The Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, also known as the Rogers Commission after its chairman, was formed to investigate the disaster. The commission members were Chairman "William P. Rogers, Vice Chairman "Neil Armstrong, "David Acheson, "Eugene Covert, "Richard Feynman, Robert Hotz, "Donald Kutyna, "Sally Ride, Robert Rummel, "Joseph Sutter, "Arthur Walker, Albert Wheelon, and "Chuck Yeager. The commission worked for several months and published a report of its findings. It found that the Challenger accident was caused by a failure in the O-rings sealing a joint on the right solid rocket booster, which allowed pressurized hot gases and eventually flame to "blow by" the O-ring and make contact with the adjacent external tank, causing structural failure. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a faulty design, whose performance could be too easily compromised by factors including the low temperature on the day of launch.
More broadly, the report also considered the contributing causes of the accident. Most salient was the failure of both NASA and Morton Thiokol to respond adequately to the danger posed by the deficient joint design. Rather than redesigning the joint, they came to define the problem as an acceptable flight risk. The report found that managers at Marshall had known about the flawed design since 1977, but never discussed the problem outside their reporting channels with Thiokol—a flagrant violation of NASA regulations. Even when it became more apparent how serious the flaw was, no one at Marshall considered grounding the shuttles until a fix could be implemented. On the contrary, Marshall managers went as far as to issue and waive six launch constraints related to the O-rings. The report also strongly criticized the decision-making process that led to the launch of Challenger, saying that it was seriously flawed:
failures in communication ... resulted in a decision to launch 51-L based on incomplete and sometimes misleading information, a conflict between engineering data and management judgments, and a NASA management structure that permitted internal flight safety problems to bypass key Shuttle managers.— Rogers Commission Report Chapter V
One of the commission's members was theoretical physicist "Richard Feynman. Feynman, who was then seriously ill with cancer, was reluctant to undertake the job. He did so to find the root cause of the disaster, and to speak plainly to the public about his findings. At the start of investigation, fellow members Dr. "Sally Ride and "General Kutyna gave Feynman a hint that the O-rings were not tested at temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F). During a televised hearing, Feynman demonstrated how the O-rings became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. While other members of the Commission met with NASA and supplier top management, Feynman sought out the engineers and technicians for the answers. He was critical of flaws in NASA's "safety culture", so much so that he threatened to remove his name from the report unless it included his personal observations on the reliability of the shuttle, which appeared as Appendix F. In the appendix, he argued that the estimates of reliability offered by NASA management were wildly unrealistic, differing as much as a thousandfold from the estimates of working engineers. "For a successful technology," he concluded, "reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled."
U.S. House Committee hearings
The "U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology also conducted hearings, and on October 29, 1986, released its own report on the Challenger accident. The committee reviewed the findings of the Rogers Commission as part of its investigation, and agreed with the Rogers Commission as to the technical causes of the accident. It differed from the committee in its assessment of the accident's contributing causes:
the Committee feels that the underlying problem which led to the Challenger accident was not poor communication or underlying procedures as implied by the Rogers Commission conclusion. Rather, the fundamental problem was poor technical decision-making over a period of several years by top NASA and contractor personnel, who failed to act decisively to solve the increasingly serious anomalies in the Solid Rocket Booster joints.
NASA and Air Force response
After the Challenger accident, further shuttle flights were suspended, pending the results of the Rogers Commission investigation. Whereas NASA had held an internal inquiry into the "Apollo 1 fire in 1967, its actions after Challenger were more constrained by the judgment of outside bodies. The Rogers Commission offered nine recommendations on improving safety in the space shuttle program, and NASA was directed by President Reagan to report back within thirty days as to how it planned to implement those recommendations.
When the disaster occurred, the Air Force had performed extensive modifications of its "Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6, pronounced as "Slick Six") at "Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, for launch and landing operations of classified Shuttle launches of satellites in polar orbit, and was planning its first polar flight for October 15, 1986. Originally built for the "Manned Orbital Laboratory project cancelled in 1969, the modifications were proving problematic and expensive, costing over $4 billion. The Challenger loss motivated the Air Force to set in motion a chain of events that finally led to the May 13, 1988 decision to cancel its Vandenberg Shuttle launch plans, in favor of the "Titan IV unmanned launch vehicle.
In response to the commission's recommendation, NASA initiated a total redesign of the space shuttle's solid rocket boosters, which was watched over by an independent oversight group as stipulated by the commission. NASA's contract with "Morton Thiokol, the contractor responsible for the solid rocket boosters, included a clause stating that in the event of a failure leading to "loss of life or mission," Thiokol would forfeit $10 million of its incentive fee and formally accept legal liability for the failure. After the Challenger accident, Thiokol agreed to "voluntarily accept" the monetary penalty in exchange for not being forced to accept liability.
NASA also created a new Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance, headed as the commission had specified by a NASA associate administrator who reported directly to the NASA administrator. George Martin, formerly of "Martin Marietta, was appointed to this position. Former Challenger flight director "Jay Greene became chief of the Safety Division of the directorate.
The unrealistically optimistic launch schedule pursued by NASA had been criticized by the Rogers Commission as a possible contributing cause to the accident. After the accident, NASA attempted to aim at a more realistic shuttle flight rate: it added another orbiter, "Endeavour, to the space shuttle fleet to replace Challenger, and it worked with the Department of Defense to put more satellites in orbit using "expendable launch vehicles rather than the shuttle. In August 1986, President Reagan also announced that the shuttle would no longer carry commercial "satellite payloads. After a 32-month hiatus, the next shuttle mission, "STS-26, was launched on September 29, 1988.
