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A stateless nation is a political term for an "ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own "state[1] and is not the majority population in any "nation state.[2] The term "stateless" implies that the group "should have" such a state.[3] Members of stateless nations may be citizens of the country in which they live, or they may be denied "citizenship by that country. Stateless nations are usually not represented in international sports or in international organisations such as the "United Nations. Nations without state are classified as "fourth world nations.[4][5][6] Some of the stateless nations have a history of "statehood, some were always a stateless nation, dominated by another nation.

The term was coined in 1983 by political scientist Jacques Leruez in his book "L'Ecosse, une nation sans Etat" about the peculiar position of "Scotland within the "British state. It was later adopted and popularized by "Scottish scholars such as David McCrone, "Michael Keating and T.M. Devine.[7]

Stateless nations either are dispersed across a number of states (for example, the "Yoruba people are found in the "African states of "Nigeria, "Benin and "Togo) or form the "native population of a "province within a larger state (such as the "Uyghur people in the "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region within the "People's Republic of China). Some stateless nations historically had a state, which was absorbed by another; for example, "Tibet's declaration of independence in 1913 was not recognized, and it was invaded in 1951 by the "People's Republic of China which claims that "Tibet is an integral part of China, while the "Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent state under an unlawful occupation.[8][9] Some ethnic groups were once a stateless nation that later became a nation state (for example, the nations of the "Balkans such as the "Croats, "Serbs, "Bosniaks, "Slovenes, "Montenegrins, "Kosovars and "Macedonians were once part of a multinational state of "Yugoslavia; since the "breakup of Yugoslavia many nation states were formed).

Stateless nations can have large populations ; for example the "Kurds have an estimated population of over 30 million people[10] Multiple stateless nations can reside in the same geographical region or country; for example, "Catalans, "Basques, "Aragonese, "Galicians, "Asturians, "Valencians and "Andalusians within "Spanish State, or the "Brahui, "Rohingya, "Assamese, "Santhals, "Maithils and "Balochs in "South Asia.[11] However, not all peoples within multi-cultural states have the same conscience to be a stateless nation. In Spain, only Basques and Catalans have claimed their right of self-determination, which in the Basque country gave rise to the militant movement "ETA, and in the case of "Catalonia, has led to multiple attempts of secession from Spain during the past four centuries, as an independent "Catalan Republic.

As not all states are nation states, there are a number of ethnic groups who live in a "multinational state without being considered "stateless nations".

Contents

Nation-states and nations without states[edit]

The symbiotic relationship between nations and states arose in early modern Western Europe (18th century) and it was exported to the rest of the world through colonial rule. Whereas the Western European nation-states are at present relinquishing some of their powers to the European Union, many of the former colonies are now the zealous defenders of the concept of nation-state.[3]

Only a small fraction of the world's national groups have associated nation-states. The proportion was estimated to be 3 percent by Minahan. The rest are distributed in one or more states. Of the 192 member states of the "United Nations in 2006, fewer than 20 are nation-states. Thus nation-states are not as common as often assumed, and stateless nations are the overwhelming majority of nations in the world.[3]

Consequences of colonialism and imperialism[edit]

During the "imperial and "colonial era, powerful nations extended their influence outside their homeland and this resulted in many colonized nations ceasing to be "self-governing and have since been described as stateless nations.[12] Some nations have been victims of "carve out" and their homeland was divided among several countries. Even today the colonial boundaries form modern national boundaries. These often differ from cultural boundaries. This results in situations where people of the same language or culture are divided by national borders, for example "New Guinea splits as "West Papua (former "Dutch colony) and "Papua New Guinea (former "British colony).[13] During "decolonization, the colonial powers imposed a unified state structure irrespective of the ethnic differences and granted independence to their "colonies as a "multinational state. This led to "successor states with many minority ethnic groups in them, which increased the potential for "ethnic conflicts.[14][15][16][17] Some of these minoritiy groups campaigned for "self-determination. Stateless nations were not protected in all countries and become victims of atrocities such as "discrimination, "ethnic cleansing, "genocide, "forced assimilation and "exploitation.[18]

Nationalism and stateless nations[edit]

