Some regions have games that are particular to their home, for example "Gaelic games in Ireland, "shinty in Scotland, "pétanque in southern France, "bandy in Russia and Scandinavia, or "bullfighting in Spain.
Europe was the birthplace of the Olympic Movement that has become so central to modern individual sport, with the "International Olympic Committee founded in "Switzerland in 1894 and "Rome being the first country to hold the "First Olympic Games. Europe has hosted a total of 30 Olympic Games (16 Summer and 14 Winter), more than any other region in the world.
During the Cold War, the "Soviet Union, "East Germany and other communist countries had a fierce rivalry in the Olympic Games with West Europe countries and the United States. Notable events include the "Blood in the Water match in 1956, the "1972 Olympic Men's Basketball Final, the "Miracle on Ice in the "1980 Winter Olympics, and the "1980 and "1984 boycotts.
Unlike "major team sports in North America, where franchises are awarded to nominated cities, most European teams have grown from small clubs formed by groups of individuals before growing rapidly. Churches, universities and work places have often been the most fertile birthplace of many of Europe's major sports clubs, particularly in "Britain, which in latter part of the nineteenth century led the way in organised sports.
Clubs therefore had an equal chance to grow to become among the strongest in their particular sport which has led to a situation where many large cities are represented by multiple top class teams in the same sport. In the "2016–17 football season, "London has five teams playing in the "Premier League, while "Liverpool and "Manchester also have double representation.