Although changes were made by NASA after the Challenger accident, many commentators have argued that the changes in its management structure and organizational culture were neither deep nor long-lasting.
After the "Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, attention once again focused on the attitude of NASA management towards safety issues. The "Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded that NASA had failed to learn many of the lessons of Challenger. In particular, the agency had not set up a truly independent office for safety oversight; the CAIB felt that in this area, "NASA's response to the Rogers Commission did not meet the Commission's intent". The CAIB believed that "the causes of the institutional failure responsible for Challenger have not been fixed," saying that the same "flawed decision making process" that had resulted in the Challenger accident was responsible for "Columbia's destruction seventeen years later.
While the presence of "New Hampshire's "Christa McAuliffe, a member of the "Teacher in Space program, on the Challenger crew had provoked some media interest, there was little live broadcast coverage of the launch. The only live national TV coverage available publicly was provided by "CNN;. Los Angeles station "KNBC also carried the launch with anchor "Kent Shocknek describing the tragedy as it happened. Live radio coverage of the launch and explosion was heard on ABC Radio anchored by "Vic Ratner and Bob Walker. "CBS Radio News carried the launch live but cut out of coverage seconds before the explosion necessitating anchor "Christopher Glenn to hastily scramble back on the air to report what had happened.
"NBC, "CBS and "ABC all broke into regular programing shortly after the accident; NBC's "John Palmer announced there had been "a major problem" with the launch. Both Palmer and CBS anchor "Dan Rather reacted to cameras catching live video of something descending by parachute into the area where Challenger debris was falling with confusion and speculation that a crew member may have ejected from the shuttle and survived. The shuttle had no individual ejection seats or a crew escape capsule. Mission control identified the parachute as a paramedic parachuting into the area but this was also incorrect based on internal speculation at mission control. The chute was the parachute and nose cone from one of the solid rocket boosters which had been destroyed by the "range safety officer after the explosion. Due to McAuliffe's presence on the mission, NASA arranged for many US public schools to view the launch live on "NASA TV. As a result, many who were schoolchildren in the US in 1986 had the opportunity to view the launch live. After the accident, 17 percent of respondents in one study reported that they had seen the shuttle launch, while 85 percent said that they had learned of the accident within an hour. As the authors of the paper reported, "only two studies have revealed more rapid dissemination [of news]." (One of those studies was of the spread of news in "Dallas after "President John F. Kennedy's "assassination, while the other was the spread of news among students at "Kent State regarding "President Franklin D. Roosevelt's death.) Another study noted that "even those who were not watching television at the time of the disaster were almost certain to see the graphic pictures of the accident replayed as the television networks reported the story almost continuously for the rest of the day." Children were even more likely than adults to have seen the accident live, since many children—48 percent of nine to thirteen-year-olds, according to a "New York Times poll—watched the launch at school.
Following the day of the accident, press interest remained high. While only 535 reporters were accredited to cover the launch, three days later there were 1,467 reporters at Kennedy Space Center and another 1,040 at the Johnson Space Center. The event made headlines in newspapers worldwide.
Use as case study
The Challenger accident has frequently been used as a case study in the study of subjects such as "engineering safety, the ethics of "whistle-blowing, communications, group decision-making, and the dangers of "groupthink. It is part of the required readings for engineers seeking a professional license in Canada and other countries. "Roger Boisjoly, the engineer who had warned about the effect of cold weather on the O-rings, left his job at Morton Thiokol and became a speaker on workplace ethics. He argues that the "caucus called by Morton Thiokol managers, which resulted in a recommendation to launch, "constituted the unethical decision-making forum resulting from intense customer intimidation." For his honesty and integrity leading up to and directly following the shuttle disaster, Roger Boisjoly was awarded the Prize for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the "American Association for the Advancement of Science. Many colleges and universities have also used the accident in classes on the "ethics of engineering.
Information designer "Edward Tufte has claimed that the Challenger accident is an example of the problems that can occur from the lack of clarity in the presentation of information. He argues that if Morton Thiokol engineers had more clearly presented the data that they had on the relationship between low temperatures and burn-through in the solid rocket booster joints, they might have succeeded in persuading NASA managers to cancel the launch. To demonstrate this, he took all of the data he claimed the engineers had presented during the briefing, and reformatted it onto a single graph of O-ring damage versus external launch temperature, showing the effects of cold on the degree of O-ring damage. Tufte then placed the proposed launch of Challenger on the graph according to its predicted temperature at launch. According to Tufte, the launch temperature of Challenger was so far below the coldest launch, with the worst damage seen to date, that even a casual observer could have determined that the risk of disaster was severe.
Tufte has also argued that poor presentation of information may have also affected NASA decisions during the last flight of the space shuttle "Columbia.
Boisjoly, Wade Robison, a "Rochester Institute of Technology professor, and their colleagues have vigorously repudiated Tufte's conclusions about the Morton Thiokol engineers' role in the loss of Challenger. First, they argue that the engineers didn't have the information available as Tufte claimed: "But they did not know the temperatures even though they did try to obtain that information. Tufte has not gotten the facts right even though the information was available to him had he looked for it." They further argue that Tufte "misunderstands thoroughly the argument and evidence the engineers gave." They also criticized Tufte's diagram as "fatally flawed by Tufte's own criteria. The vertical axis tracks the wrong effect, and the horizontal axis cites temperatures not available to the engineers and, in addition, mixes O-ring temperatures and ambient air temperature as though the two were the same."
