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Soup
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A Polish forest mushroom soup
Type Soup
Main ingredients "Liquid ("stock, "juice, water), "meat or "vegetables or other ingredients
Variations Clear soup, thick soup
"" Cookbook: Soup  "" Media: Soup

Soup is a primarily liquid "food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients such as "meat and "vegetables with "stock, "juice, water, or another "liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a "broth.

In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established "French classifications of clear soups are "bouillon and "consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: "purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; "bisques are made from puréed "shellfish or vegetables thickened with "cream; cream soups may be thickened with "béchamel sauce; and "veloutés are thickened with "eggs, "butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include egg,[1] "rice, "lentils, "flour, and "grains; many popular soups also include pumpkin, carrots, and potatoes.

Soups are similar to "stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid than stews.[2]

Contents

History[edit]

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Soup
("William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1865)

Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC.[3] Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of "waterproof containers (which probably came in the form of "clay vessels). Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used. This method was also used to cook acorns and other plants.

The word soup comes from "French soupe ("soup", "broth"), which comes through "Vulgar Latin suppa ("bread soaked in broth") from a "Germanic source, from which also comes the word ""sop", a piece of "bread used to soak up soup or a thick "stew.

The word "restaurant (meaning "[something] restoring") was first used in "France in the 16th century, to refer to a highly concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, that was advertised as an "antidote to physical "exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups. This prompted the use of the modern word restaurant for the eating establishments.

In the "US, the first colonial "cookbook was published by William Parks in "Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's "The Compleat Housewife; or Accomplished Gentlewoman's Companion, and it included several recipes for soups and bisques. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking; but as new "immigrants arrived from other countries, other national soups gained popularity. In particular, "German immigrants living in "Pennsylvania were famous for their "potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the "French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in "Boston called ""The Restorator", and became known as the "Prince of Soups". The first American cooking "pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making.

"Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time.

Commercial products[edit]

Commercial soup became popular with the invention of "canning in the 19th century, and today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market.

Canned[edit]

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An advertisement for Campbell's canned soup, circa 1913

"Doctor John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the "Campbell Soup Company, invented condensed soup in 1897.[4][5] Today, Campbell's "Tomato, "Cream of Mushroom, and "Chicken Noodle Soup are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume approximately 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year.[4]

"Canned soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding "water (or sometimes "milk), or it can be "ready-to-eat", meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Canned soup (condensed with liquid added, or "ready-to-eat") can be prepared by heating in a "pan, on the stovetop or in the "microwave. Such soups can be used as a "base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, meat, cream or pasta.

Condensing soup allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can and sold at a lower price than other canned soups. The soup is usually doubled in volume by adding a "can full" of water or milk (about 10 ounces).

Since the 1990s, the canned soup market has burgeoned with soups marketed as "ready-to-eat", which require no additional liquid to prepare. Microwaveable bowls have expanded the ready-to-eat canned soup market even more, offering convenience (especially in workplaces) and are popular lunch items.

In response to concern over the health effects of excessive "salt intake, some soup manufacturers have introduced reduced-salt versions of popular soups.[6]

Dried[edit]

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Dried ramen noodle soups are popular lunch items.

Dry soup mixes are sold by many manufacturers, and are reconstituted with hot water; other fresh ingredients may then be added.

The first dried soup was "bouillon cubes; the earlier "meat extract did not require refrigeration, but was a viscous liquid.

East Asian-style "instant noodle soups include "ramen and seasonings, and are marketed as a convenient and inexpensive instant meal, requiring only hot water for preparation.[7]

Western-style dried soups include vegetable, chicken base, potato, pasta and "cheese flavors.

Types[edit]

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Soup course

In French cuisine, soup is often served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad, cheese and dessert, and that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration".[8]

Dessert[edit]

Fruit[edit]

Fruit soups are prepared using fruit as a primary ingredient, and may be served warm or cold depending on the recipe. Many varieties of fruit soups exist, and they may be prepared based upon the availability of seasonal fruit.