People with a common origin, history, language, culture, customs or religion can turn into a "nation by awakening of "national consciousness.[19] A nation can exist without a state, as is exemplified by the stateless nations. Citizenship is not always the nationality of a person.[20] In a multinational state different national identities can coexist or compete: for example, in "Britain both "English nationalism and "Scottish nationalism exist and are held together by "British nationalism.[21] Nationalism is often connected to "separatism, because a nation achieves completeness through its independence.[22]

Throughout history, numerous nations "declared their independence, but not all succeeded in establishing a state. Even today, there are active autonomy and independence movements around the world. The claim of the stateless nations to "self-determination is often denied due to "Geopolitical interests and increasing "globalization of the world.[23][24][25][26] Stateless nations sometimes show solidarity with other stateless nations and maintain diplomatic relations.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the "help page).

Not all peoples claim that they are nations or aspire to be states. Some see themselves as part of the multinational state and they believe that their interests are well represented in it. This is also associated with "Pan-nationalism ("Indian nationalism or "Chinese nationalism).[27]

Claims of stateless nations[edit]

The following is a list of stateless nations that meet these criteria:

People Flag Language Predominant religion Population (approx.) Continent States Homeland Irredentist movement Notes
"Sindhi
""Flag of Sindhudesh.svg
"Sindhi "Islam 40,000,000[29] Asia "Pakistan "Sindhudesh "JSQM, "JSMM, "Sindhudesh Liberation Army
"Kurds
""Flag of Kurdistan.svg
"Kurdish "Islam with minorities of "Christianity, "Zoroastrianism, "Yazdânism "Deism and "Agnosticism 36,400,000–45,000,000[30] Asia "Iraq, "Turkey, "Iran and "Syria "Kurdistan "Kurdish–Turkish conflict, "Kurdish-Iranian conflict, "Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, and "Kurdish–Syrian conflict Regional autonomy in "Iraqi Kurdistan and "Rojava.
"Yoruba people
""Flag of the Yoruba people.svg
"Yoruba language "Christianity 35,000,000[31][32] Africa "Nigeria, "Benin and "Togo "Yorubaland "Oodua Peoples Congress
"Igbo people
""Flag of Biafra.svg
"Igbo language "Christianity(primarily "Roman Catholicism with significant "Protestant minorities 30,000,000[33] Africa "Nigeria "Biafra "Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, "Indigenous People of Biafra
"Sikhs
""Flag-of-Khalistan.svg
"Punjabi language "Sikhism 30,000,000[34] Asia "India and "Pakistan "Khalistan "Khalistan movement Majority in the Indian State of "Punjab. Sikhs are a "ethnoreligious group.
"Occitan people
""Flag of Occitania (with star).svg
"Occitan, "French "Roman Catholicism 16,000,000 Europe "France, "Italy and "Spain ("Val d'Aran) "Occitania "Occitan nationalism ("Occitan Party, "Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Libertat) seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from "France.
"Assamese people
""Flag of United Liberation Front of Asom.svg
"Assamese language "Hinduism 15,000,000[35] Asia "India "Assam "Assam separatist movements, "ULFA "Insurgency in Northeast India Regional autonomy in "Assam.
"Uyghur people
""Kokbayraq flag.svg
"Uyghur language "Islam 15,000,000[36] Asia "China "East Turkestan Irredentism is politically fragmented ("East Turkestan Liberation Organization, "East Turkestan independence movement) Limited autonomy in the "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
"Zulu people
""Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884-1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers.png
"Zulu language "Christianity, "Zulu religion 12,159,000 Africa "South Africa, "Lesotho, "Zimbabwe, "Swaziland "KwaZulu-Natal "Inkatha Freedom Party Limited autonomy in the "KwaZulu-Natal region, which maintains a traditional "Zulu king.
"Bavarians
""Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
"German, "Bavarian "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 12,500,000 Europe "Germany "Bavaria "Bavarian nationalism, "Bavaria Party National "devolution, further autonomy or total secession from "Germany.
"Kongo people
""Royal banner of Kongo (Afonso I).svg
"Kongo language, "Lingala, "Portuguese, "French "Christianity("Catholicism and "Protestantism), "African Traditional Religion 10,000,000 Africa "Democratic Republic of the Congo,