The Challenger disaster also provided a chance to see how traumatic events affected children's psyches. At least one psychological study has found that memories of the Challenger explosion were similar to memories of experiencing single, unrepeated traumas. The majority of children's memories of Challenger were often clear and consistent, and even things like personal placement such as who they were with or what they were doing when they heard the news were remembered well. In one U.S. study, children's memories were recorded and tested again. Children on the East Coast recalled the event more easily than children on the West Coast, due to the time difference. Children on the East Coast either saw the explosion on TV while in school, or heard people talking about it. On the other side of the country, most children were either on their way to school, or just beginning their morning classes. Researchers found that those children who saw the explosion on TV had a more emotional connection to the event, and thus had an easier time remembering it. After one year the children's memories were tested, and those on the East Coast recalled the event better than their West Coast counterparts. Regardless of where they were when it happened, the Challenger explosion was still an important event that many children easily remembered.
Continuation of the Shuttle Program
After the accident, NASA's Space Shuttle fleet was grounded for almost three years while the investigation, hearings, engineering redesign of the SRBs, and other behind-the-scenes technical and management reviews, changes, and preparations were taking place. At 11:37 on September 29, 1988, "Space Shuttle Discovery lifted off with a crew of five from Kennedy Space Center pad 39-B. It carried a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, TDRS-C (named TDRS-3 after deployment), which replaced TDRS-B, the satellite that was launched and lost on Challenger. The "Return to Flight" launch of Discovery also represented a test of the redesigned boosters, a shift to a more conservative stance on safety (e.g., it was the first time the crew had launched in pressure suits since STS-4, the last of the four initial Shuttle test flights), and a chance to restore national pride in the American space program, especially manned space flight. The mission, "STS-26, was a success (with only two minor system failures, one of a cabin cooling system and one of a Ku-band antenna), and a regular schedule of STS flights followed, continuing without extended interruption until the 2003 Columbia disaster.
"Barbara Morgan, the backup for McAuliffe who trained with her in the Teacher in Space program and was at KSC watching her launch on January 28, 1986, flew on "STS-118 as a Mission Specialist in August 2007.
The families of the Challenger crew organized the "Challenger Center for Space Science Education as a permanent memorial to the crew. Fifty-two learning centers have been established by this "non-profit organization.["citation needed]
The final episode of the "second season of "Punky Brewster was notable for centering on the very recent, real-life Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Punky and her classmates watched the live coverage of the shuttle launch in Mike Fulton's class. After the accident occurred, Punky is traumatized, and finds her dreams to become an astronaut are crushed. She writes a letter to NASA, and is visited by special guest star "Buzz Aldrin. Although the episode received high ratings, NBC would, in the following weeks, decide to cancel the show.
On the evening of April 5, 1986, the "Rendez-vous Houston concert commemorated and celebrated the crew of the Challenger. It featured a live performance by musician "Jean Michel Jarre, a friend of crew member "Ron McNair. McNair was supposed to play the "saxophone from space during the track "Last Rendez-Vous". It was to have become the first musical piece professionally recorded in space.["citation needed] His substitute for the concert was Houston native "Kirk Whalum.["citation needed]
In June 1986, singer-songwriter "John Denver, a pilot with a deep interest in going to space himself, released the album One World which included the song Flying For Me a tribute to the Challenger crew.
"Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home was dedicated to the crew of the Challenger. Principal photography for The Voyage Home began four weeks after Challenger and her crew were lost.
In 1988, seven craters on the far side of the "moon, within the "Apollo Basin, were named after the fallen astronauts by the "IAU.
The Squadron "Challenger" 17 is an Air Force unit in the Texas A&M Corps of Cadets that emphasizes athletic and academic success in honor of the Challenger crew. The unit was established in 1992.
In "Huntsville, Alabama, home of "Marshall Space Flight Center, Challenger Elementary School, Challenger Middle School, and the Ronald E. McNair Junior High School are all named in memory of the crew. (Huntsville has also named new schools posthumously in memory of each of the "Apollo 1 astronauts and the final Space Shuttle Columbia crew.) Streets in a neighborhood established in the late-1980s in nearby "Decatur are named in memory of each of the Challenger crew members (Onizuka excluded), as well as the three deceased Apollo 1 astronauts.["citation needed] Julian Harris Elementary School is located on McAuliffe Drive, and its mascot is the Challengers.
