"Hallyu", also known as the "Korean Wave", is a "neologism referring to the increase in the popularity of South Korean culture since the late 1990s. According to a "Washington Post reporter, the increased popularity of South Korean entertainment has led to higher sales of other goods and services such as food, clothing, "video games, and "Korean language classes. Besides increasing the amount of exports, the Korean Wave is used by the government as a soft power tool to engage with the masses of young people all over the world, and to reduce "anti-Korean sentiment.
In the 21st century, culture is power.
In 2012, the "BBC's country rating poll revealed that public opinion of "South Korea has been improving every year since the first rating poll for the country was conducted in 2009. In several countries such as "Russia, "India, "China and "France, public opinion of South Korea turned from slightly negative to generally positive. The report cited culture and tradition as among the most important factors contributing to positive perceptions of South Korea. This comes alongside a rapid growth in the total value of cultural exports which rose to US$4.2 billion in 2011.
First driven by the spread of "Korean dramas televised across "East, "South and "Southeast Asia during its initial stages, the Korean Wave evolved from a regional development into a global phenomenon due to the proliferation of Korean pop ("K-pop) music videos on "YouTube. Currently, the spread of the Korean Wave to other regions of the world is most visibly seen among teenagers and young adults in "Latin America, the "Middle East, "North Africa, and "immigrant "enclaves of the "Western world.
Since the period of "Pax Britannica the "United Kingdom has held significant soft power. Today it remains one of the most influential countries in the world, coming first in the 2015 "Portland Group, "Comres, "Facebook report, and the Monocle survey of global soft power in 2012.
The UK has strong "diplomatic relations with countries around the world, particularly countries in the "Commonwealth of Nations and many others in Europe, Asia, the Middle-east, Africa and the "United States. Diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries are known as "High Commissions rather than "Embassies to indicate the closeness of the relationship. The UK exerts influence on countries within the "European Union, and has one of the largest global networks of "diplomatic missions. Many countries around the world use the British form of "democracy and "government known as the "Westminster system.
The influence of "British culture and "sports are widespread, particularly notable during the "British Invasion, "Cool Britannia, and more recently the "Diamond Jubilee and "2012 Summer Olympics. The "opening and "closing ceremonies celebrated British culture and achievements with the world. "London is the only city to have hosted the modern Olympics three times. British media is broadcast internationally, notably the "BBC World Service, "BBC World News and "The Economist magazine. "British film and literature have international appeal, and "British theatre helps make London one of the most visited cities in the world. Schools and "universities in Britain are popular destinations for students of other nations.
Alongside the English language, "English contract law is the most important and most used contract law in "international business. London is the headquarters for four of the world's six largest law firms. The UK and more specifically London is a centre of "international finance where foreign participants in financial markets come to deal with one another. It is headquarters for major international "corporations, many of which choose to be listed on the "London Stock Exchange.
"Soft power has been a strong suit for the United States virtually from its inception – certainly long before the country became a recognized world power in the twentieth century. American 'exceptionalism' – the nation’s devotion to freedom, the rule of law, and the practice of republican government, its openness to immigrants of all races and religions, its opposition to traditional power politics and imperialism – has had a great deal to do with the rise of the United States to its currently dominant global role." 
The "United States has long had a great deal of soft power. Examples include "Franklin D. Roosevelt's "four freedoms in Europe at the end of "World War II, young people behind the "Iron Curtain listening to "radio Free Europe, Chinese students symbolizing their protests in "Tiananmen Square by creating a replica of the "Statue of Liberty that they called "Goddess of Democracy", newly liberated Afghans in 2001 asking for a copy of the "Bill of Rights and young Iranians today surreptitiously watching banned American videos and satellite television broadcasts in the privacy of their homes. America's early commitment to religious toleration, for example, was a powerful element of its overall appeal to potential immigrants; and American aid in the reconstruction of Europe after World War II was an advertisement both of the prosperity and the generosity of the people of the United States.
Studies of American broadcasting into the "Soviet bloc, and testimonials from Czech President "Václav Havel, Polish President "Lech Wałęsa, and Russian President "Boris Yeltsin support that soft power efforts of the United States and its allies during the Cold War were ultimately successful in creating the favorable conditions that led to the collapse of the "Soviet empire.
"Satellite TV is actively promoting American soft power in the Arab world in ways that the United States has been incapable of doing. The launch of the Arabic-language "Alhurra satellite channel in early 2004 to provide news and entertainment in ways more beneficial to the U.S., marked an important turning point in U.S. public diplomacy development. Though it calls itself the largest Arabic-language news organization in the world, the Virginia-based Alhurra lacks the cachet and brand recognition of Al Jazeera, but its balanced presentation of news has earned it a small but significant viewership. Controversial innovations in radio broadcasting that target young mass audiences through a mix of light news and mild American popular music – "Radio Sawa in "Arabic and "Radio Farda in "Persian – have captured a substantial market share in their target regions."
- "Fifth power
- "Great power
- "Power projection
- "Intangible asset
- "Democratic peace theory
- "Power (social and political)
- "Public diplomacy
- "Smart power
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- Pages 23-24, 26: Including the European Union and excluding its member states, EU soft presence scores 52.2% of 1214.9, U.S. soft presence scores 46.8% of 1099.6
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Our partners at the Elcano Royal Institute have released their latest edition of the Global Presence Index. It confirms that the EU – if perceived as a single global actor – has the greatest degree of ‘presence’ in the world, largely because of the contributions of the UK, Germany and France.
