),[18] at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months—January and February—the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months—July and August—the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts four months, from June to September. Two months—April and November—are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual "precipitation is about 1,700 millimeters (67 in).[8][19][39] Sochi lies at 8b/9a "hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees.[17] Sochi is situated on the same latitude as "Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892.[40]

Climate data for Sochi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
23.5
(74.3)
30.0
(86)
31.7
(89.1)
34.7
(94.5)
35.2
(95.4)
39.4
(102.9)
38.5
(101.3)
36.0
(96.8)
32.1
(89.8)
29.1
(84.4)
23.5
(74.3)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
9.9
(49.8)
12.2
(54)
16.6
(61.9)
20.6
(69.1)
24.6
(76.3)
27.4
(81.3)
27.9
(82.2)
24.7
(76.5)
20.4
(68.7)
15.3
(59.5)
11.8
(53.2)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.1
(43)
6.0
(42.8)
8.2
(46.8)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.2
(68.4)
23.2
(73.8)
23.6
(74.5)
20.0
(68)
15.8
(60.4)
11.1
(52)
8.1
(46.6)
14.2
(57.6)
Average low °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
3.3
(37.9)
5.2
(41.4)
9.0
(48.2)
12.7
(54.9)
16.7
(62.1)
19.7
(67.5)
19.9
(67.8)
16.4
(61.5)
12.5
(54.5)
8.1
(46.6)
5.5
(41.9)
11.1
(52)
Record low °C (°F) −13.4
(7.9)
−12.6
(9.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−5.0
(23)
3.0
(37.4)
7.1
(44.8)
12.6
(54.7)
10.4
(50.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 184
(7.24)
135
(5.31)
121
(4.76)
120
(4.72)
110
(4.33)
104
(4.09)
128
(5.04)
121
(4.76)
127
(5)
167
(6.57)
201
(7.91)
185
(7.28)
1,703
(67.05)
Average rainy days 19 18 18 18 16 14 11 10 13 15 17 20 189
Average snowy days 6 6 3 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 20
Average "relative humidity (%) 73 72 72 75 79 79 79 78 76 76 74 72 75
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 96 105 145 161 221 258 279 281 226 195 121 86 2,174
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[40]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[41]

Layout and landmarks[edit]

Sochi is unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a "subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic "Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand "beaches, the city attracts "vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant "Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,[42] when the city is home to the annual film festival ""Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite.

A "UNESCO "World Heritage Site, the 2,957 square kilometers (731,000 acres) "Caucasian Biosphere Reserve, lies just north from the city.[43] Sochi also has the region's most northerly "tea "plantations.

Transportation[edit]

Public transport is represented mainly by bus and taxi. Sochi is served by the "Adler-Sochi International Airport. A kind of non-mass public transport are also two "funiculars (the Central military sanatorium and Ordzhonikidze resort) and three cable cars (at arboretum sanatorium "Dawn" and pension "Neva") also has several "cableways in "Krasnaya Polyana.

The "Sochi Port terminal building was built in 1955 by "Karo Alabyan and Leonid Karlik in "Stalinist architecture. It is topped with a 71-meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.

Five of the railway stations of Sochi were renovated for the "2014 Winter Olympics. These are "Dagomys, "Sochi, "Matsesta and "Khosta railway stations. In "Adler city district of Sochi, the original railway station was preserved and "new railway station was built near it. Another new railway station "was built in "Estosadok, close to "Krasnaya Polyana.

At some point, plans to construct the light metro network to serve the Olympics were considered; however, the "Sochi Light Metro plan was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of the railway.

Sports facilities[edit]

Sochi is also known for its "sport facilities: a local "tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as "Grand Slam champions "Maria Sharapova and "Yevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to "Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the "Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. Sochi is also the home for the football team "FC Zhemchuzhina which plays in the "Russian First Division and for the ice hockey team "HC Sochi which plays in the "Kontinental Hockey League.

2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics[edit]

The nearby ski resort of "Roza Khutor at "Krasnaya Polyana was the location of the alpine and Nordic events for the "2014 Winter Olympics.

In June 2006, the "International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the "2014 Winter Olympics and the "2014 Winter Paralympics. On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out "Pyeongchang, "South Korea and "Salzburg, "Austria.[44]

This was Russia's first time hosting the Winter Olympic Games, and its first time hosting the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, in 2008, the city had no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition.[45] To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government committed a $12 billion investment package,[46] shared 60%–40% between the government and private sector.[47] According to some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may have exceeded that of any previous Olympic games.[45] By January 2014 the construction costs had been reported to exceed the $50 billion mark, making it the most expensive Olympic Games in history.[48] According to a report by the "European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, this cost will not boost Russia's national economy, but may attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia in the future as a result of improved services.[49]

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi saw "concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans ""homosexual propaganda to minors".[50] There were also concerns over "Islamist militants.[51]

Construction work[edit]

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Former chairlift Alpica Service. Dismantled in 2012

The state-controlled "RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014.[52] The power generating companies "Inter RAO UES and "RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company "FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities "The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion rubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion rubles (about US$2 billion) will go to investments in the electricity grid," power company announced. They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion rubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.

