Weber's major works in "economic sociology and the "sociology of religion dealt with the "rationalization, "secularisation, and so called ""disenchantment" which he associated with the rise of capitalism and "modernity. In sociology, rationalization is the process whereby an increasing number of "social actions become based on considerations of teleological efficiency or calculation rather than on motivations derived from "morality, "emotion, "custom, or "tradition. Rather than referring to what is genuinely "rational" or "logical", rationalization refers to a relentless quest for goals that might actually function to the detriment of a society. Rationalization is an ambivalent aspect of modernity, manifested especially in "Western society - as a behaviour of the capitalist market, of rational administration in "the state and "bureaucracy, of the extension of modern "science, and of the expansion of modern technology.["citation needed]
Weber's thought regarding the rationalizing and secularizing tendencies of modern Western society (sometimes described as the ""Weber Thesis") would blend with Marxism to facilitate critical theory, particularly in the work of thinkers such as "Jürgen Habermas (born 1929). Critical theorists, as "antipositivists, are critical of the idea of a hierarchy of sciences or societies, particularly with respect to the sociological "positivism originally set forth by Comte. Jürgen Habermas has critiqued the concept of pure "instrumental rationality as meaning that scientific-thinking becomes something akin to "ideology itself. For theorists such as "Zygmunt Bauman (1925-2017), rationalization as a manifestation of modernity may be most closely and regrettably associated with the events of "the Holocaust.
When the critique of classical social evolutionism became widely accepted, modern anthropological and sociological approaches changed respectively. Modern theories are careful to avoid unsourced, ethnocentric speculation, comparisons, or value judgments; more or less regarding individual societies as existing within their own historical contexts. These conditions provided the context for new theories such as "cultural relativism and multilineal evolution.
In the 1920s and 1930s, "Gordon Childe revolutionized the study of cultural evolutionism. He conducted a comprehensive pre-history account that provided scholars with evidence for African and Asian cultural transmission into Europe. He combated scientific racism by finding the tools and artifacts of the indigenous people from Africa and Asia and showed how they influenced the technology of European culture. Evidence from his excavations countered the idea of Aryan supremacy and superiority. Childe explained cultural evolution by his theory of divergence with modifications of convergence. He postulated that different cultures form separate methods that meet different needs, but when two cultures were in contact they developed similar adaptations, solving similar problems. Rejecting Spencer’s theory of parallel cultural evolution, Childe found that interactions between cultures contributed to the convergence of similar aspects most often attributed to one culture. Childe placed emphasis on human culture as a "social construct rather than products of environmental or technological contexts. Childe coined the terms ""Neolithic Revolution", and ""Urban Revolution" which are still used today in the branch of pre-historic anthropology.
In 1941 anthropologist "Robert Redfield wrote about a shift from ‘folk society’ to ‘urban society’. By the 1940s cultural anthropologists such as "Leslie White and "Julian Steward sought to revive an evolutionary model on a more scientific basis, and succeeded in establishing an approach known as neoevolutionism. White rejected the opposition between "primitive" and "modern" societies but did argue that societies could be distinguished based on the amount of energy they harnessed, and that increased energy allowed for greater social differentiation (White’s law). Steward on the other hand rejected the 19th-century notion of progress, and instead called attention to the Darwinian notion of "adaptation", arguing that all societies had to adapt to their environment in some way.
The anthropologists "Marshall Sahlins and "Elman Service prepared an edited volume, Evolution and Culture, in which they attempted to synthesise White’s and Steward’s approaches. Other anthropologists, building on or responding to work by White and Steward, developed theories of cultural ecology and ecological anthropology. The most prominent examples are "Peter Vayda and "Roy Rappaport. By the late 1950s, students of Steward such as "Eric Wolf and "Sidney Mintz turned away from cultural ecology to Marxism, "World Systems Theory, "Dependency theory and "Marvin Harris’s "Cultural materialism.