"Republic of the Congo,

"Angola

"Kongo "Kongo nationalism, "Bundu dia Kongo Formerly the people of the independent "Kingdom of Kongo
"Baloch people
""Flag of Balochistan.png
"Balochi "Islam 10,000,000[37] Asia "Pakistan, "Iran and "Afghanistan "Balochistan "Balochistan conflict, "Baloch nationalism
"Kabyle people
""Flag-kabyle.svg
"Kabyle language, "Algerian Arabic "Islam 10,000,000[38] Africa "Algeria "Kabylie "Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylie, Provisional Government of Kabylia
"Ahwazi Arabs
""Flag of Ahwaz.png
"Arabic "Islam 10,000,000[39] Asia "Iran "Al Ahwaz "Arab separatism in Khuzestan Democratic Solidarity Party of Ahwaz Ahwazi includes 30 tribes and see itself as a distinct Arab nation.[40] Seek self-determination, greater autonomy or total secession from "Iran.
"Andalusian people
""Flag of Andalucía.svg
"Andalusian Spanish "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 9,500,000 Europe "Spain "Andalucia "Andalusian nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Puerto Rican people
""Flag of Puerto Rico.svg
"Spanish, "English "Christianity(Primarily "Roman Catholicism) 9,000,000 America "United States "Puerto Rico "Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, "Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña, "Boricua Popular Army, "Puerto Rican Independence Party "Unincorporated territory of the United States.
"Catalans
""Flag of Catalonia.svg
"Catalan "Roman Catholicism 8,500,000[41] Europe "Spain and "France "Catalan Countries "Catalan independence movement, "Catalan nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Valencians
""Senyera del nacionalisme valencià.svg
"Valencian "Roman Catholicism[42] 5,111,706 Europe "Spain "Valencian Community "Valencian nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Mon people
""Mon National Party.svg
"Mon language "Buddhism 8,145,500 Asia "Myanmar, "Thailand "Mon State "Mon Nationalism, "Mon National Party, "All Mon Region Democracy Party Historically occupied the "Mon kingdoms
"Circassians
""Flag of Adygea.svg
"Circassian language "Islam 8,000,000 Europe "Russia "Circassia "Russo-Circassian War, "Circassian nationalism Regional autonomy in Circassia.
"Hong Kong people
""Hong Kong Autonomy Movement Flag.svg
"Hong Kong Cantonese, "Hong Kong English "Chinese folk religion 7,184,000 Asia "China "Hong Kong "Hong Kong Autonomy Movement, "Hong Kong independence movement Special administrative region with high degree of autonomy.
"Karen people
""Flag of the Karen National Union.svg
"Karen language "Theravada Buddhism, "Christianity 7,000,000 Asia "Thailand, "Myanmar "Karen State "Karen Nationalism, "Karen National Union, "Karen National Liberation Army
"Maya peoples
""Maya flag.svg
"Mayan languages "Christianity("Catholicism), "Maya religion 7,000,000 America "Guatemala, "Mexico, "Belize, "Honduras, "El Salvador "Mesoamerica "Pan-Maya movement, "Rigoberta Menchú, "Zapatista Army of National Liberation Historically occupied the "Maya civilization
"Volga Tatars
""Flag of Tatarstan.svg
"Tatar language "Islam 7,000,000 Europe "Russia "Tatarstan "All-Tatar Public Center Regional autonomy in Tatarstan.
"Tibetan people
""Flag of Tibet.svg
"Tibetan language "Buddhism 7,000,000[43] Asia "China "Tibet "Tibetan independence movement Limited autonomy in the "Tibet Autonomous Region.
"Indian Gorkhas
""Flag of Gurkhaland.svg
"Nepali language "Hinduism 6,360,000[44] Asia "india "Gorkhastan "Gorkha National Liberation Front, "Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Gorkhaland is a proposed state in India demanded by the people of the "Darjeeling Hills and the people of "Gorkha ethnic origin on the Northern part of "West Bengal.
"Québécois
""Flag of Quebec.svg
"French language "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 6,200,000 America "Canada "Quebec "Quebec sovereignty movement The total population of the Province of Quebec is 7.9 million, of which 6.2 million are French speakers.
