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Main article: "XML

The "W3C XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a profile (subset) of SGML designed to ease the implementation of the parser compared to a full SGML parser, primarily for use on the World Wide Web. In addition to disabling many SGML options present in the reference syntax (such as omitting tags and nested subdocuments) XML adds a number of additional restrictions on the kinds of SGML syntax. For example, despite enabling SGML shortened tag forms, XML does not allow unclosed start or end tags. It also relied on many of the additions made by the WebSGML Annex. XML currently is more widely used than full SGML. XML has lightweight "internationalization based on "Unicode. Applications of XML include "XHTML, "XQuery, "XSLT, "XForms, "XPointer, "JSP, "SVG, "RSS, "Atom, "XML-RPC, "RDF/XML, and "SOAP.



While HTML was developed partially independently and in parallel with SGML, its creator "Tim Berners-Lee, intended it to be an application of SGML.["citation needed] The design of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) was therefore inspired by SGML tagging, but, since no clear expansion and parsing guidelines were established, most actual HTML documents are not valid SGML documents. Later, HTML was reformulated (version 2.0) to be more of an SGML application, however, the HTML markup language has many legacy- and exception- handling features that differ from SGML's requirements. HTML 4 is an SGML application that fully conforms to ISO 8879 – SGML.[14]

The charter for the recently["when?] revived "World Wide Web Consortium HTML Working Group says, "the Group will not assume that an SGML parser is used for 'classic HTML'".[15] Although HTML syntax closely resembles SGML syntax with the default reference "concrete syntax, "HTML5 abandons any attempt to define HTML as an SGML application, explicitly defining its own parsing rules,[16] which more closely match existing implementations and documents. It does, however, define an alternative XHTML serialization, which conforms to XML and therefore to SGML as well.[17]


The second edition of the "Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is entirely marked up with an SGML-based markup language.[18]

The third edition is marked up as XML.


Other document markup languages are partly related to SGML and XML, but — because they cannot be parsed or validated or other-wise processed using standard SGML and XML tools — they are not considered either SGML or XML languages; the Z Format markup language for typesetting and documentation is an example.

Several modern programming languages support tags as primitive token types, or now support Unicode and "regular expression pattern-matching. An example is the "Scala programming language.


Document markup languages defined using SGML are called "applications" by the standard; many pre-XML SGML applications were proprietary property of the organizations which developed them, and thus unavailable in the World Wide Web. The following list is of pre-XML SGML applications.

Open-source implementations[edit]

Significant "open-source implementations of SGML have included:

SP and Jade, the associated DSSSL processors, are maintained by the OpenJade project, and are common parts of Linux distributions. A general archive of SGML software and materials resides at SUNET. The original HTML parser class, in Sun System's implementation of Java, is a limited-features SGML parser, using SGML terminology and concepts.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 34 – Document description and processing languages". ISO. Retrieved 2009-12-25. 
  2. ^ ISO JTC1/SC34. "JTC 1/SC 34 – Document Description and Processing Languages". Retrieved 2009-12-25. 
  3. ^ ISO/IEC 10744 – Hytime
  4. ^ "ISO/IEC TR 9573" (PDF). "ISO. 1991. Retrieved August 2010.  Check date values in: |access-date= ("help)
  5. ^ "Goldfarb, Charles F. (1996). "The Roots of SGML – A Personal Recollection". Retrieved July 7, 2007. 
  6. ^ "Goldfarb, Charles F. (1990). "The SGML Handbook". 
  7. ^ Terms and Definitions of ISO 8879 draft
  8. ^ Wohler, Wayne (July 21, 1998). "SGML Declarations". Retrieved August 17, 2009. 
  9. ^ Egmond (December 1989). "The Implementation of the Amsterdam SGML Parser" (PDF). 
  10. ^ Carroll, Jeremy J. (November 26, 2001). "CoParsing of RDF & XML" (PDF). "Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved October 9, 2009. 
  11. ^ "SGML: Grammar Productions". 
  12. ^ "Re: Other whitespace problems was Re: Whitespace rules (v2)". 
  13. ^ Bruggemann-Klein. "Compiler-Construction Tools and Techniques for SGML parsers: Difficulties and Solutions". 
  14. ^ "HTML 4–4 Conformance: requirements and recommendations". Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  15. ^ "Lilley, Chris; "Berners-Lee, Tim (February 6, 2009). "HTML Working Group Charter". Retrieved April 19, 2007. 
  16. ^ "HTML5 — Parsing HTML documents". World Wide Web Consortium. October 28, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  17. ^ Dubost, Karl (January 15, 2008). "HTML 5, one vocabulary, two serializations". Questions & Answers blog. "W3C. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Cowlishaw, M. F. (1987). "LEXX—A programmable structured editor". IBM Journal of Research and Development. "IBM. 31 (1): 73. "doi:10.1147/rd.311.0073. 

External links[edit]

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