In San Antonio, Texas, Scobee Elementary School opened in 1987, the year after the disaster. Students at the school are referred to as "Challengers." An elementary school in "Nogales, Arizona, commemorates the accident in name, Challenger Elementary School, and their school motto, "Reach for the sky". The suburbs of "Seattle, Washington are home to Challenger Elementary School in "Issaquah, Washington and Christa McAuliffe Elementary School in "Sammamish, Washington. and Dick Scobee Elementary in Auburn, Washington. In "San Diego, California, the next-opened public middle school in the San Diego Unified School District was named Challenger Middle School. The City of "Palmdale, the birthplace of the entire shuttle fleet, and its neighbor City of "Lancaster, California, both renamed 10th Street East, from Avenue M to "Edwards Air Force Base, to Challenger Way in honor of the lost shuttle and its crew.["citation needed] This was the road that the Challenger, Enterprise, and Columbia all were towed along in their initial move from "U.S. Air Force Plant 42 to Edwards AFB after completion since Palmdale airport had not yet installed the shuttle crane for placement of an orbiter on the "747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.["citation needed] In addition, the City of Lancaster has built Challenger Middle School, and Challenger Memorial Hall at the former site of the Antelope Valley Fairgrounds, all in tribute to the Challenger shuttle and crew.["citation needed] Another school was opened in "Chicago, IL as the Sharon Christa McAuliffe Elementary school. The public Peers Park in "Palo Alto, California features a "Challenger Memorial Grove" that includes redwood trees grown from seeds carried aboard "Challenger in 1985. In Boise, ID, "Boise High School has a memorial to the Challenger astrounauts. In 1986 in "Webster, Texas, the "Challenger Seven Memorial Park" was also dedicated in remembrance of the event.
In "Port Saint John, Florida within "Brevard County the same county that the "Kennedy Space Center resides in is the Challenger 7 Elementary School which is named in memory of the seven crew members of "STS-51-L. There is also a middle school in neighboring Rockledge, McNair Magnet School, named after astronaut Ronald McNair. A middle school (formerly high school) in "Mohawk, New York is named after "Payload Specialist Gregory Jarvis. Another middle school in Boynton Beach, Florida, is named after deceased teacher Christa McAuliffe. There are also schools in Denver, Colorado, Saratoga, California, Lowell, Massachusetts, Houston, Texas, and Lenexa, Kansas, named in honor of Christa McAuliffe. The "McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center, a science museum and planetarium in "Concord, New Hampshire, is also partly named in her honor. There is also an elementary school in Germantown, Maryland, named after Christa McAuliffe as well as in Green Bay, Wisconsin and Hastings, Minnesota. The draw bridge over the barge canal on State Rd.3 on "Merritt Island, Florida, is named the Christa McAuliffe Memorial Bridge. In Oxnard, Ca, McAuliffe Elementary School is named after Christa McAuliffe, and bears tribute to the crew of the Challenger flight in its logo, with an image of the Shuttle and the motto "We Meet The Challenge." They crew and mission are also tributed by the schools mascot, The Challengers, and their saying "We Reach for the Stars."
The 1996 "science fiction "television series "Space Cases is set on a spaceship known as the Christa, named in honor of Christa McAuliffe, described in the series as "an Earth teacher who died during the early days of space exploration."
In 1997, playwright "Jane Anderson wrote a play inspired by the Challenger incident entitled Defying Gravity.
In 2004, President "George W. Bush conferred posthumous "Congressional Space Medals of Honor to all 14 crew members lost in the Challenger and Columbia accidents.
In 2009, Allan J. McDonald, former director of the Space Shuttle Solid Motor Rocket Project for Morton Thiokol, Inc. published his book Truth, Lies, and O-Rings: Inside the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster. Up to that point, no one directly involved in the decision to launch Challenger had published a memoir about the experience.
In June 14, 2011, Christian electronic/dance pop singer Adam Young, through his "electronica project, released a "song about the Challenger incident on his third studio album "All Things Bright and Beautiful.
In December 2013, "Beyoncé released a song titled ""XO", which begins with a sample of former NASA public affairs officer Steve Nesbitt, recorded moments after the disaster: "Flight controllers here looking very carefully at the situation. Obviously a major malfunction." The song raised controversy, with former NASA astronauts and families labelling Knowles' sample as "insensitive." Hardeep Phull of "New York Post described the sample's presence as "tasteless," and "Keith Cowing of NASA Watch suggested that the usage of the clip ranged from "negligence" to "repugnant." On December 31, 2013, NASA criticized the use of the sample, stating that "The Challenger accident is an important part of our history; a tragic reminder that space exploration is risky and should never be trivialized. NASA works everyday to honor the legacy of our fallen astronauts as we carry out our mission to reach for new heights and explore the universe." On December 30, 2013, Knowles issued a statement to "ABC News, saying: "My heart goes out to the families of those lost in the Challenger disaster. The song 'XO' was recorded with the sincerest intention to help heal those who have lost loved ones and to remind us that unexpected things happen, so love and appreciate every minute that you have with those who mean the most to you. The songwriters included the audio in tribute to the unselfish work of the Challenger crew with hope that they will never be forgotten."
On June 16, 2015, "post-metal band "Vattnett Viskar released a full-length album titled Settler which was largely inspired by the Challenger accident and "Christa McAuliffe in particular. The album was released in Europe on June 29. Guitarist Chris Alfieri stated in a June 17, 2015 interview with Decibel Magazine that, "Christa was from Concord, New Hampshire, the town that I live in. One of my first memories is the Challenger mission’s demise, so it’s a personal thing for me. But the album isn’t about the explosion, it's about everything else. Pushing to become something else, something better. A transformation, and touching the divine."
On June 27, 2015, the "Forever Remembered" exhibit at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Florida, opened and includes a display of a section of Challenger's recovered fuselage to memorialize and honor the fallen astronauts. The exhibit was opened by NASA Administrator Charles Bolden along with family members of the crew.
On August 7, 2015 English singer-songwriter "Frank Turner released his sixth album "Positive Songs for Negative People which includes the song "Silent Key".
