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Soy sauce
""Soy sauce 2.jpg
A bowl of soy sauce
Mandarin Chinese name
"Traditional Chinese 醬油
"Simplified Chinese 酱油
Literal meaning "sauce oil"
Cantonese/Taiwanese name
"Chinese 豉油
Literal meaning "fermented bean oil"
Burmese name
"Burmese ပဲငံပြာရည်
"IPA "[pɛ́ ŋàɴ bjà jè]
Vietnamese name
"Vietnamese xì dầu or nước tương
Thai name
"Thai ซีอิ๊ว ("rtgssi-iw)
Korean name
"Hangul 간장
Literal meaning "seasoning sauce"
Japanese name
"Kanji 醤油
"Kana しょうゆ
Malay name
"Malay kicap
Indonesian name
"Indonesian kecap
Filipino name
"Tagalog toyo

Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in "British English)[1][2] is a Chinese "condiment made from a "fermented paste of "soybeans, roasted "grain, "brine, and "Aspergillus oryzae or "Aspergillus sojae "molds.[3] Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the "Western Han dynasty of ancient China[4][5][6][7] and spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment.[8]

Contents

History[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Soy sauce (酱油) is considered almost as old as soy paste — a type of fermented paste (Jiang, ) obtained from soybeans — which had appeared during the "Western Han dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site "Mawangdui.[6][5] There are several precursors of soy sauce that are associated products with soy paste. Among them the earliest one is Qing Jiang (清酱) that had appeared in AD 40 and was listed in Si Min Yue Ling (四民月令).[7] Others are Jiang Qing (酱清), Chi Zhi (豉汁) and Chi Qing (豉清) which are recorded in "Qi Min Yao Shu (齐民要术) in AD 540.[7] By the time of the "Song dynasty, the term soy sauce (酱油) had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment,[7] which are documented in two books: Shan Jia Qing Gong (山家清供)[9] and Pu Jiang Wu Shi Zhong Kui Lu (浦江吴氏中馈录)[10] during the "Song dynasty.

Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was "originally a way to stretch salt, historically an expensive commodity. During the "Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process.[5][11] By the time of the "Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient,[6][7] with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into "fish sauce.[12]

The 19th century Sinologist "Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained".[13]

Japan[edit]

Chinese Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into "Japan in the 7th century,[14] where it is known as shōyu (醤油, shōyu).[15][16]

Korea[edit]

The earliest soy sauce brewing in "Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the "Three Kingdoms.[17] The "Records of the Three Kingdoms, a "Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that ""Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." in the section named "Dongyi (Eastern foreigners), in the "Book of Wei.[18][19] "Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the "mural paintings of "Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century "Goguryeo.[20]

In "Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the "Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang (soy sauce) and "doenjang (soybean paste) along with "meju (soybean block) and "jeotgal (salted seafood) were prepared for the "wedding ceremony of the "King Sinmun in February 683.[21] "Sikhwaji, a section from "Goryeosa "(History of Goryeo), recorded that ganjang and "doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a "Khitan invasion, and in 1052, when a "famine occurred.[22] "Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and "Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and "doenjang.[17] "Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, and how to keep and preserve ganjang and "doenjang.[21]

Europe[edit]

Records of the "Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from "Dejima, Japan, to Batavia (present-day "Jakarta) on the island of "Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were then shipped to the Netherlands.[23]["citation needed] In the 18th century, diplomat and scholar "Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version.[24] By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European market, and the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product.[25] Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of "Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing.[25] Soy sauce made from ingredients such as "Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of "Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with "allspice and "mace.[26]

Production[edit]

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Soy sauce is made from "soybeans

Soy sauce is made either by fermentation or by "hydrolysis. Some commercial sauces have both fermented and chemical sauces.

Flavor, color, and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic "Maillard browning.[27]

Variation is usually achieved as the result of different methods and durations of "fermentation, different ratios of water, "salt, and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.