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- "Enlightenment thought culminates historically in the political upheaval of the French Revolution, in which the traditional hierarchical political and social orders (the French monarchy, the privileges of the French nobility, the political power and authority of the Catholic Church) were violently destroyed and replaced by a political and social order informed by the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality for all, founded, ostensibly, upon principles of human reason." Enlightenment, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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As the Americans see it, Merkel – and certainly not the vainglorious European commission president, Jean-Claude Juncker – runs the EU. It is Merkel who negotiated the Minsk deal with Russia that defused the Ukraine crisis. She knows Vladimir Putin better than any other western leader does. It is Merkel who took the lead on Syrian refugees and the eurozone crisis.
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And of course, around the world, people are being swept up by Korean culture – the Korean Wave. And as I mentioned to President Park, my daughters have taught me a pretty good Gangnam Style.
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To prevent anti-Korean sentiment, the government will offer incentives for production companies or broadcasters planning to jointly produce movies or dramas with Chinese companies.
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First taking off in China and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, but really spiking after 2002, Korean TV dramas and pop music have since moved to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and now even parts of South America.; "Korean pop culture spreads in Cairo". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2013; Kember, Findlay. "Remote Indian state hooked on Korean pop culture". "Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 24 February 2013; "South Korea's K-pop spreads to Latin America". "Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 28 March 2013; Brown, August (29 April 2012). "K-pop enters American pop consciousness". "The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
The fan scene in America has been largely centered on major immigrant hubs like Los Angeles and New York, where Girls' Generation sold out Madison Square Garden with a crop of rising K-pop acts including BoA and Super Junior.; Seabrook, John. "Cultural technology and the making of K-pop". "The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
The crowd was older than I’d expected, and the ambience felt more like a video-game convention than like a pop concert. About three out of four people were Asian-American, but there were also Caucasians of all ages, and a number of black women.; Chen, Peter (9 February 2013). "'Gangnam Style': How One Teen Immigrant Fell For K-Pop Music". "The Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
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- Carnes Lord, "Public Diplomacy and Soft Power," in Waller, ed., Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda and Political Warfare (IWP Press, 2008) p. 61.
- Carnes Lord, "Public Dipmoacy and Soft Power," in Waller, ed., Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda and Political Warfare (IWP Press, 2008)
- Giulio Gallarotti, Cosmopolitan Power in International Relations: A Synthesis of Realism, Neoliberalism, and Constructivism, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2010, how hard and soft power can be combined to optimize national power
- Giulio Gallarotti, The Power Curse: Influence and Illusion in World Politics, Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner Press, 2010, an analysis of how the over reliance on hard power can diminish the influence of nations.
- Giulio Gallarotti. "Soft Power: What it is, Why It's Important, and the Conditions Under Which it Can Be Effectively Used" Journal of Political Power (2011), works.bepress.com.
- Soft Power and US Foreign Policy: Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, ed. Inderjeet Parmar and Michael Cox, Routledge, 2010.
- Steven Lukes, "Power and the battle for hearts and minds: on the bluntness of soft power," in Felix Berenskoetter and M.J. Williams, eds. Power in World Politics, Routledge, 2007.
- Janice Bially Mattern, "Why Soft Power Isn't So Soft," in Berenskoetter and Williams.
- J.S. Nye, "Notes for a soft power research agenda," in Berenskoetter and Williams.
- Young Nam Cho and Jong Ho Jeong, "China's Soft Power," Asia Survey 48, 3, pp. 453–72.
- Yashushi Watanabe and David McConnell, eds, Soft Power Superpowers: Cultural and National Assets of Japan and the United States, London, M E Sharpe, 2008.
- Ingrid d'Hooghe, "Into High Gear: China's Public Diplomacy", The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, No. 3 (2008), pp. 37–61.
- Ingrid d'Hooghe, "The Rise of China's Public Diplomacy", Clingendael Diplomacy Paper No. 12, The Hague, Clingendael Institute, July 2007, "ISBN 978-90-5031-117-5, 36 pp.
- "Playing soft or hard cop," The Economist, January 19, 2006.
- Y. Fan, (2008) "Soft power: the power of attraction or confusion", Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4:2, available at bura.brunel.ac.uk.
- Bruce Jentleson, "Principles: The Coming of a Democratic Century?" from American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century.
- Jan Melissen, "Wielding Soft Power," Clingendael Diplomacy Papers, No 2, Clingendael, Netherlands, 2005.
- Chicago Council on Global Affairs, "Soft Power in East Asia" June 2008.
- Joseph Nye, The Powers to Lead, NY Oxford University Press, 2008.
- Nye, Joseph, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics.
- "Joshua Kurlantzick, Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power is Transforming the World (Yale University Press, 2007). Analysis of China's use of soft power to gain influence in the world's political arena.
- "John McCormick The European Superpower (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006). Argues that the European Union has used soft power effectively to emerge as an alternative and as a competitor to the heavy reliance of the US on hard power.
- Ian Manners, Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?, princeton.edu
- "Matthew Fraser, Weapons of Mass Distraction: Soft Power and American Empire ("St. Martin's Press, 2005). Analysis is focused on the "pop culture aspect of soft power, such as movies, television, "pop music, "Disneyland, and American "fast-food brands including "Coca-Cola and "McDonald's.
- Middle East Policy Journal: Talking With a Region, mepc.org
- Salvador Santino Regilme, The Chimera of Europe's Normative Power in East Asia: A Constructivist Analysis Regilme, Salvador Santino Jr. (March 2011). "The Chimera of Europe's Normative Power in East Asia: A Constructivist Analysis" (PDF). Central European Journal of International and Security Studies. 5 (1): 69–90.
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