The mountain range "Challenger Colles on "Pluto was named in honor of the victims of the Challenger disaster.
The "Challenger Columbia Stadium in "League City, Texas is named in honor of the victims of both the Challenger disaster as well as the "Columbia disaster in 2003.
Until 2010, the live broadcast of the launch and subsequent disaster by CNN was the only known on-location video footage from within range of the launch site. More recently, as of March 15, 2014, seven other motion picture recordings of the event have become publicly available:
- a professional black and white NASA video recording closely showing the breakup and the subsequent remote detonation of one of the booster rockets.
- a video recording by Jack Moss from the front yard of his house in Winter Haven, Florida, 80 miles (130 km) from Cape Canaveral
- a video recording by Ishbel and Hugh Searle on a plane leaving from "Orlando International Airport, 50 miles (80 km) from Cape Canaveral, was posted by their daughter Victoria Searle on January 30, 2011 along with an interview taken on January 28, 2011 by Ishbel and Hugh Searle
- a video recording by Bob Karman from "Orlando International Airport, 50 miles (80 km) from Cape Canaveral
- a "Super 8 mm film recorded by then-19-year-old Jeffrey Ault of Orange City, Florida, at the Kennedy Space Center, 10 miles (16 km) from the launch
- a video recording by Lawrence Hebert of Electric Sky Films, filmed at the Kennedy Space Center, 10 miles (16 km) from the launch, uncovered in March 2012
- a video recording by Steven Virostek uncovered in May 2012
- a video recording by Michael and Frances VanKulick of "Melbourne, Florida was made public in 2014.
An "ABC "television movie titled "Challenger was broadcast on February 24, 1990. It starred "Barry Bostwick as Scobee, "Brian Kerwin as Smith, "Joe Morton as McNair, "Keone Young as Onizuka, "Julie Fulton as Resnik, "Richard Jenkins as Jarvis and "Karen Allen as McAuliffe.
A "BBC "docudrama titled "The Challenger was broadcast on March 18, 2013, based on the last of "Richard Feynman's autobiographical works, "What Do You Care What Other People Think?. It stars "William Hurt as Feynman.
In the "Sega Saturn version of the video game "The House of the Dead, the words "Challenger, go at throttle up", spoken by "Richard O. Covey from the mission control room only seconds before the explosion, can be heard in the soundtrack of Stage 2, several times.
- "Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
- "Criticism of the Space Shuttle program
- "Engineering disasters
- "List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents
- "PEPCON disaster
- The first two Space Shuttle orbiters, Enterprise and Columbia, originally had "ejection seats installed in the flight deck for the pilot and co-pilot in the initial test missions. Because of the configuration of the crew cabin, such seats could not be used for the remaining six passenger positions. The pilot's ejection seats were disabled after "STS-4 and subsequently removed by the launch of "STS-61 on January 12, 1986, and were never installed on the remaining four orbiters.
- Shuttle Carrying New Escape System- Associated Press accessed 10/23/2016 http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1988/Shuttle-Carrying-New-Escape-System/id-50c3be84147652b242204463a5b036d5
- LA Times, 04/08/1988 Shuttle to Have Device Enabling Crew to Escape: "Studies in the wake of the Challenger disaster showed that astronauts probably would not survive an ocean ditching… There is still no way for crew members to escape from the vehicle in the event of a catastrophic accident such as the failure of the Challenger's solid booster and the explosion of its external fuel tank." Retrieved October 23, 2016: http://articles.latimes.com/1988-04-08/news/mn-1124_1_crew-members
- Outer Space Universe. "Remembering the Challenger Shuttle Explosion: A Disaster 25 Years Ago". Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- "On January 28, 1986, Space Shuttle Challenger Exploded 76 Seconds After Launch (VIDEO)". Viral Video Box. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- "Solid Rocket Motor Joint Reliability" (PDF). NASA Engineering.
- Heppenheimer, T. A. (1998). The Space Shuttle Decision. NASA publication SP-4221. pp. 419–420.
- McConnell, Malcolm. Challenger: A Major Malfunction, page 118.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Chapter VI: An Accident Rooted in History".
- Vaughan, Diane (1996). The Challenger launch decision: risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 143–144. "ISBN "978-0-226-85175-4.
- Vaughan, Diane (1996). The Challenger launch decision: risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. University Of Chicago Press. p. 153. "ISBN "978-0-226-85175-4.
- Vaughan, Diane (1996). The Challenger launch decision: risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. University Of Chicago Press. p. 162. "ISBN "978-0-226-85175-4.
- "STS-51-L mission archives". NASA.
- McConnell, Malcolm. Challenger: A Major Malfunction, pages 150–153.
- McConnell, Malcolm. Challenger: A Major Malfunction, page 154.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Chapter II: Events Leading Up to the Challenger Mission". Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Chris Bergin (January 28, 2007). "Remembering the mistakes of Challenger". nasaspaceflight.com. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- Berkes, Howard (February 6, 2012). "Remembering Roger Boisjoly: He Tried To Stop Shuttle Challenger Launch". All Things Considered. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Chapter V: The Contributing Cause of The Accident". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Ware, Doug G. (January 28, 2016). "Engineer who warned of 1986 Challenger disaster still racked with guilt, three decades on". United Press International. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- Iliff, Ken (January 1, 2004). "NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS): From Runway to Orbit, Reflections of a NASA Engineer (NASA SP-4109)". nasa.gov. p. 291. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
Not violating flight rules was something I had been taught on the X-15 program. It was something that we just never did. We never changed a mission rule on the fly. We aborted the mission and came back and discussed it. Violating a couple of mission rules was the primary cause of the Challenger accident.Iliff further states that the reasons behind this tragedy are "in many ways, unforgivable."