Traditional[edit]

Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as "Aspergillus oryzae and other related "microorganisms and yeasts (the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold as well as for the mold itself). Historically, the mixture was fermented naturally in large urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber.[28]

Traditional soy sauces take months to make:

  1. Soaking and cooking: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed.
  2. Koji culturing: An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself. The cultures include:
    • "Aspergillus: a "genus of fungus that is used for fermenting various ingredients (the cultures are called koji in Japanese). Three species are used for brewing soy sauce:
      • "A. oryzae: Strains with high "proteolytic capacity are used for brewing soy sauce.[29]
      • "A. sojae: This fungus also has a high proteolytic capacity.
      • A. tamari: This fungus is used for brewing tamari, a variety of soy sauce.
    • "Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the yeasts in the culture convert some of the sugars to ethanol which can undergo secondary reactions to make other flavor compounds
    • Other microbes contained in the culture:
      • Bacillus spp. (genus): This organism is likely to grow soy sauce ingredients, and to generate odors and ammonia.
      • Lactobacillus species: This organism makes a lactic acid that increases the acidity in the feed.
  3. Brewing: The cultured grain mixture is mixed into a specific amount of salt "brine for wet fermentation or with coarse salt for dry fermentation and left to brew. Over time, the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments and starches into simple sugars. This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary fermentation makes numerous flavor compounds typical of soy sauce.
  4. Pressing: The fully fermented grain slurry is placed into cloth-lined containers and pressed to separate the solids from the liquid soy sauce. The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further.
  5. Pasteurization: The raw soy sauce is heated to eliminate any active yeasts and molds remaining in the soy sauce and can be filtered to remove any fine particulates
  6. Storage: The soy sauce can be aged or directly bottled and sold.
""
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Soy and wheat with Aspergillus sojae cultures to brew soy sauce

Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein[edit]

Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-"hydrolyzed "soy protein instead of brewed with a traditional culture. This takes about three days.[30] Although they have a different flavor, aroma, and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces, they have a longer shelf life and are usually made for this reason. The clear plastic "packets of dark sauce common with Chinese-style take-out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula. Some higher-quality hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added salt, sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called "liquid aminos" in health food stores, similar to the way "salt substitutes are used. These products are, however, not necessarily low in sodium.

Variations by country[edit]

Soy sauce is widely used as an important flavoring and has been integrated into the "traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance, soy sauces made in different cultures and regions are different in taste, consistency, fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight.

Burmese[edit]

Burmese soy sauce production is dated back to the "Bagan era in the 9th and 10th century. Scripts written in praise of pe ngan byar yay (ပဲငံပြာရည်, literally "bean fish sauce") were found.["citation needed] Production increased during the "Konbaung dynasty, circa 1700, when there was bolstered migration of ethnic groups from the north to boost and modify the production of silk in "Amarapura.["citation needed] Thick soy sauce is called kya nyo (ကြာညို့, from Chinese jiàngyóu.

Chinese[edit]

Chinese soy sauces ("simplified Chinese: 酱油; "traditional Chinese: ; "pinyin: jiàng yóu; "Jyutping: zoeng3 jau4; "Cantonese Yale: jeungyàuh; or alternatively, 豉油; "pinyin: chǐyóu; "Jyutping: si6jau4; "Cantonese Yale: sihyàuh) are primarily made from "soybeans, with relatively low amounts of other grains. Chinese soy sauce can be roughly split into two classes: brewed or blended.

Brewed[edit]

""
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A bottle of commercially made light soy sauce

Soy sauce that has been brewed directly from a fermentation process using wheat, soybeans, salt, and water without additional additives.

Blended[edit]

Additives with sweet or umami (savory) tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture.

Filipino[edit]

""
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Toyomansi, a typical Filipino dipping sauce composed of soy sauce and "calamansi spiced with "siling labuyo

In the Philippines, soy sauce is called toyò in the "native languages, derived from "Tau-yu" in Hokkien and is a broad term used for both the Japanese shōyu and Chinese jiàngyóu. Philippine soy sauce is usually a combination of soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel color. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than its Southeast Asian counterparts, similar to Japanese variety.

Toyò is used as a marinade, an ingredient in cooked dishes, and most often as a table condiment, usually alongside other sauces such as "fish sauce (patís) and "sugar cane vinegar (sukà). It is often mixed and served with the juice of the "calamansi ("× Citrofortunella microcarpa; also called calamondin, limonsito). The combination is known as toyomansî, which can be comparable to the Japanese ponzu sauce (soy sauce with "yuzu). Toyò is also a main ingredient in "Philippine adobo, one of the more famous dishes of Filipino cuisine.

