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Main article: "Cool Japan

"Cool Japan" is a concept coined in 2002 as an expression of "Japan’s popular culture. The concept has been adopted by the Japanese government as well as trade bodies seeking to exploit the commercial capital of the country’s culture industry.[73][74] It has been described as a form of soft power, “the ability to indirectly influence behavior or interests through cultural or ideological means.”[75] In a 2002 article in the journal Foreign Policy titled “Japan’s Gross National Cool”, Douglas McGray wrote of Japan “reinventing superpower” as its cultural influence expanded internationally despite the economic and political problems of the “lost decade.” Surveying youth culture and the role of J-pop, manga, anime, fashion, film, consumer electronics, architecture, and cuisine, McGray highlighted Japan’s considerable soft power, posing the question of what message the country might project. He also argued that Japan’s recession may even have boosted its national cool, due to the partial discrediting of erstwhile rigid social hierarchies and big-business career paths.[76][77]

Russia[edit]

Russia has been developing its soft power by investing in various public diplomacy instruments throughout the 2000s[78] but the term was first used in an official document in 2010 as "President Medvedev approved an Addendum to the national Foreign Policy Concept. The term was not defined but it was described as related to "cultural diplomacy.[79] In 2013, the term appeared in a new version of the Foreign Policy Concept where the soft power was defined as "a comprehensive toolkit for achieving foreign policy objectives building on civil society potential, information, cultural and other methods and technologies alternative to traditional diplomacy."[80] In 2007, Russian President "Vladimir Putin was named "Time Person of the Year. In 2013, he was named most powerful person by Forbes magazine.[81]

South Korea[edit]

Korean Wave
""
"U.S. President "Barack Obama: "...And of course, around the world, people are being swept up by Korean culture -- the "Korean Wave"[82]
As is clear with the recent rise of Psy's ""Gangnam Style",
the "Hallyu-wave and "Korean pop music, Korean culture
is making its mark on the world.
—United Nations Secretary General "Ban Ki-moon[83]

"Hallyu", also known as the "Korean Wave", is a "neologism referring to the increase in the popularity of South Korean culture since the late 1990s. According to a "Washington Post reporter, the increased popularity of South Korean entertainment has led to higher sales of other goods and services such as food, clothing, "video games, and "Korean language classes.[84] Besides increasing the amount of exports, the Korean Wave is used by the government as a soft power tool to engage with the masses of young people all over the world,[85] and to reduce "anti-Korean sentiment.[86]

In the 21st century, culture is power.

— South Korean president "Park Geun-hye.[87]

In 2012, the "BBC's country rating poll revealed that public opinion of "South Korea has been improving every year since the first rating poll for the country was conducted in 2009. In several countries such as "Russia, "India, "China and "France, public opinion of South Korea turned from slightly negative to generally positive. The report cited culture and tradition as among the most important factors contributing to positive perceptions of South Korea.[88] This comes alongside a rapid growth in the total value of cultural exports which rose to US$4.2 billion in 2011.[89]

First driven by the spread of "Korean dramas televised across "East, "South and "Southeast Asia during its initial stages, the Korean Wave evolved from a regional development into a global phenomenon due to the proliferation of Korean pop ("K-pop) music videos on "YouTube.[90] Currently, the spread of the Korean Wave to other regions of the world is most visibly seen among teenagers and young adults in "Latin America, the "Middle East, "North Africa, and "immigrant "enclaves of the "Western world.[91]

United Kingdom[edit]

Since the period of "Pax Britannica the "United Kingdom has held significant soft power.[92] Today it remains one of the most influential countries in the world,[93] coming first in the 2015 "Portland Group, "Comres, "Facebook report,[94] and the Monocle survey of global soft power in 2012.[37][95]

The UK has strong "diplomatic relations with countries around the world, particularly countries in the "Commonwealth of Nations and many others in Europe, Asia, the Middle-east, Africa and the "United States.[96] Diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are known as "High Commissions rather than "Embassies to indicate the closeness of the relationship.[97] The UK exerts influence on countries within the "European Union,[98] and has one of the largest global networks of "diplomatic missions.[37] Many countries around the world use the British form of "democracy and "government known as the "Westminster system.[99]

The influence of "British culture and "sports are widespread, particularly notable during the "British Invasion, "Cool Britannia, and more recently the "Diamond Jubilee and "2012 Summer Olympics.[100] The "opening and "closing ceremonies celebrated British culture and achievements with the world.[101] "London is the only city to have hosted the modern Olympics three times.[102] British media is broadcast internationally, notably the "BBC World Service, "BBC World News and "The Economist magazine. "British film and literature have international appeal, and "British theatre helps make London one of the most visited cities in the world.[103] Schools and "universities in Britain are popular destinations for students of other nations.[104]

Alongside the English language, "English contract law is the most important and most used contract law in "international business.[105] London is the headquarters for four of the world's six largest law firms.[106] The UK and more specifically London is a centre of "international finance where foreign participants in financial markets come to deal with one another.[107] It is headquarters for major international "corporations, many of which choose to be listed on the "London Stock Exchange.[108]

United States[edit]

"Soft power has been a strong suit for the United States virtually from its inception – certainly long before the country became a recognized world power in the twentieth century. American 'exceptionalism' – the nation’s devotion to freedom, the rule of law, and the practice of republican government, its openness to immigrants of all races and religions, its opposition to traditional power politics and imperialism – has had a great deal to do with the rise of the United States to its currently dominant global role." [109]

The "United States has long had a great deal of soft power. Examples include "Franklin D. Roosevelt's "four freedoms in Europe at the end of "World War II, young people behind the "Iron Curtain listening to "radio Free Europe, Chinese students symbolizing their protests in "Tiananmen Square by creating a replica of the "Statue of Liberty that they called "Goddess of Democracy", newly liberated Afghans in 2001 asking for a copy of the "Bill of Rights and young Iranians today surreptitiously watching banned American videos and satellite television broadcasts in the privacy of their homes.[17] America's early commitment to religious toleration, for example, was a powerful element of its overall appeal to potential immigrants; and American aid in the reconstruction of Europe after World War II was an advertisement both of the prosperity and the generosity of the people of the United States.

Studies of American broadcasting into the "Soviet bloc, and testimonials from Czech President "Václav Havel, Polish President "Lech Wałęsa, and Russian President "Boris Yeltsin support that soft power efforts of the United States and its allies during the Cold War were ultimately successful in creating the favorable conditions that led to the collapse of the "Soviet empire.[110]

""
""
Alhurra Logo

"Satellite TV is actively promoting American soft power in the Arab world in ways that the United States has been incapable of doing. The launch of the Arabic-language "Alhurra satellite channel in early 2004 to provide news and entertainment in ways more beneficial to the U.S., marked an important turning point in U.S. public diplomacy development. Though it calls itself the largest Arabic-language news organization in the world, the Virginia-based Alhurra lacks the cachet and brand recognition of Al Jazeera, but its balanced presentation of news has earned it a small but significant viewership. Controversial innovations in radio broadcasting that target young mass audiences through a mix of light news and mild American popular music – "Radio Sawa in "Arabic and "Radio Farda in "Persian – have captured a substantial market share in their target regions."[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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