Today most anthropologists reject 19th-century notions of progress and the three assumptions of unilineal evolution. Following Steward, they take seriously the relationship between a culture and its environment to explain different aspects of a culture. But most modern cultural anthropologists have adopted a general systems approach, examining cultures as emergent systems and arguing that one must consider the whole social environment, which includes political and economic relations among cultures. As a result of simplistic notions of "progressive evolution", more modern, complex cultural evolution theories (such as "Dual Inheritance Theory, discussed below) receive little attention in the social sciences, having given way in some cases to a series of more humanist approaches. Some reject the entirety of evolutionary thinking and look instead at historical contingencies, contacts with other cultures, and the operation of cultural symbol systems. In the area of development studies, authors such as "Amartya Sen have developed an understanding of ‘development’ and ‘human flourishing’ that also question more simplistic notions of progress, while retaining much of their original inspiration.
Neoevolutionism was the first in a series of modern multilineal evolution theories. It emerged in the 1930s and extensively developed in the period following the "Second World War and was incorporated into both anthropology and sociology in the 1960s. It bases its theories on empirical evidence from areas of archaeology, "palaeontology, and "historiography and tries to eliminate any references to systems of "values, be it moral or cultural, instead trying to remain objective and simply descriptive.
While 19th-century evolutionism explained how culture develops by giving general principles of its evolutionary process, it was dismissed by the "Historical Particularists as unscientific in the early 20th century. It was the neo-evolutionary thinkers who brought back evolutionary thought and developed it to be acceptable to contemporary anthropology.
Neo-evolutionism discards many ideas of classical social evolutionism, namely that of social progress, so dominant in previous sociology evolution-related theories. Then neo-evolutionism discards the "determinism argument and introduces "probability, arguing that accidents and free will greatly affect the process of social evolution. It also supports "counterfactual history—asking "what if" and considering different possible paths that social evolution may take or might have taken, and thus allows for the fact that various cultures may develop in different ways, some skipping entire stages others have passed through. Neo-evolutionism stresses the importance of "empirical evidence. While 19th-century evolutionism used value judgments and assumptions for interpreting data, neo-evolutionism relies on measurable information for analysing the process of sociocultural evolution.
"Leslie White, author of The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome (1959), attempted to create a theory explaining the entire "history of humanity. The most important factor in his theory is technology. "Social systems are determined by technological systems, wrote White in his book, echoing the earlier theory of Lewis Henry Morgan. He proposes a society’s "energy consumption as a measure of its advancement. He differentiates between five stages of human development. In the first, people use the energy of their own muscles. In the second, they use the energy of domesticated animals. In the third, they use the energy of plants (so White refers to agricultural revolution here). In the fourth, they learn to use the energy of natural resources: coal, oil, gas. In the fifth, they harness "nuclear energy. White introduced a formula, P=E*T, where E is a measure of energy consumed, and T is the measure of efficiency of technical factors utilising the energy. This theory is similar to Russian astronomer "Nikolai Kardashev’s later theory of the "Kardashev scale.
"Julian Steward, author of Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution (1955, reprinted 1979), created the theory of "multilinear" evolution which examined the way in which societies adapted to their environment. This approach was more nuanced than White’s theory of "unilinear evolution." Steward rejected the 19th-century notion of progress, and instead called attention to the Darwinian notion of "adaptation", arguing that all societies had to adapt to their environment in some way. He argued that different adaptations could be studied through the examination of the specific resources a society exploited, the technology the society relied on to exploit these resources, and the organization of human labour. He further argued that different environments and technologies would require different kinds of adaptations, and that as the resource base or technology changed, so too would a culture. In other words, cultures do not change according to some inner logic, but rather in terms of a changing relationship with a changing environment. Cultures therefore would not pass through the same stages in the same order as they changed—rather, they would change in varying ways and directions. He called his theory "multilineal evolution". He questioned the possibility of creating a social theory encompassing the entire evolution of humanity; however, he argued that anthropologists are not limited to describing specific existing cultures. He believed that it is possible to create theories analysing typical common culture, representative of specific eras or regions. As the decisive factors determining the development of given culture he pointed to technology and economics, but noted that there are secondary factors, like political system, ideologies and religion. All those factors push the evolution of a given society in several directions at the same time; hence the application of the term "multilinear" to his theory of evolution.
