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In "philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses.[1] This includes philosophies that postulate a "personal God, the "immortality of the soul, or the immortality of the intellect or will, as well as any systems of thought that assume a "universal mind or cosmic forces lying beyond the reach of purely "materialistic interpretations.[1] Generally, any philosophical position, be it "dualism, "monism, "atheism, "theism, "pantheism, "idealism or any other, is compatible with spiritualism as long as it allows for a reality beyond matter.[1][2] Theism is an example of a dualist spiritualist philosophy, while pantheism is an example of monist spiritualism.[2]

Notable spiritualist thinkers[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Encyclopædia Britannica, "Spiritualism (in philosophy)", britannica.com
  2. ^ a b William James (1 January 1977). A pluralistic universe. Harvard University Press. p. 16. "ISBN "978-0-674-67391-5. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Su-Young Park-Hwang (1998), L'habitude dans le spiritualisme français: Maine de Biran, Ravaisson, Bergson, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.
  4. ^ "Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida, Taylor & Francis, 1998, p. 10: "Victor Cousin's eclectic spiritualism".

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