"Riffian people
""Flag of the Republic of the Rif.svg
"Riffian language "Islam 6,000,000[45] Africa "Morocco and "Spain "Rif "Rif War, "Rif Republic 95% of the land is controlled by "Morocco with the rest being controlled by the Spanish territories of "Ceuta and "Melilla as autonomous cities.
"Shan people
""Flag of the Shan State.svg
"Shan language "Buddhism 6,000,000 Asia "Burma "Shan State "Shan State Army, Declaration of independence in 2005; see also "Hso Khan Pha
"Kashmiri people
""Kashmir independent.svg
"Kashmiri language "Islam 5,600,000 Asia "India, "Pakistan and "China "Kashmir "Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir Administered by India ("Kashmir Valley, "Jammu, "Ladakh), Pakistan ("Azad Kashmir, "Gilgit-Baltistan) and China ("Aksai Chin).
"Walloons
""Flag of Wallonia.svg
"Walloon, "French, "Picard "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 5,200,000 Europe "Belgium "Wallonia "Partition of Belgium, "Walloon Movement Regional autonomy in Wallonia; seeks independence from Belgium or union with France.
"Lozi people
""Flag of Barotseland.svg
"Lozi "Christianity 5,153,000 Africa "Zambia "Barotseland Barotse Patriotic Front[46]
"Moro people
""MNLF flag.svg
"Filipino language, other "Philippine languages "Islam 5,100,000 Asia "Philippines "Bangsamoro "National Liberation Front, "Moro Islamic Liberation Front
"Kuki people
""Flag of Chin State.svg
"Kukish languages "Christianity 5,000,000 Asia "Burma and "India "Mizoram and "Chin State "Mizo National Front, "Chin National Front, "Kuki National Army Kuki people are known as Chin in Chin state and Mizo in Mizoram state.
"Scottish people
""Flag of Scotland.svg
"Scottish Gaelic, "Scots, "English "Christianity 5,000,000 (only Scotland)[47] Europe "United Kingdom "Scotland "Scottish independence Regional autonomy in "Scotland.
"Sicilians[48]
""Sicilian Flag.svg
"Sicilian, "Italian, "Gallo-Italic of Sicily, "Arbëresh "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 5,000,000 (only Sicily) Europe "Italy "Sicily "Sicilian nationalism Regional autonomy in "Sicily.
"Acehnese people
""Flag of Free Aceh Movement.svg
"Acehnese language "Islam 4,200,000[49] Asia "Indonesia "Aceh "Insurgency in Aceh Regional autonomy in Aceh.
"Hmong people
""Hmong flag.svg
"Hmong language "Buddhism with native 4,000,000 Asia "Laos, "China, "Vietnam and "Thailand "Hmong ChaoFa Federated State "Insurgency in Laos
"Rohingya people
""Flag of Rahmanland (Rohingya).png
"Rohingya language "Islam 3,600,000 Asia "Burma "Rohang State "Rohingya conflict The Rohingyas are not recognized as a native ethnic group by Burmese government.[50]
"Afrikaners
""Afrikaner Vryheidsvlag.svg
"Afrikaans "Christianity 3,500,000 Africa "South Africa and "Namibia "Volkstaat "Afrikaner Nationalism, "Freedom Front Afrikaners are an "Ethno-racial group. Demand autonomy or total secession from South Africa.
"Assyrian people
""Flag of Assyria.svg
"Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, "Turoyo, "Chaldean Neo-Aramaic "Christianity("Chaldean Catholicism) 3,300,000[51] Asia "Syria, "Iraq, "Iran and "Turkey "Assyria "Assyrian nationalism, "Assyrian independence movement
"Breton people
""Flag of Brittany (Gwenn ha du).svg
"Breton, "French, "Gallo "Christianity(principally "Roman Catholicism) 3,120,288 Europe "France "Brittany "Breton nationalism Historically occupied the "Kingdom of Brittany
"Basque people
""Flag of the Basque Country.svg
"Basque "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 3,000,000[52] Europe "France and "Spain "Basque Country "Basque nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Iraqi Turkmen people
""Flag of Iraq Turkmen FrontVEC.svg
"Turkish language, "Azerbaijani language "Islam 3,000,000 Asia "Iraq "Turkmeneli "Iraqi Turkmen Front Not to be confused with "Syrian Turkmen of "Latakia or Central Asian "Turkmens of "Turkmenistan who share only their ethnonym.[53]
"Welsh people
""Flag of Wales (1959–present).svg