"Marshall Sahlins, co-editor with Elman Service of Evolution and Culture (1960), divided the evolution of societies into ‘general’ and ‘specific’. General evolution is the tendency of cultural and social systems to increase in complexity, organization and adaptiveness to environment. However, as the various cultures are not isolated, there is interaction and a "diffusion of their qualities (like technological "inventions). This leads cultures to develop in different ways (specific evolution), as various elements are introduced to them in different combinations and at different stages of evolution.
In his Power and Prestige (1966) and Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology (1974), "Gerhard Lenski expands on the works of Leslie White and Lewis Henry Morgan, developing the "ecological-evolutionary theory. He views technological progress as the most basic factor in the evolution of societies and cultures. Unlike White, who defined technology as the ability to create and utilise "energy, Lenski focuses on "information—its amount and uses. The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is. He distinguishes four stages of human development, based on advances in the "history of communication. In the first stage, information is passed by "genes. In the second, when humans gain "sentience, they can "learn and pass information through by experience. In the third, humans start using "signs and develop "logic. In the fourth, they can create "symbols and develop "language and writing. Advancements in the technology of communication translate into advancements in the "economic system and "political system, distribution of "goods, "social inequality and other spheres of social life. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) agricultural, (3) industrial, and (4) special (like fishing societies).
"Talcott Parsons, author of Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966) and The System of Modern Societies (1971) divided evolution into four subprocesses: (1) division, which creates functional subsystems from the main system; (2) adaptation, where those systems evolve into more efficient versions; (3) inclusion of elements previously excluded from the given systems; and (4) generalization of values, increasing the legitimization of the ever more complex system. He shows those processes on 4 stages of evolution: (I) primitive or foraging, (II) archaic agricultural, (III) classical or "historic" in his terminology, using formalized and universalizing theories about reality and (IV) modern empirical cultures. However, these divisions in Parsons’ theory are the more formal ways in which the evolutionary process is conceptualized, and should not be mistaken for Parsons’ actual theory. Parsons develops a theory where he tries to reveal the complexity of the processes which take form between two points of necessity, the first being the cultural "necessity," which is given through the values-system of each evolving community; the other is the environmental necessities, which most directly is reflected in the material realities of the basic production system and in the relative capacity of each industrial-economical level at each window of time. Generally, Parsons highlights that the dynamics and directions of these processes is shaped by the cultural imperative embodied in the cultural heritage, and more secondarily, an outcome of sheer "economic" conditions.
"Michel Foucault’s recent, and very much misunderstood, concepts such as "Biopower, "Biopolitics and "Power-knowledge has been cited as breaking free from the traditional conception of man as cultural animal. Foucault regards both the terms “cultural animal” and "human nature"as misleading abstractions, leading to a non critical exemption of man and anything can be justified when regarding social processes or natural phenomena (social phenomena). Foucault claims these complex processes are interrelated, and difficult to study for a reason. For Foucault, the many modern concepts and practices that attempt to uncover “the truth” about human beings (either psychologically, sexually, religion or spiritually) actually create the very types of people they purport to discover. Requiring trained "specialists" and knowledge codes and know how, rigorous pursuit is "put off" or delayed which makes any kind of study not only a ‘taboo’ subject but deliberately ignored. He cites the concept of ‘truth’ within many human cultures and the ever flowing dynamics between truth, power, and knowledge as a resultant complex dynamics (Foucault uses the term regimes of truth) and how they flow with ease like water which make the concept of ‘truth’ impervious to any further rational investigation. Some of the West’s most powerful social institutions are powerful for a reason, not because they exhibit powerful structures which inhibit investigation or it is illegal to investigate there historical foundation. It is the very notion of "legitimacy" Foucault cites as examples of "truth" which function as a ""Foundationalism" claims to historical accuracy. Foucault argues, systems such as "Medicine, "Prisons, and "Religion, as well as groundbreaking works on more abstract theoretical issues of power are suspended or buried into oblivion. He cites as further examples the ‘Scientific study’ of "Population biology and "Population genetics as both examples of this kind of “Biopower” over the vast majority of the human population giving the new founded political population their ‘politics’ or polity. With the advent of biology and genetics teamed together as new scientific innovations notions of study of knowledge regarding truth belong to the realm of experts who will never divulge their secrets openly, while the bulk of the population do not know their own biology or genetics this is done for them by the experts. This functions as a truth ignorance mechanism: “where the “subjugated knowledge’s,” as those that have been both written out of history and submerged in it in a masked form produces what we now know as truth. He calls them “Knowledge’s from below” and a “historical knowledge of struggles”."Genealogy, Foucault suggests, is a way of getting at these knowledge’s and struggles; “they are about the insurrection of knowledge’s.”According to Foucault with the dimension of “Milieu” (derived from "Newtonian mechanics) Foucault uses the term borrowed from "Jakob von Uexküll "Umwelt meaning environment within. Technology, production, "Cartography the production of "Nation states and Government making the efficiency of the "Body politic, "Law, "Heredity and "Consanguine not only sound genuine and beyond historical origin and foundation it can be turned into ‘exact truth’ where the individual and the societal body are not only subjugated and nullified but dependent upon it. Foucault is not denying that genetic or biological study is inaccurate or is simply not telling the truth what he means is that notions of this newly discovered sciences were extended to include the vast majority (or whole populations) of populations as an exercise in “regimes change” meaning from the "Middle ages and "Canon law period the "Geocentric model, later superseded by the "Heliocentrism position of the law of right ("Exclusive right or its correct legal term "Sui generis) was the "Divine right of kings and "Absolute monarchy. However, Foucault notices that this "Pharaonic version of "Political power was transversed and it was with 18th-century emergence of Capitalism and "Liberal democracy that these terms began to be “democratized”.The modern Pharaonic version represented by the "President, the monarch, the "Pope and the "Prime minister all became propagandized versions of symbol agents all aimed at towards a newly discovered phenomenon, the population, as symbolic symbol agents of power making the mass population having to sacrifice itself all in the name of the newly formed voting franchise we now call "Democracy. However, this was all turned on its head (when the "Medieval rulers were thrown out and replaced by a more exact apparatus called the state) when the human sciences suddenly discovered: “The set of mechanisms through which the basic biological features of the human species became an object of a political strategy and took on board the fundamental facts that humans were now a biological species.”
Sociobiology departs perhaps the furthest from classical social evolutionism. It was introduced by "Edward Wilson in his 1975 book "Sociobiology: The New Synthesis and followed his adaptation of evolutionary theory to the field of social sciences. Wilson pioneered the attempt to explain the evolutionary mechanics behind social behaviours such as "altruism, "aggression, and nurturance. In doing so, Wilson sparked one of the greatest scientific "controversies of the 20th century.
The current theory of evolution, the "modern evolutionary synthesis (or neo-darwinism), explains that evolution of "species occurs through a combination of Darwin’s mechanism of natural selection and "Gregor Mendel’s theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance and mathematical population genetics. Essentially, the modern synthesis introduced the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the main mechanism of evolution (selection).
Due to its close reliance on biology, sociobiology is often considered a branch of the biology, although it uses techniques from a plethora of sciences, including "ethology, evolution, "zoology, archaeology, population genetics, and many others. Within the study of human "societies, sociobiology is closely related to the fields of "human behavioral ecology and "evolutionary psychology.
Sociobiology has remained highly controversial as it contends "genes explain specific human behaviours, although sociobiologists describe this role as a very complex and often unpredictable interaction between nature and nurture. The most notable critics of the view that genes play a direct role in human behaviour have been biologists "Richard Lewontin and "Stephen Jay Gould.