- A major source for information about the Challenger accident is the STS 51-L Incident Integrated Events Timeline developed by the NASA Photo and TV Support Team as part of the Rogers Report. Numerous other timelines have been written based on this information. A detailed transcript of air-to-ground and mission control voice communications was put together by journalists Rob Navias and William Harwood, integrating a timeline of events:"Challenger timeline". NASA/Spaceflight Now. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Volume 3: Appendix N - NASA Photo and TV Support Team Report". Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Photo and TV Analysis Team Report (1986). Space Shuttle Challenger Accident Investigation. STS-51L Data and Analysis Task Force. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- NASA Mission Archives. "STS-51L". Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Lewis, Richard S. (1988). Challenger: The Final Voyage. Columbia University Press. p. 16. "ISBN "0-231-06490-X.
- Than, Ker (January 7, 2011). "5 Myths of Challenger Shuttle Disaster Debunked". Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Kerwin, Joseph P. (July 28, 1986). "Joseph P. Kerwin to Richard H. Truly". Retrieved July 4, 2006.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Chapter IX: Other Safety Considerations". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "NASA Facts Agency Contingency Plan" (PDF).
- Barbree, Jay (January 1997). "Chapter 5: An eternity of descent". msnbc.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
- Joseph P. Kerwin's letter to Admiral Truly nasa.gov
- "Mullane, Mike (2006). Riding Rockets: The Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut. Simon and Schuster. p. 245. "ISBN "978-0-7432-7682-5. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Rogers Commission (June 1987). "Implementation of the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Recommendation VII". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century by Rank - American Rhetoric". americanrhetoric.com. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- Lucas, Stephen E.; Medhurst, Martin J. (November 2008). Words of a Century: The Top 100 American Speeches, 1900-1999. "Oxford University Press. "ISBN "9780195168051.
- Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Address to the nation on the Challenger disaster. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
- "Reagan's Eulogy for the Challenger Astronauts". Ronald Reagan. January 31, 1986.
- "When a Community Weeps: Case Studies in Group Survivorship—Google Books Result" (page 29 of book), by Ellen Zinner, Mary Beth Williams, 1999, Psychology Press, p.29, webpage: Books-Google-ID-id=8DuhIv8U11oC&pg=PA29.
- Bernard Weintraub (February 1, 1986). "Reagan Pays Tribute to 'Our 7 Challenger Heroes'". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Jensen, Claus, No Downlink, p. 17.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Volume 3, Appendix O: NASA Search, Recovery and Reconstruction Task Force Team Report". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- Isikoff, Michael (March 10, 1986). "Remains of Crew Of Shuttle Found". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- Barbree, Jay (January 1997). "Chapter 6: Raising heroes from the sea". msnbc.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
- "Remains of Crew Of Shuttle Found". "The Washington Post. March 10, 1986. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Lucas, Dean (2007). "Famous Pictures Magazine—Challenger". Famous Pictures Magazine. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- CNN (1996), "Shuttle Challenger debris washes up on shore". December 17, 1996. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
- collectSpace.com (2007). "Seller admits to Challenger debris fraud". collectSpace.com. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- Garmon, Jay (January 24, 2006). "Rising from the ashes". Tech Republic.
- Hohler, Robert (January 29, 1987). "I Touch the Future,' Part V : The McAuliffe Family Is Finding Signs of Hope Amid the Grief". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- "The Shuttle Challenger Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery". Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- Day, Dwayne A. "The spooks and the turkey" The Space Review, 20 November 2006.
- Day, Dwayne A. "Big Black and the new bird: the NRO and the early Space Shuttle" The Space Review, 11 January 2010.
- Futron Corporation (November 2004). "Design Reliability Comparison for SpaceX Falcon Vehicles" (PDF). Futron Corporation. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Abernathy, R.N. (20 February 1998). "Titan 34D-9 Abort Cloud Measurements--Quantitative Imagery from Two Camera Sites". Space and Missile Systems Center, Air Force Materiel Command. pp. 10 (of PDF), 1 (as numbered). Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (June 2005). "NOAA GOES-N,O,P -- The Next Generation" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 36 (of PDF), 34 (as numbered). Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- American Pacific Corporation, Las Vegas, NV USA, 89169, parent company of the former PEPCON subsidiary and current parent to the WECCO division which manufactures perchlorate chemicals, including Human Resources, employees on site 5-4-88.
- Reinhold, Robert (January 29, 1986). "The Shuttle Explosion; At Mission Control, Silence and Grief Fill a Day Of Horror Long Dreaded". The New York Times. pp. A8.
- Harwood, William (1986). "Voyage Into History; Chapter Six: The Reaction". Archived from the original on May 4, 2006. Archived by the Internet Archive on May 4, 2006.
- See, for example, New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 29, 1986, p. 1.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Chapter IV: The Cause of the Accident". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Freeman Dyson, 2011, "The Dramatic Picture of Richard Feynman, " New York Review of Books, July 14, 2011. Reprinted in "ISBN 9781590178546
- "An Oral History Of The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster". Popular Mechanics. 2016-01-28. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- "Feynman, Richard P. (October 1988). What Do You Care What Other People Think? Further Adventures of a Curious Character. W W Norton. "ISBN "978-0-393-02659-7.