Hawaiian[edit]

Soy sauce is a very popular condiment and marinade for many dishes in the "Hawaiian cuisine. Aloha shoyu is soy sauce made in the Islands.[33] Aloha is of the acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein variety.

Indonesian[edit]

""
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Left, "ABC brand Kecap manis sweet Indonesian soy sauce is nearly as thick as "molasses; right, Kecap asin

In "Indonesia, soy sauce is known as kecap (old spelling: ketjap), which is a catch-all term for fermented "sauces, and "cognate to the English word ""ketchup".[34] The most popular type of soy sauce in Indonesian cuisine is kecap manis or "sweet soy sauce. The term kecap is also used to describe other non soy-based sauces, such as kecap ikan ("fish sauce) and kecap Inggris ("worcestershire sauce; lit. "English sauce", due to worchestershire sauce originating in England). Three common varieties of soy-based kecap exist in "Indonesian cuisine, used either as ingredients or "condiments:

Japanese[edit]

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Japanese supermarket soy sauce corner

Shōyu is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Most, but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient, which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also tend towards an alcoholic "sherry-like flavor, sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural "preservative. The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable, some recipes only call for one type or the other, much as a white wine cannot replace a red's flavor or beef stock does not make the same results as "fish stock.

Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about 50% wheat.

Varieties[edit]

Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:[36]

All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were made:

All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:[37]

Soy sauce is also commonly known as shoyu, and less commonly shōyu, in Hawaii and Brazil.

Korean[edit]

In Korea, soy sauces or ganjang (간장, "seasoning sauce") can be roughly split into two categories: hansik ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) and gaeryang ganjang (modernized soy sauce).[38][39] The term ganjang can also refer to non soy-based salty condiments, such as "eo-ganjang (fish sauce).

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Traditional Korean soy sauce

Hansik ganjang[edit]

"Hansik ganjang (한식간장, "Korean-style soy sauce") is made entirely of fermented soybean ("meju) and "brine. It is a byproduct of "doenjang (fermented soybean paste) production, and has a unique fermented soybean flavour. Both lighter in colour and saltier than other Korean ganjang varieties, hansik ganjang is used mainly in "guk (soup) and "namul (seasoned vegetable dish) in modern "Korean cuisine.[40] Common names for "hansik ganjang include jaeraesik ganjang (재래식 간장, "traditional soy sauce"), "Joseon-ganjang (조선간장, ""Joseon soy sauce"), and guk-ganjang (국간장, "soup soy sauce"). The homebrewed variety is also called jip-ganjang (집간장, "home soy sauce").

Depending on the length of aging, hansik ganjang can be divided into three main varieties: clear, middle, and dark.

"Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety's Food Code classifies hansik-ganjang into two categories by their ingredients.[38][39]

Gaeryang ganjang[edit]

Gaeryang-ganjang (개량간장, "modernized soy sauce"), referring to varieties of soy sauces not made of "meju, is now the most widely used type of soy sauce in modern "Korean cuisine.[41] The word ganjang without modifiers in "bokkeum (stir-fry), "jorim (braised or simmered dishes), and "jjim (steamed dishes) recipes usually mean gaeryang-ganjang. Another common name of gaeryang-ganjang is jin-ganjang (진간장, "dark soy sauce"), because gaeryang-ganjang varieties are usually darker in appearance compared to traditional hansik ganjang. Having been introduced to Korea during the "era of Japanese forced occupation, garyang ganjang is also called Wae-ganjang (왜간장, ""Wae soy sauce").

"Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety's Food Code classifies gaeryang-ganjang into four categories by their method of production.[38][39]

Other[edit]

Malaysian and Singaporean[edit]

Malays from Malaysia, using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian, use the word kicap for soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak (lit "fat/rich soy sauce") and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to Indonesian kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.

Taiwanese[edit]

The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China, in the provinces of "Fujian and "Guangdong. Taiwanese soy sauce is known for its "black bean variant, known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油), which takes longer to make (about 6 months). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan make soy sauce from soybeans and wheat. Some make black bean soy sauce.[44]

Thai[edit]

In Thailand, soy sauce is called sii-íu ("Thai: ซีอิ๊ว).