Since the rise of evolutionary psychology, another school of thought, Dual Inheritance Theory, has emerged in the past 25 years that applies the mathematical standards of Population genetics to modeling the adaptive and selective principles of culture. This school of thought was pioneered by "Robert Boyd at "UCLA and Peter Richerson at "UC Davis and expanded by "William Wimsatt, among others. Boyd and Richerson’s book, Culture and the Evolutionary Process (1985), was a highly mathematical description of cultural change, later published in a more accessible form in Not by Genes Alone (2004). In Boyd and Richerson’s view, cultural evolution, operating on socially learned information, exists on a separate but co-evolutionary track from genetic evolution, and while the two are related, cultural evolution is more dynamic, rapid, and influential on human society than genetic evolution. Dual Inheritance Theory has the benefit of providing unifying territory for a "nature and nurture" paradigm and accounts for more accurate phenomenon in evolutionary theory applied to culture, such as randomness effects (drift), concentration dependency, "fidelity" of evolving information systems, and lateral transmission through communication.
Theory of modernization
Theories of "modernization have been developed and popularized in 1950s and 1960s and are closely related to the dependency theory and "development theory. They combine the previous theories of sociocultural evolution with practical experiences and empirical research, especially those from the era of "decolonization. The theory states that:
- Western countries are the most developed, and the rest of the world (mostly former colonies) is in the earlier stages of development, and will eventually reach the same level as the Western world.
- Development stages go from the "traditional societies to developed ones.
- "Third World countries have fallen behind with their social progress and need to be directed on their way to becoming more advanced.
Developing from classical social evolutionism theories, the theory of modernization stresses the modernization factor: many societies are simply trying (or need) to emulate the most successful societies and cultures. It also states that it is possible to do so, thus supporting the concepts of "social engineering and that the developed countries can and should help those less developed, directly or indirectly.
Among the scientists who contributed much to this theory are "Walt Rostow, who in his The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960) concentrates on the economic system side of the modernization, trying to show factors needed for a country to reach the path to modernization in his "Rostovian take-off model. "David Apter concentrated on the political system and history of democracy, researching the connection between democracy, good "governance and efficiency and modernization. "David McClelland (The Achieving Society, 1967) approached this subject from the "psychological perspective, with his "motivations theory, arguing that modernization cannot happen until given society values innovation, success and free enterprise. Alex Inkeles (Becoming Modern, 1974) similarly creates a model of modern personality, which needs to be independent, active, interested in public policies and cultural matters, open to new experiences, rational and able to create long-term plans for the future. Some works of Jürgen Habermas are also connected with this subfield.
The theory of modernization has been subject to some criticism similar to that levied against classical social evolutionism, especially for being too ethnocentric, one-sided and focused on the Western world and its culture.
Cultural evolution follows "punctuated equilibrium which Gould and Eldredge developed for biological evolution. Bloomfield has written that human societies follow punctuated equilibrium which would mean first, a stable society, and then a transition resulting in a subsequent stable society with greater complexity. This model would claim mankind has had a stable animal society, a transition to a stable tribal society, another transition to a stable peasant society and is currently in a transitional industrial society.
The status of a human society rests on the "productivity of food production. "Deevey reported on the growth of the number of humans. Deevey also reported on the productivity of food production, noting that productivity changes very little for stable societies, but increases during transitions. When productivity and especially food productivity can no longer be increased, Bloomfield has proposed that man will have achieved a stable automated society. Space is also assumed to allow for the continued growth of the human population, as well as providing a solution to the current pollution problem by providing limitless energy from solar satellite power stations.
Max Ostrovsky predicts that the world order in the future will follow punctuated equilibrium. The present stable global hegemony will be followed by transition to a stable global empire, which in its turn will be followed by transition to an integrated world state whose former ruling core and ruled periphery merged. Afterwards, the world will continue to exist politically unified with the stable world unity interrupted by very short and rare puncts of transition.