- Feynman, Richard P. (1986) Appendix F- Personal Observations on the reliability of the Shuttle.
- U.S House Committee on Science and Technology (October 29, 1986). "Investigation of the Challenger Accident; Report of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives" (PDF). US Government Printing Office.
- "Report to the President: Actions to Implement the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident" (PDF). NASA. July 14, 1986.
- John Pike. "Space Launch Complex 6 [SLC-6]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Rogers Commission (June 1987). "Implementation of the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Recommendation IV". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "J.H. Greene (July 12, 2004). "NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Biographical Data Sheet" (PDF). NASA.
- Rogers Commission (June 1987). "Implementation of the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Recommendation VII". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Columbia Accident Investigation Board (2003). "Report of Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Volume I, chapter 7, page 178 (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Columbia Accident Investigation Board (2003). "Report of Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Volume I, chapter 8, page 195 (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- James Oberg (January 25, 2011). "7 myths about the Challenger shuttle disaster". msnbc.com.
- Riffe, Daniel; James Glen Stoval (Autumn 1989). "Diffusion of News of Shuttle Disaster: What Role for Emotional Response?". Journalism Quarterly. Association for education in journalism and mass communication: 552.
- Wright, John C.; Dale Kunkel; Marites Pinon; Aletha C. Huston (Spring 1989). "How Children Reacted to Televised Coverage of the Space Shuttle Disaster". Journal of Communication. 39 (2): 27. "doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01027.x.
- Andrews, Gordon C.; John D. Kemper (1999). Canadian Professional Engineering Practice and Ethics (2nd ed.). Toronto: Harcourt Canada. pp. 255–259. "ISBN "0-7747-3501-5.
- "Roger Boisjoly and the Challenger disaster". onlineethics.org. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "Boisjoly, Roger. "Ethical Decisions—Morton Thiokol and the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster: Telecon Meeting". onlineethics.org. Retrieved December 15, 2006.
- "Engineering Ethics:The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster". Department of Philosophy and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- Hoover, Kurt; Wallace T. Fowler. "Studies in Ethics, Safety, and Liability for Engineers: Space Shuttle Challenger". The University of Texas at Austin and Texas Space Grant Consortium. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- "Edward Tufte. (1997) Visual Explanations, "ISBN 0-9613921-2-6, Chapter 2.
- Tufte, Edward. "PowerPoint Does Rocket Science—and Better Techniques for Technical Reports". Retrieved January 28, 2007.
- Robison, W.; Boisjoly, R.; Hoeker, D. & Young, S. (2002). "Representation and Misrepresentation: Tufte and the Morton Thiokol Engineers on the Challenger" (PDF). Science and Engineering Ethics. 8: 59–81. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- The preceding reference is used by the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research of the National Academy of Engineering of the National Academies.
- "Connect with us!". psychiatryonline.org. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- John A. Logsdon. "Return to Flight...Challenger Accident". History.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- Margulies, Lee (February 19, 1986). "'Punky' Deals With Shuttle Tragedy". LA Times. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- O'Hallaren, Bill (March 2, 1986). "Her show may be a flop but Soleil Moon Frye is riding high on the wave of popularity". New Straits Times. pp. 2, 15. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Jarvis on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: McAuliffe on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: McNair on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Onizuka on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Resnik on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Scobee on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Smith on Moon". usgs.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Squadron 17 Challenger". Corps of Cadets, Texas A&M University.
- "Outfit Genealogy". Texas Aggie Corps of Cadets Association.
- "Challenger Elementary School". Issaquah School District. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Christa McAuliffe Elementary School". Lake Washington School District. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Challenger Middle School History". Huntsville City Schools. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "Christa McAuliffe Elementary - Chicago". Chicago Public Schools. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- "Peers Park - City of Palo Alto". City of Palo Alto, California. February 16, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- "Challenger Seven Memorial". Harris County Precinct One, Texas. January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Challenger 7 Elementary School". challenger.brevard.k12.fl.us. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "Ronald McNair Magnet Middle School". Mcnair.ms.brevard.k12.fl.us. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "S. Christa McAuliffe Elementary School". S. Christa McAuliffe Elementary School. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- "Green Bay Christa McAuliffe Elementary". Green Bay Christa McAuliffe Elementary. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- "McAuliffe Elementary School". Hastings, Minnesota Public Schools.
- Noles, Timothy & Sileno, Michael (October 22–25, 2002). "Retrofit of the Christa McAuliffe Bridge" (PDF). Heavy Movable Structures, Inc. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- "Mcaullife Elementary School". oxnardsd.org/mcauliffe/home.aspx/.
- "In Defying Gravity, a National Tragedy Becomes a Personal One | Playbill". Playbill. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "Congressional Space Medal of Honor". NASA. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- "Engineer Who Opposed Challenger Launch Offers Personal Look at Tragedy".