"Welsh, "English "Christianity 3,000,000 Europe "United Kingdom "Wales "Welsh independence, "Welsh nationalism Regional autonomy in Wales.
"Galician people
""Bandeira galega civil.svg
"Galician language "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 2,800,000 Europe "Spain "Galiza "Galician nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Kachin people
""Kachin Independence Army flag.svg
"Jingpo, "Zaiwa, "Maru, "Lashi, Azi "Buddhism, "Christianity, "Animism 2,750,000 (2002)[54] Asia "Burma "Kachin State "Kachin Independence Army, "Kachin Independence Organisation, "Kachin conflict The tribes of "Kachin Hills form the Kachin Nation.
"Aragonese people
""Flag of Aragon.svg
"Aragonese language "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 2,278,000 (Spain only)[55] Europe "Spain "Aragon "Aragonese nationalism See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Chechen people
""Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg
"Chechen language "Islam 2,000,000 Europe "Russia "Chechnya "Chechen insurgency, "Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Regional autonomy in Chechnya.
"Naga people
""Unofficial flag of Nagaland.svg
Tibeto-Burman dialects / "Nagamese creole "Christianity 2,000,000 Asia "India "Nagaland "Naga National Council, "Insurgency in Northeast India Regional autonomy in Nagaland.
"Northern Irish people[56]
""Flag of the Ulster Nation.svg
"English, "Ulster Scots, "Irish "Christianity ("Catholicism and "Presbyterianism) 1,810,863 Europe "United Kingdom "Northern Ireland "Ulster nationalism Seeks the independence of "Northern Ireland from the "United Kingdom without joining the "Republic of Ireland.
"Alsatians
""Flag of Alsace (historical).svg
"Alsatian "Christianity(Primarily "Roman Catholicism) ~1,800,000 Europe "France "Alsace "Alsace independence movement, "Alsace First, "Unser Land National "devolution, further autonomy or total secession from France.
"Sardinian people[57][58][59][60]
""Bandera nacionalista sarda.svg
"Sardinian, "Corso-Sardinian, "Italian, "Catalan, "Ligurian "Christianity ("Roman Catholicism) 1,661,521 Europe "Italy "Sardinia "Sardinian nationalism National "devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Italy.
"Canarian people
""Mpaiac.PNG
"Guanche language (extinct), "Spanish "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 1,600,000 Africa "Spain "Canary Islands "Canarian nationalism National "devolution, further autonomy or total secession from Mainland Spain.
"Ryukyuan people
""Flag of Republic Ryukyu Independists.png
"Ryukyuan, "Japanese "Buddhism 1,600,000[61] Asia "Japan "Ryukyu Islands "Ryukyu independence movement Formerly the "Ryukyu Kingdom.
"Frisians
""Flag of Frisia.svg
"Frisian, "Dutch, "German "Christianity("Protestantism and "Roman Catholicism 1,500,000 Europe "Netherlands and "Germany "Frisia "Frisian National Party, Groep fan Auwerk The creation of a new Frisian state.
"Bodo people
""Bandera Bodoland.svg
"Bodo language "Bathouism 1,300,000 Asia "India "Bodoland "National Democratic Front of Bodoland
"Tuareg people
""MNLA flag.svg
"Tuareg language "Islam 1,200,000 Africa "Mali and "Niger "Azawad "Tuareg rebellion (2012)
"Mapuche
""Flag of the Mapuches.svg
"Mapudungun "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 1,000,000[62] America "Argentina and "Chile "Araucanía "Mapuche conflict
"Asturian people
""Flag of Asturias.svg
"Asturian language "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 925,000 (2002)[63] Europe "Spain "Asturias "Asturian nationalism, See also "Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain.
"Silesians
""POL województwo śląskie flag.svg
"Silesian, "Polish, "German, "Czech "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 900,000 Europe "Poland, "Czech Republic and "Germany "Silesia "Silesian Autonomy Movement Divided into "Upper Silesia and "Lower Silesia.
"Druze
""Flag of Druze.svg
"Arabic, "Hebrew "Druze 800,000 – 2,000,000 Asia "Syria, "Israel, "Lebanon and "Jordan "Jabal Druze State Druze nationalism, Druze separatism[64] Druze are a "ethnoreligious group.