Other sports events[edit]

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F1 "Russian Grand Prix 2014

The "Silk Way Rally which is part of "Dakar series took place in Sochi in 2010 for the last stage between the capital of the "Republic of Adygea "Maykop to the city of Sochi through "Pseshwap.[53]

President "Vladimir Putin reached a deal with "Bernie Ecclestone for the city to host the "Formula One "Russian Grand Prix from 2014.[54]

The "World Robot Olympiad took place in the "Adler Arena Skating Center on 21–23 November 2014.

The "2014 World Chess Championship between "Viswanathan Anand and "Magnus Carlsen was played in Sochi in November 2014, with Carlsen emerging as the winner.

The "Fisht Olympic Stadium will also be used to host "2018 FIFA World Cup "football matches.

Since 2014, the city has hosted "HC Sochi, who play at the "Bolshoy Ice Dome in the "Kontinental Hockey League, the biggest "ice hockey league in Russia and eastern Europe.

Notable people[edit]

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""
"Yevgeny Kafelnikov was born and raised in Sochi

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Sochi is "twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai
  2. ^ a b c Law #679-KZ
  3. ^ a b Official website of Sochi
  4. ^ a b c Городское Собрание Сочи. Решение №89 от 14 июля 2009 г. «Об утверждении генерального плана городского округа города Сочи». Вступил в силу со дня опубликования. (City Assembly of Sochi. Decision #89 of July 14, 2009 On the Adoption of the General Plan of the Urban Okrug of the City of Sochi. Effective as of the publication date.).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). "Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. ("Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b c d "Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Entry on Sochi (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Exposition of the Historical Museum of Sochi, partly reflected in Russian in"История Сочи". Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-11.  (History of Sochi) at the official site of the city
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Город Сочи стал короче - http://edemkavkaza.ru
  12. ^ a b "Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ Sochi hosts 2014 Winter Olympics BBC Sport, July 4, 2007
  14. ^ PM Putin confirms Russian GP for 2014 GPUpdate, October 15, 2010
  15. ^ National Geographic Atlas. "National Geographic Society. 2011. p. 59. 
  16. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. "Merriam-Webster. 1997. pp. 37, 80. 
  17. ^ a b Travel Destinations Sochi Russia by Michael Totten | Traveler's Guide 360 Archived November 12, 2014, at the "Wayback Machine.. Travelersguide360.com (11 February 2013). Retrieved on January 3, 2014.
  18. ^ a b "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Drozdov, V. A.; Glezer, O. B.; Nefedova, T. G.; Shabdurasulov, I. V. (1992). "Ecological and geographical characteristics of the coastal zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal. 27 (2): 169. "doi:10.1007/BF00717701. 
  20. ^ Византийский храм в Лоо (in Russian). Архитектура Сочи. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  21. ^ a b Sochi – from ancient sites to 2014 Olympics, information from the Historical Museum of Sochi
  22. ^ "Peter Hopkirk The great game: On Secret Service in High Asia, Chapter 12 "The Greatest Fortress in the World", pp. 158–159, Oxford University Press, 2001 "ISBN "0-19-280232-1
  23. ^ Stalin's ghost haunts Black Sea hotel at Mail & Guardian Online, Retrieved February 7, 2014
  24. ^ Голубева, Елена. Олимпийская столица - и для спортсменов, и для бизнесменов (in Russian). "Komsomolskaya Pravda. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  25. ^ "Sochi in the Russian Imagination". "Foreign Affairs. February 2014.  – via Foreign Affairs (subscription required)
  26. ^ 80,000 of 138,572 (58%)
  27. ^ Schreck, Carl. "Sochi's Armenian Diaspora Weeps". "The Moscow Times. Hamshen Armenians comprise most of Sochi's Armenian population... 
  28. ^ Ayvazyan, Hovhannes, ed. (2003). Ռուսաստան [Russia]. Հայ Սփյուռք հանրագիտարան [Encyclopedia of Armenian Diaspora] (in Armenian). 1. Yerevan: "Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing. p. 473. "ISBN "5-89700-020-4. 
  29. ^ 1897 Census Archived December 31, 2013, at the "Wayback Machine.. demoscope.ru (in Russian)
  30. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  31. ^ Федеральная Служба Государственной Статистики. Краснодарский краевой комитет государственной статистики «Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство. Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2002 года по Краснодарскому краю. Том 4», г. Краснодар, 2005
  32. ^ Population of Russian Federation by cities, towns, and districts as of January 1, 2007: "Rosstat, Moscow, 2007
  33. ^ Половинкина Т. В. Сочинское Причерноморье – Нальчик (2006) pp. 216–218, "ISBN "588195775X