The "Cold War period was marked by rivalry between two superpowers, both of which considered themselves to be the most highly evolved cultures on the planet. The "USSR painted itself as a "socialist society which emerged from "class struggle, destined to reach the state of "communism, while sociologists in the United States (such as Talcott Parsons) argued that the freedom and prosperity of the United States were a proof of a higher level of sociocultural evolution of its culture and society. At the same time, decolonization created newly independent countries who sought to become more developed—a model of progress and industrialization which was itself a form of sociocultural evolution.
There is, however, a tradition in European "social theory from "Rousseau to Max Weber arguing that this progression coincides with a loss of human freedom and dignity. At the height of the Cold War, this tradition merged with an interest in "ecology to influence an "activist culture in the 1960s. This movement produced a variety of political and philosophical programs which emphasized the importance of bringing society and the environment into harmony.
Many["who?] argue that the next stage of sociocultural evolution consists of a merger with technology, especially information processing technology. Several "cumulative major transitions of evolution have transformed life through key innovations in information storage and replication, including "RNA, "DNA, "multicellularity, and also "language and "culture as inter-human information processing systems. in this sense it can be argued that the carbon-based biosphere has generated a "cognitive system (humans) capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition. "Digital information has reached a similar magnitude to information in the biosphere. It increases exponentially, exhibits high-fidelity replication, evolves through differential fitness, is expressed through artificial intelligence (AI), and has facility for virtually limitless recombination. Like previous evolutionary transitions, the potential symbiosis between biological and digital information will reach a critical point where these codes could compete via natural selection. Alternatively, this fusion could create a higher-level superorganism employing a low-conflict division of labor in performing informational tasks...humans already embrace fusions of biology and technology. We spend most of our waking time communicating through digitally mediated channels, ...most transactions on the stock market are executed by automated trading algorithms, and our electric grids are in the hands of artificial intelligence. With one in three marriages in America beginning online, digital algorithms are also taking a role in human pair bonding and reproduction".
Current political theories of the "new tribalists consciously mimic ecology and the life-ways of "indigenous peoples, augmenting them with modern sciences. "Ecoregional Democracy attempts to confine the "shifting groups", or tribes, within "more or less clear boundaries" that a society inherits from the surrounding ecology, to the borders of a naturally occurring "ecoregion. Progress can proceed by competition between but not within tribes, and it is limited by ecological borders or by "Natural Capitalism incentives which attempt to mimic the pressure of natural selection on a human society by forcing it to adapt consciously to scarce energy or materials. "Gaians argue that societies evolve deterministically to play a role in the ecology of their "biosphere, or else die off as failures due to competition from more efficient societies exploiting nature's leverage.
Thus, some have appealed to theories of sociocultural evolution to assert that optimizing the ecology and the social harmony of closely knit groups is more desirable or necessary than the progression to "civilization." A 2002 poll of experts on "Neoarctic and "Neotropic indigenous peoples (reported in Harper's magazine) revealed that all of them would have preferred to be a typical New World person in the year 1491, prior to any European contact, rather than a typical European of that time. This approach has been criticised by pointing out that there are a number of historical examples of indigenous peoples doing severe environmental damage (such as the "deforestation of "Easter Island and the extinction of "mammoths in North America) and that proponents of the goal have been trapped by the European stereotype of the "noble savage.
- "Accelerating change
- "Biocultural evolution
- "Clash of Civilizations
- "Cultural diversity
- "Cultural evolution
- "Cultural materialism
- "Cultural neuroscience
- "Cultural selection theory
- "Diffusion of innovations
- "Dual inheritance theory
- "Economic determinism
- "Edward Burnett Tylor
- "Evolutionary anthropology
- "Environmental racism
- "Extended order
- "Franz Boas
- "Future studies
- "Guns, Germs, and Steel
- "Institutional memory
- "Julian Steward
- "Leslie White
- "Lewis Henry Morgan
- "Origin of language
- "Origin of speech
- "Origins of society
- "Population dynamics
- "Punctuated equilibrium
- "Rationalization (sociology)
- "Social Darwinism
- "Social cycle theory
- "Social dynamics
- "Social implications of the theory of evolution
- "Societal collapse
- "Sociocultural system
- "Symbolic culture
Notes and references
- "Korotayev, Andrey (2004). World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective (First ed.). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 1–8. "ISBN "0-7734-6310-0.