Cold[edit]

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"Salmorejo is a thick variant of "gazpacho originating from "Andalusia.

Cold soups are a particular variation on the traditional soup, wherein the temperature when served is kept at or below room temperature. They may be sweet or savory. In summer, sweet cold soups can form part of a "dessert tray. An example of a savory chilled soup is "gazpacho, a chilled vegetable-based soup originating from Spain. Another example is mool naeng myun which is a Korean cold beef broth.[9]

Asian[edit]

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"Tom yum served in "Bangkok, "Thailand.
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Chinese fish ball soup sold in "Bukit Batok, Singapore.

A feature of East Asian soups not normally found in Western cuisine is the use of "tofu in soups. Many traditional East Asian soups are typically broths, "clear soups", or "starch thickened soups.

Traditional regional varieties[edit]

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Ukrainian soup
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Swiss soup
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Vegetable beef barley soup
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A thick pea soup "garnished with a "tortilla accent
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"Romanian potato soup
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Chunky tomato soup with a sandwich

As a figure of speech[edit]

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"Mirepoix consists of carrot, onion and celery and is often used for soup stocks and soups.

In the English language, the word "soup" has developed several uses in phrase.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thickening Soups. Bhg.com. Retrieved on 2 May 2013.
  2. ^ Goltz, Eileen (9 November 2008). "Soup vs. stew: Difference in details". The Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana). Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2010. 
  3. ^ Wu, X.; Zhang, C.; Goldberg, P.; Cohen, D.; Pan, Y.; Arpin, T.; Bar-Yosef, O. (2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. "doi:10.1126/science.1218643. "PMID 22745428. 
  4. ^ a b "Campbell's: Our Company, History". Campbellsoupcompany.com. 2005. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Peter Genovese (2006). New Jersey Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities and Other Offbeat Stuff. Globe Pequot Press. p. 174. "ISBN "978-0-7627-4112-0. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Hurley, J. and Liebman, B. Soups: The Middle Ground. Nutrition Action December 1997. Cspinet.org. Retrieved on 2 May 2013.
  7. ^ About Nissin Foods. Nissinfoods.com. Retrieved on 2 May 2013.
  8. ^ Olney, The French Menu Cookbook 1970:22.
  9. ^ Korean Cold Beef Arrowroot Noodle Soup, Mool Naeng Myun (칡냉면) & A Surprise Pairing. Korean American Mommy (18 July 2010). Retrieved on 2 May 2013.
  10. ^ Candelaria, Cordelia (2004). Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture. Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture. Greenwood Press. p. 291. "ISBN "978-0-313-33210-4. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  11. ^ Fulton, M. (2009). Margaret Fulton's Encyclopedia of Food and Cookery. Hardie Grant Books. p. 17. "ISBN "978-1-74273-231-2. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  12. ^ Frater, J. (2010). Listverse.com's Ultimate Book of Bizarre Lists. Ulysses Press. p. 140. "ISBN "978-1-56975-885-4. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  13. ^ Selasky, Susan (June 13, 2012). "French onion soup warms from the inside". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  14. ^ Smith, A. (2013). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. OUP USA. p. 242. "ISBN "978-0-19-973496-2. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  15. ^ Michigan Bean Soup recipe and history, the Honorable and Mrs. "John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senator.
  16. ^ Yarvin, B. (2012). The Ploughman's Lunch and the Miser's Feast. Harvard Common Press. p. 56. "ISBN "978-1-55832-413-8. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  17. ^ APPLE Jr, R. W. (28 May 2003). "A TASTE OF PHILADELPHIA; In Hoagieland, They Accept No Substitutes". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  18. ^ Sarianides, G. (2004). Nosthimia!: The Greek American Family Cookbook. New American Family Cookbooks. Capital Books, Incorporated. p. 42. "ISBN "978-1-931868-73-0. Retrieved December 23, 2016. 
  19. ^ "In the soup". McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2002. 

Further reading[edit]

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