|བོད་སྐད་ Bod skad / Böké
ལྷ་སའི་སྐད་ Lha-sa'i skad / Lhaséké
|Native to||"China, "Nepal, "India|
|Region||"Tibet Autonomous Region, Kham|
|(1.2 million cited 1990 census)|
Official language in
|"China ("Tibet Autonomous Region),
"Nepal ("Upper Mustang)
|"Regulated by||Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language|
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the "Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of "Lhasa, an "Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Lhasa Tibetan. Tibetan is an official language of the "Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The written language is based on "Classical Tibetan and is highly "conservative.
Like many languages, Standard Tibetan has a variety of "language registers:
Unlike many other languages of "East Asia and especially "Chinese, another Sino-Tibetan language, there are no numeral auxiliaries or "measure words used in counting in Tibetan although words expressive of a collective or integral are often used after the tens, sometimes after a smaller number.
In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as in Vedic "Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words.
"Wylie transliteration is the most common system of "romanization used by Western scholars in rendering written Tibetan using the "Latin alphabet (such as employed on much of this page). "Tibetan pinyin, however, is the official romanization system employed by the government of the "People's Republic of China. Certain names may also retain irregular transcriptions, such as Chomolungma for "Mount Everest.
The following summarizes the sound system of the dialect of Tibetan spoken in "Lhasa, the most influential variety of the spoken language.
Tournadre and Sangda Dorje describe eight vowels in the standard language:
Three additional vowels are sometimes described as significantly distinct: [ʌ] or [ə], which is normally an allophone of /a/; [ɔ], which is normally an allophone of /o/; and [ɛ̈] (an unrounded, centralised, mid front vowel), which is normally an allophone of /e/. These sounds normally occur in closed syllables; because Tibetan does not allow "geminated consonants, there are cases in which one syllable ends with the same sound as the one following it. The result is that the first is pronounced as an open syllable but retains the vowel typical of a closed syllable. For instance, zhabs (foot) is pronounced [ɕʌp] and pad (borrowing from Sanskrit padma, "lotus) is pronounced [pɛʔ], but the compound word, zhabs pad is pronounced [ɕʌpɛʔ]. This process can result in minimal pairs involving sounds that are otherwise allophones.
Sources vary on whether the [ɛ̈] phone (resulting from /e/ in a closed syllable) and the [ɛ] phone (resulting from /a/ through the "i-mutation) are distinct or basically identical.
Phonemic vowel length exists in Lhasa Tibet but in a restricted set of circumstances. Assimilation of Classical Tibetan's suffixes, normally ‘i (འི་), at the end of a word produces a long vowel in Lhasa Tibetan; the feature is sometimes omitted in phonetic transcriptions. In normal spoken pronunciation, a lengthening of the vowel is also frequently substituted for the sounds [r] and [l] when they occur at the end of a syllable.
The vowels /i/, /y/, /e/, /ø/, and /ɛ/ each have nasalized forms: /ĩ/, /ỹ/, /ẽ/, /ø̃/, and /ɛ̃/, respectively, which historically results from /in/, /en/, etc. In some unusual cases, the vowels /a/, /u/, and /o/ may also be nasalised.
The Lhasa dialect is usually described as having two tones: high and low. However, in monosyllabic words, each tone can occur with two distinct contours. The high tone can be pronounced with either a flat or a falling contour, and the low tone can be pronounced with either a flat or rising-falling contour, the latter being a tone that rises to a medium level before falling again. It is normally safe to distinguish only between the two tones because there are very few "minimal pairs that differ only because of contour. The difference occurs only in certain words ending in the sounds [m] or [ŋ]; for instance, the word kham ("Tibetan: ཁམ་, "piece") is pronounced [kʰám] with a high flat tone, whereas the word Khams ("Tibetan: ཁམས་, "the "Kham region") is pronounced [kʰâm] with a high falling tone.
In polysyllabic words, tone is not important except in the first syllable.
|"Plosive||"aspirated||pʰ||tʰ||ʈʰ ~ ʈʂʰ||cʰ||kʰ|
|pharyngealized||pˤ||tˤ||ʈˤ ~ ʈʂˤ||cˤ||kˤ||ʔ|
The unaspirated stops /p/, /t/, /c/, and /k/ typically become voiced in the low tone and are pronounced [b], [d], [ɟ], and [ɡ], respectively. The sounds are regarded as allophones. Similarly, the aspirated stops [pʰ], [tʰ], [cʰ], and [kʰ] are typically lightly aspirated in the low tone. The dialect of the upper social strata in Lhasa does not use voiced stops in the low tone.
The standard Tibetan verbal system distinguishes four tenses and three evidential moods.
|Personal||V-gi-yin||V-gi-yod||V-pa-yin / byuṅ||V-yod|
The three moods may all occur with all three grammatical persons, though early descriptions associated the personal modal category with European first-person agreement.
In the 18th and 19th centuries several Western linguists arrived in Tibet:
In much of Tibet, "primary education is conducted either primarily or entirely in the Tibetan language, and bilingual education is rarely introduced before students reach "middle school. However, Chinese is the language of instruction of most Tibetan "secondary schools. Students who continue on to "tertiary education have the option of studying "humanistic disciplines in Tibetan at a number of minority colleges in China. That contrasts with Tibetan schools in "Dharamsala, India, where the Ministry of Human Resource Development curriculum requires academic subjects to be taught in English from middle school. Literacy and enrollment rates continue to be the main concern of the "Chinese government. Much of the adult population in Tibet remains illiterate, and despite "compulsory education policies, many parents in rural areas are unable to send their children to school.
In February 2008, "Norman Baker, a UK MP, released a statement to mark "International Mother Language Day claiming, "The Chinese government are following a deliberate policy of extinguishing all that is Tibetan, including their own language in their own country" and he asserted a right for Tibetans to express themselves "in their mother tongue". However, "Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has noted that "within certain limits the "PRC does make efforts to accommodate Tibetan cultural expression" and "the cultural activity taking place all over the Tibetan plateau cannot be ignored."
Some scholars also question such claims because most Tibetans continue to reside in rural areas where Chinese is rarely spoken, as opposed to Lhasa and other Tibetan cities where Chinese can often be heard. In the Texas Journal of International Law, "Barry Sautman stated that "none of the many recent studies of endangered languages deems Tibetan to be imperiled, and language maintenance among Tibetans contrasts with language loss even in the remote areas of Western states renowned for liberal policies... claims that primary schools in Tibet teach Mandarin are in error. Tibetan was the main language of instruction in 98% of "TAR primary schools in 1996; today, Mandarin is introduced in early grades only in urban schools.... Because less than four out of ten TAR Tibetans reach secondary school, primary school matters most for their cultural formation."
The most important Tibetan branch of language under threat is, however, the "Ladakhi language of the Western Tibetan group, in the "Ladakh region of India. In "Leh, a slow but gradual process is underway whereby the Tibetan vernacular is being supplanted by English and Hindi, and there are signs of a gradual loss of Tibetan cultural identity in the area. The adjacent "Balti language is also in severe danger, and unlike Ladakhi, it has already been replaced by "Urdu as the main language of "Baltistan, particularly due to settlers speaking Urdu from other areas moving to that area.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Research on Tibetan Languages: A Bibliography|
|Tibetan edition of "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|