- Frank L. Elwell (1 February 2013). Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change. Athabasca University Press. p. 103. "ISBN "978-1-927356-20-3.
- "Richard Dawkins, "The Selfish Gene, p. 190. [which edition?]
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.491, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.495, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.498-499, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- "The Philosophy Of Positivism". Adventures in Philosophy.
- "Modern History Sourcebook: Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism, 1857". fordham.edu. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Herbert Spencer". Sociological Theorists Page.
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.499-500, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Morgan, Lewis H.(1877) "Chapter III: Ratio of Human Progress". Ancient Society.
- Commager, H.S. (1950). The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought and Character Since the 1880's. Yale University Press. p. 199. "ISBN "9780300000467. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.500-501, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Cape, E.P. (1922). Lester F. Ward; a Personal Sketch. G. P. Putnam's sons. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.500, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.501, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Habermas, Jürgen (1985). The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Polity Press. p. 2. "ISBN "0-7456-0830-2.
- Evolution and culture. Ed. by Marshall David Sahlins and Elman Service. Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1960.
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.502-503, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- The Evolution of Culture, Leslie White
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.504, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.505, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Phil. Trans. Royal. Soc. B 366, pp.444–453 Exploring the folkbiological conception of human nature (2011)
- W.T.H. van de Ven The Social Reality Of Truth Foucault Searle and The Role Of Truth Within Social Reality 2012
- Michel Foucault Discipline and Punish 1975
- CRS Report For Congress Federal Prison Industries 2007
- "Ernst Kantorowicz The Kings Two Bodies 1956
- Michel Foucault Bio‐history and bio‐politics Originally published in Le Monde, no. 9869 (17‐18 October 1976) Review of "Jacques Ruffié From Biology to Culture and republished in Foucault Studies 18 October 2014
- Ernst Kantorowicz The Kings Two Bodies 1956
- Michel Foucault "Security, Territory, Population pp.135-163 2007
- Security, Territory, Population pp.191-227 2007
- Michel Foucault Lectures At The College de France 1977–1978 Security, Territory, Population pp.1-23 2007
- Security, Territory, Population pp.54-86 2007
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.506, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J.; Peter J. Richerson (1985). "Culture and the Evolutionary Process". Chicago: "University of Chicago Press. "ISBN "0-226-06933-8.
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, p.507-508, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- Bloomfield, Masse."Mankind in Transition, Masefield Books, 1993.
- Bloomfield, Masse.The Automated Society, Masefield Books, 1995.
- Deevey, E. S., The Human Population, Scientific American 203, September 1960, p.226.
- Korotaev, A. V.; Malkov, Artemiĭ Sergeevich; Khaltourina, D. (2006). Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS. pp. 5–36. "ISBN "5-484-00559-0.
- Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007).
- "Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds", Gillings, M. R., Hilbert, M., & Kemp, D. J. (2016), "Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 31(3), 180–189; free access to the article http://escholarship.org/uc/item/38f4b791
- Jablonka, E., & Szathmáry, E. (1995). The evolution of information storage and heredity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10(5), 206–211. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)89060-6
- Szathmáry, E. (2015). Toward major evolutionary transitions theory 2.0. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(33), 10104–10111. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421398112
- "Sztompka, Piotr, Socjologia, Znak, 2002, "ISBN 83-240-0218-9
- The Philosophy of Positivism
- Herbert Spencer accessed on 7 August 2005
- Chapter III: Ratio of Human Progress accessed on 7 August 2005
- "Marshall David Sahlins, Evolution and culture, University of Michigan Press, 1970
- "Leslie White, The Evolution of Culture; The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome, Mcgraw-Hill, 1959, "ISBN 0-07-069682-9
- "Jared Diamond, "The World until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies?, Penguin Books, 2012 ("ISBN 978-0-141-02448-6).