  34. ^ 4. Население (R_04.doc) in Российский статистический ежегодник 2011, www.gks.ru, "ISBN "978-5-89476-319-4
  35. ^ a b c Karina Ivashko (2010-07-05). "Sochi - from ancient sites to 2014 Olympics". Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  36. ^ "Rekhaniya". "Jewish Virtual Library.
  37. ^ a b Sochi: a city with no mosque, "OpenDemocracy, October 22, 2010
  38. ^ В ауле Тхагапш произошло знаменательное для верующих мусульман событие. (in Russian). Shapsugiya.ru (September 9, 2010). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  39. ^ Rybak, Elena A.; Rybak, Oleg O. & Zasedatelev, Yuri V. (1994). "Complex geographical analysis of the Greater Sochi region on the Black Sea coast". GeoJournal. 34 (4): 507–513. 
  40. ^ a b "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Sochi" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  41. ^ "Soci (Sochi) Climate Normals 1961–1990". "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  42. ^ "Сочи, Пхенчхан и Зальцбург — претенденты на Олимпиаду-2014". "ITAR-TASS. July 4, 2007. Archived from the original (in Russian) on July 5, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  43. ^ Western Caucasus at Unesco Heritage Site. Retrieved July 7, 2007
  44. ^ International Olympic Committee (July 4, 2007). "Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games". Retrieved July 4, 2007. 
  45. ^ a b A Major Tuneup for a Sports Machine NYTimes.com, July 29, 2008
  46. ^ Sochi, Russia wins, awarded 2014 Winter Olympics Archived October 18, 2007, at the "Wayback Machine.. sportsline.com (July 4, 2007). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  47. ^ Iht.com: Sochi Olympic bid organizers says venue projects conform to environmental norms, federal law, Retrieved on July 7, 2007 Archived October 15, 2007, at the "Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ "Sochi 2014: Do the numbers add up?". CNN.com. January 20, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  49. ^ "The Economic Impact Of The Winter Olympics: Not Great For Russia But Sochi Stands To Gain". ibtimes.com. International Business Times. 8 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  50. ^ BBC News – Q&A: Gay rights in Russia. Bbc.co.uk (August 13, 2013). Retrieved on January 3, 2014.
  51. ^ Winter, Jana (January 21, 2014). "US, Russian forces hunt jihadist widow feared inside Olympic zone". FoxNews.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  52. ^ "Power Supply to Be Stepped Up to Sochi by 2014". Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-12. . Kommersant. July 6, 2007
  53. ^ Silk Way Rally. silkwayrally.com.
  54. ^ English, Steven (October 14, 2010). "Russia set to announce race from 2014". autosport.com. "Haymarket Publications. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  55. ^ Andre Geim – Biographical, Nobel Prize winners (Physics, 2010)
  56. ^ Сильнейшие спортсмены СССР наши коллеги по движению «Мастерс»: Т-Я. swimmingmasters.ru
  57. ^ "Twin town of Sochi (Russia)". Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-08. . cheltenham.gov.uk
  58. ^ Website of the President of France. Elysee.fr. Retrieved on 26 July 2012. Archived August 23, 2010, at the "Wayback Machine.
  59. ^ "Gemellaggi". Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-15. . Official website of Rimini
  60. ^ "Tiesitkö, että" (in Finnish) in Ee-mail, January 2007,"p. 6". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-07.  . espoo.fi
  61. ^ "Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia". Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-18. . sister-cities.org
  62. ^ a b c Official website of Sochi (international). The page spotlights similarities of the twin towns to Sochi in that all of them are "summer resorts".
  63. ^ "Греческий Волос и российский Сочи стали городами-побратимами". "Interfax. May 26, 2005. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2007. 
  64. ^ "Sochi is also actively developing cooperation with its own twin towns, and is currently evaluating a further three agreements for setting up links, with the towns of Odessa (Ukraine), Vancouver (Canada) and Volos (Greece)". Department of external economic activity of the Krasnodar region Ministry of Strategic Development, Investment and External Economic Activity of Krasnodar Region
  65. ^ Results of development of humanitarian cooperation municipalities of Krasnodar Region and cooperation between the twin cities of Krasnodar Region in 2010 Archived May 8, 2014, at the "Wayback Machine. (russian language). Department of external economic activity of the Krasnodar region Ministry of Strategic Development, Investment and External Economic Activity of Krasnodar Region
  66. ^ Sister cities Archived May 8, 2014, at the "Wayback Machine. (russian language). Department of external economic activity of the Krasnodar region Ministry of Strategic Development, Investment and External Economic Activity of Krasnodar Region

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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