- Halliday, Josh (January 1, 2014). "Nasa criticises Beyoncé over Challenger sample". "The Guardian. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- Eames, Tom (December 30, 2013). "Beyoncé criticised over Challenger disaster sample on 'XO'". "Digital Spy. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
- Phull, Hardeep (December 13, 2013). "Beyonce's sexy new album: Track by track". "New York Post. "News Corp. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- "Cowing, Keith (December 29, 2013). "Beyoncé: Sampling The Sounds of Tragedy For Pop Music". NASA Watch. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- Sandell, Clayton; Sunseri, Gina (December 30, 2013). "Beyoncé Slammed for Sampling Shuttle Tragedy on New Album". "ABC News. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
- "Nick Thornbury, Chris Alfieri & Casey Aylward (Vattnet Viskar) interviewed". Decibel Magazine. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "NASA exhibits space shuttles Challenger, Columbia debris for first time - collectSPACE". collectSPACE.com. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Silent Key by Frank Turner Songfacts". songfacts.com. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- "Rare Declassified Challenger Explosion NASA Footage".
- Richard Luscombe (February 4, 2010). "Challenger space shuttle disaster amateur video discovered". The Guardian.
- Ishbel, Hugh & Victoria Searle (January 30, 2011). "Rare Space Shuttle Challenger Footage".
- Sandrine Ceurstemont (February 21, 2012). "Rare amateur video captures Challenger tragedy up close". New Scientist.
- Timothy Stevonec (March 9, 2012). "New Challenger Video: Super 8 Film Of Space Shuttle Disaster Uncovered (Exclusive Video)". The Huffington Post.
- Lawrence Hebert (March 11, 2012). "The very latest 1986 Challenger Shuttle Explosion video". Electric Sky Films.
- Timothy Stevonec (May 1, 2012). "New Challenger Video: Rare Footage Of 1986 Disaster Uncovered (Exclusive Video)". The Huffington Post.
- Timothy Stevonec (January 28, 2014). "Challenger Disaster Home Video Surfaces After 28 Years (EXCLUSIVE)". The Huffington Post.
- Kogan, Rick (February 23, 1990). "Abc`s `Challenger` Is Another Disaster". "Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Baker, Frank (February 22, 1990). "Challenger TV Film Upsets All Close to Teacher". "Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- "Karen Allen Lands 'Challenger' Role". "Orlando Sentinel. June 29, 1989. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- "BBC - Media Centre - The Challenger". Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- "BBC Two - The Challenger". Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Tetsuya Kawauchi (October 29, 2011). "The House Of The Dead Music: Chapter 2". Sega Saturn.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the "National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
- "Boisjoly, Roger. "Ethical Decisions—Morton Thiokol and the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster: Telecon Meeting". onlineethics.org. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
- Columbia Accident Investigation Board (2003). "Report of Columbia Accident Investigation Board". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Feynman, Richard P. (1986) Rogers Commission Report, Volume 2 Appendix F- Personal Observations on Reliability of Shuttle. (html)
- Jensen, Claus. (1996) No Downlink: A Dramatic Narrative about the Challenger Accident and Our Time. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux. "ISBN 0-374-12036-6.
- McConnell, Malcolm. (1987) Challenger: A Major Malfunction. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. "ISBN 0-385-23877-0.
- M8 Entertainment Inc. (May 24, 2006). "Media 8 To Produce "Challenger" Directed by Philip Kaufman". spaceref.com. Retrieved September 21, 2006.
- "Rendez-Vous Houston". jarreuk.com. Retrieved November 19, 2006.
- Riffe, Daniel; James Glen Stoval (Autumn 1989). "Diffusion of News of Shuttle Disaster: What Role for Emotional Response?". Journalism Quarterly. Association for education in journalism and mass communication.
- Rogers Commission (June 6, 1986). "Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident". Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Rogers Commission (June 1987). "Implementation of the Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident". Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Vaughan, Diane. (1996) The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "ISBN 0-226-85176-1.
- Wallace, Brendan & Ross, Alastair (2006) Beyond Human Error. Florida: CRC Press. "ISBN 978-0-8493-2718-6
- Wright, John C.; Dale Kunkel; Marites Pinon; Aletha C. Huston (Spring 1989). "How Children Reacted to Televised Coverage of the Space Shuttle Disaster". Journal of Communication. 39 (2): 27. "doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01027.x.
- "Boisjoly, Roger. "Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster: Telecon Meeting". onlineethics.org. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
- Evans, Ben (2007). Space shuttle challenger: ten journeys into the unknown. Published in association with Praxis Pub. "ISBN "978-0-387-46355-1. Retrieved July 12, 2011
- Pinkus, Rosa Lynn (1997). Engineering Ethics: Balancing Cost, Schedule, and Risk. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "0-521-43171-9.
- Schwartz, Howard S. (1990). Narcissistic Process and Corporate Decay: The Theory of the Organization Ideal. NYU Press. "ISBN "0-8147-7938-7.
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.|
- Rogers Commission Report (pdf, 9.85Mb) - compiled by Thomas ('thomasafb')
- Challenger disaster: remembered. "The Boston Globe. January 28, 2011.
- Complete text and audio and video of Ronald Reagan's Shuttle Challenger Address to the Nation AmericanRhetoric.com
- Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy - video of shuttle launch and Reagan's address - YouTube
- January 29, 1986 newspaper
- NASA History Office. "Challenger STS 51-L Accident". NASA. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- NASA Kennedy Space Center. "Sequence of Major Events of the Challenger Accident". NASA. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Harwood, William; Rob Navias. "Challenger timeline". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- CBS Radio news Bulletin of the Challenger Disaster anchored by Christopher Glenn from January 28, 1986
- 30 Years After Explosion, Challenger Engineer Still Blames Himself—"NPR (January 28 and 29, 2016)