- "Sztompka, Piotr, The Sociology of "Social Change, Blackwell Publishers, 1994, "ISBN 0-631-18206-3
- "Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, "ISBN 1-55786-977-4
- "Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, "ISBN 0-02-931551-4
- "Evans-Pritchard, Sir Edward, A History of Anthropological Thought, 1981, Basic Books, Inc., New York.
- Graber, Robert B., A Scientific Model of Social and Cultural Evolution, 1995, Thomas Jefferson University Press, Kirksville, MO.
- "Harris, Marvin, The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture, 1968, Thomas Y. Crowell, New York.
- Hatch, Elvin, Theories of Man and Culture, 1973, Columbia University Press, New York.
- Hays, H. R., From Ape to Angel: An Informal History of Social Anthropology, 1965, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
- Johnson, Allen W. and Earle, Timothy, The Evolution of Human Societies: From Foraging Group to Agrarian State, 1987, Stanford University Press.
- Kaplan, David and Manners, Robert, Culture Theory, 1972, Waveland Press, Inc., Prospect Heights, Illinois.
- "Korotayev, Andrey (2004). World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective (First ed.). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. "ISBN "0-7734-6310-0.
- Korotaev, A. V.; Malkov, Artemiĭ Sergeevich; Khaltourina, D. (2006). Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS. "ISBN "5-484-00559-0.
- Kuklick, Henrika, The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology, 1885–1945, 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- "McGilchrist, Iain, "The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World, 2009, "Yale University Press, US and London.
- Mesoudi, A. (2007). Using the methods of experimental social psychology to study cultural evolution. Journal of Social, Evolutionary & Cultural Psychology, 1(2), 35–58. Full text
- Mesoudi, A. Cultural Evolution: How Darwinian Theory Can Explain Human Culture and Synthesize the Social Sciences, 2011, University Of Chicago Press, "ISBN 978-0-226-52044-5
- "Morgan, John Henry, In the Beginning: The Paleolithic Origins of Religious Consciousness 2007 "Cloverdale Books, South Bend. "ISBN 978-1-929569-41-0
- "Raoul Naroll and William T. Divale. 1976. Natural Selection in Cultural Evolution: Warfare versus Peaceful Diffusion. American Ethnologist 3: 97–128.
- Ostrovsky, Max, Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007).
- Segal, Daniel (2000) Western Civ" and the Staging of History in American Higher Education "The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 3 (Jun., 2000), pp. 770–805 "doi:10.2307/2651809
- Seymour-Smith, Charlotte, Macmillan Dictionary of Anthropology, 1986, Macmillan, New York.
- Stocking Jr., George W., Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology, 1968, The Free Press, New York.
- Stocking Jr., George W., After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888–1951, 1995, The University of Wisconsin Press.
- Winthrop, Robert H., Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, 1991, Greenwood Press, New York.
- Alternatives of Social Evolution, 2000, FEB RAS, Vladivostok.
Readings from an evolutionary anthropological perspective
- Two special issues on the evolution of culture:
- Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 57–108 (April 2003)
- The evolution of culture: New perspectives and evidence (p 57–60) Charles H. Janson, Eric A. Smith
- Making space for traditions (p 61–70) Dorothy Fragaszy
- Traditions in monkeys (p 71–81) Susan Perry, Joseph H. Manson
- Is culture a golden barrier between human and chimpanzee? (p 82–91) Christophe Boesch
- Cultural panthropology (p 92–105) Andrew Whiten, Victoria Horner, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
- The fossil record - Human and nonhuman (p 106–108) Eric Delson
- Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 109–159 (2003)
- On stony ground: Lithic technology, human evolution, and the emergence of culture (p 109–122) "Robert Foley, "Marta Mirazón Lahr
- The evolution of cultural evolution (p 123–135) "Joseph Henrich, Richard McElreath
- The adaptive nature of culture (p 136–149) Michael S. Alvard
- Do animals have culture? (p 150–159) Kevin N. Laland, William Hoppitt
- Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 57–108 (April 2003)