Sii-íu kǎao ("Thai: ซีอิ๊วขาว, "white soy sauce") is used as regular soy sauce in "Thai cuisine, while sii-íu dam ("Thai: ซีอิ๊วดำ, "black soy sauce") is used primarily for colour. Another darker-coloured variety, sii-íu wǎan ("Thai: ซีอิ๊วหวาน, "sweet soy sauce") is used for dipping sauces. Sɔ́ɔt prung rót ("Thai: ซอสปรุงรส, "seasoning sauce") is also commonly used in modern "Thai cuisine.

Vietnamese[edit]

In Vietnam, Chinese-style soy sauce is called xì dầu (derived from the Cantonese name 豉油) or nước tương. The term "soy sauce" could also imply other condiments and soy bean paste with thick consistency known as "tương. Both are used mostly as a seasoning or dipping sauce for a number of dishes. Vietnamese cuisine itself favors "fish sauce in cooking but nước tương has a clear presence in "vegetarian cuisine.

Nutrition[edit]

A study by the "National University of Singapore showed that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the "antioxidants of "red wine, and can help prevent "cardiovascular diseases.[45] Soy sauce is rich in "lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.[46][47]

Soy sauce does not contain the level of "isoflavones associated with other soy products such as "tofu or "edamame.[48] It can also be very "salty, having a salt content between 14–18%. Low-sodium soy sauces are made, but it is difficult to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt as an antimicrobial agent.[49]

A serving of 100 ml of soy sauce contains, according to the USDA:

Carcinogens[edit]

Soy sauce may contain "ethyl carbamate, a "Group 2A "carcinogen.[50]

In 2001, the United Kingdom "Food Standards Agency found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Thailand (made from hydrolyzed soy protein, rather than being naturally fermented) that 22% of tested samples, contained a chemical carcinogen named "3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol) at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second carcinogenic chemical named "1,3-DCP (1,3-dichloropropane-2-ol) which experts advise should not be present at any levels in food. Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from shelves and avoided. "3-MCPD and "1,3-DCP.[51][52][53][54] The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a "food scare in 2007.[55][56]

In Canada, the "Canadian Cancer Society writes,

"Health Canada has concluded that there is no health risk to Canadians from use of available soy and oyster sauces. Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of "3-MCPD could pose a health risk, Health Canada has established 1.0 part per million (ppm) as a guideline for importers of these sauces, in order to reduce Canadians' long-term exposure to this chemical. This is considered to be a very safe level.[57]

Allergies[edit]

Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat, to which some people have a medical intolerance.[58] However, some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific "intolerance to gluten because "gluten is not detectable in the finished product.[59] Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat-free, and some tamari available commercially today is wheat- and gluten-free.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/soy_sauce "...soy sauce (or soya sauce) forms a basic ingredient in East Asian cooking."
  2. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/jul/19/salmon-soba-noodles "For the marinade; 1 tbsp soya sauce"
  3. ^ 'Microbiology Laboratory Theory and Application.' Michael Leboffe and Burton Pierce, 2nd edition. pp.317
  4. ^ "Soy Sauce, China's Liquid Spice". www.flavorandfortune.com. Retrieved 2016-11-07. 
  5. ^ a b c 调料文化:酱油的由来
  6. ^ a b c Hsing-Tsung, Huang (2000). Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol.6, Part 5. Cambridge University Press. p. 346. "ISBN "0521652707. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Hsing-Tsung, Huang (2000). Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China, Vol.6, Part 5. Cambridge University Press. pp. 358–359. "ISBN "0521652707. 
  8. ^ Tanaka, Norio. "Shōyu: The Flavor of Japan," The Japan Foundation Newsletter Vol. XXVII, No. 2 (January 2000), p. 2.
  9. ^ 林洪. 山家清供. 
  10. ^ 浦江吴氏. 浦江吴氏中馈录. 
  11. ^ zh:酱
  12. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2002). Salt: A world history. New York: Walker and Co. p. 20. "ISBN "978-0-8027-1373-5. 
  13. ^ "Williams, Samuel Wells (1848), The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c. of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, 2 vol. Wiley & Putnam
  14. ^ Wilson, Kathy (2010). Biotechnology and genetic engineering. New York: Facts on File. p. 90. "ISBN "978-0-8160-7784-7. 
  15. ^ "Shoyu". Dictionary.com. 
  16. ^ "shoyu". Merriam-webster's Online Dictionary. 
  17. ^ a b 강, 명기 (20 October 2006). "항암효과가 탁월한 우리의 구수한 된장" [Our flavourful doenjang with potent antitumor effect]. Dailian (in Korean). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  18. ^ 황, 광해 (9 January 2013). "바람이 말리고 세월이 삭힌 깊은 맛" [Deep flavour, dried by wind and fermented by time]. Weekly Hankook (in Korean). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  19. ^ Koo, Chun-Sur (Spring 2004). "Ganjang and Doenjang: Traditional Fermented Seasonings" (PDF). Koreana. 18 (1). The Korea Foundation. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  20. ^ 신, 동민 (9 November 2015). "행복을 부르는 맛 '간장'…집에서 만든 만능간장소스 하나면 OK" [Ganjang, the flavour that brings happiness... Home-made versatile ganjang sauce is all you need]. Maekyung Economy (1831). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  21. ^ a b 하, 상도 (11 January 2016). "신라시대에 왕비 폐백품목에도 있었던 식품은?" [Guess what food was used for pyebaek ceremony of a Silla queen]. Chosun pub (in Korean). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  22. ^ 김, 성윤 (19 January 2012). "정월에 담근 장이 가장 맛있다는데…" [Jang tastes the best when made in the first month of the year (in the Lunar calendar)]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  23. ^ Tanaka, p. 6.
  24. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1781). "Bereiding van de Soya" ("Producing Soy Sauce"), Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap (Transactions of the Batavian Academy), Vol. III. OCLC 9752305
  25. ^ a b Tanaka, p. 7.
  26. ^ Warg, Cajsa (1770) Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber, "Soija" pp. 70—71 of the appendix
  27. ^ Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Maungma, Roungdao; Assavanig, Apinya; Bhumiratana, Amaret (2001-05-01). "Roles of the Maillard Reaction in Browning During Moromi Process of Thai Soy Sauce". Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 25 (2): 149–162. "doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2001.tb00450.x. "ISSN 1745-4549. 
  28. ^ "Tamari, Soy Sauce – San-J". san-j.com. 
  29. ^ Maheshwari, D.K.; Dubey, R.C.; Saravanamuthu, R. (2010). Industrial exploitation of microorganisms. New Delhi: I.K. International Pub. House. p. 242. "ISBN "978-93-8002-653-4. 
  30. ^ "Korean Restaurant Guide article on soy sauce". Koreanrestaurantguide.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  31. ^ Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili (September 2016). "Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis". Talanta. 158: 89–99. "doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2016.05.033. "PMID 27343582. 
  32. ^ jzqu20519. "咱へ故鄉 丸莊醬油" 
  33. ^ "Soy Sauce". alohashoyu.com. 
  34. ^ See discussion and references at Wiktionary: ketchup.
  35. ^ William Shurtleff; Akiko Aoyagi (2010). History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Southeast Asia (13th Century To 2010): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook. Soyinfo Center. p. 537. "ISBN "9781928914303. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  36. ^ Steinkraus, Keith H., ed. (2004). Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods (Second ed.). Marcel Dekker. p. 22. "ISBN "0-8247-4784-4. 
  37. ^ Wood, Brian J. B., ed. (1998). Microbiology of fermented foods. 1 (Second ed.). Blackie academic & professional. p. 364. "ISBN "0-7514-0216-8. 
  38. ^ a b c "Food_Code(No.2015-4_20150203)". www.mfds.go.kr. MFDS - Ministry Of Food And Drug Safety. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
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  40. ^ 정, 재균 (4 April 2014). "양조간장·진간장·국간장 무슨 차이지? 간장의 종류별 활용법" [Yangjo-ganjang, jin-ganjang, and guk-ganjang: What's the difference? Uses of different types of ganjang.]. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  41. ^ Jung, Soon Teck & Kang, Seong-Gook (2002). "The Past and Present of Traditional Fermented Foods in Korea". Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
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