"Lezgins
""Lezgian flag.svg
"Lezgian "Islam 800,000+ Europe "Russia, "Azerbaijan "Lezgistan "Lezgin Nationalism Unification of the Lezgin people in Azerbaijan and "Dagestan (Russia).
"Māori people
""Tino Rangatiratanga Maori sovereignty movement flag.svg
"Māori, "English "Christianity with native 750,000 Oceania "New Zealand "New Zealand "Māori protest movement
"Aboriginal Australians
""Australian Aboriginal Flag.svg
"Aboriginal languages "Christianity(Principally "Anglicanism and "Roman Catholicism) with native 680,000 Oceania "Australia "Australia "Movement is fragmented or focused on specific aboriginal groups
"Karakalpaks
""Flag of Karakalpakstan.svg
"Karakalpak language "Islam 620,000 Asia "Uzbekistan "Karakalpakstan "Karakalpak Nationalism Regional autonomy in "Karakalpakstan
"Friulians
""Bandiere dal Friûl.svg
"Friulian language "Christianity("Catholicism) 530,000[65] Europe "Italy "Friuli "Friulian Front Regional autonomy with special statute in "Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
"Cornish people
""Flag of Cornwall.svg
"Cornish, "Cornish English "Christianity 534,300 (only Cornwall) Europe "United Kingdom "Cornwall "Cornish nationalism, "Mebyon Kernow, "Cornish Nationalist Party National "devolution or further autonomy from the United Kingdom.
"Hawaiian people
""Kanaka Maoli flag.svg
"Hawaiian language "Christianity("Catholicism and "Protestantism) with native 527,000 Oceania "United States "Hawaii "Hawaiian sovereignty movement
"Moravians
""Banner of arms of Moravia.svg
"Czech ("Moravian) Traditionally "Roman Catholicism presently "Irreligion 525,000[66][67] Europe "Czech Republic and "Slovakia "Moravia "Moravians
"Kashubians
""Kashubian flag.svg
"Kashubian "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) ~0.5 million (2002–07)[68][69] of which 233,000 as ethnic-national identity (2011) Europe "Poland "Pomerania "Kaszëbskô Jednota Kashubians with "Slovincians (extinct) formed the "West Slavic tribes of "Pomeranians.
"Ogoni people
""Flag of the Ogoni people.svg
"Ogoni language "Christianity with native 500,000 Africa "Nigeria "Ogoniland "Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
"Yakuts
""Flag of Sakha.svg
"Yakut language, "Russian language "Christianity, "Shamanism, "Tengrism 480,000–510,000 Asia "Russia "Yakutia "Yakut revolt (1918) Regional autonomy in "Sakha Republic, Yakut leaders declared Yakutia's sovereignty in 1991 in an attempt to take advantage of the fall of the "Soviet Union, though this was unsuccessful[70]
"Chams
""Bandera Front Alliberament Cham.svg
"Cham language "Islam, "Hinduism, "Buddhism 400,000 Asia "Vietnam "South Central Coast "United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races, Cham rights movement, Cham today Historically occupied the "Champa state. The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Vietnamese continue to destroy evidence of Cham culture and artifacts left behind.
"Navajo
""Navajo flag.svg
"Navajo language, "Navajo language, "Navajo Sign Language Navajo Traditional, "Christianity(Principally "Roman Catholicism) 300,460 America "United States "Navajo Nation "Navajo Wars Regional autonomy in the "Navajo Nation.
"Corsican people
""Flag of Corsica.svg
"Corsican, "French, "Ligurian "Christianity("Roman Catholicism 322,120 Europe "France "Corsica "Corsica Libera "Territorial collectivity in France.
"Tuvans
""Tuva flag.png
"Tuvan language, "Russian language, "Mongolian language, "Chinese language "Tibetan Buddhism, "Tengrism 300,000 Asia "Russia, "Mongolia, "China "Tuva People's Front "Free Tuva", People's Party of Sovereign Tuva[71] Regional autonomy in Tuva.
"Sikkimese people
""Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg
"Sikkimese language "Hinduism, "Buddhism, "Christianity 290,000 Asia "India "Sikkim Sikkim Bhutia Lepcha Apex Committee Formerly the "Kingdom of Sikkim. The Sikkimese people are split among the "Lepcha, "Limbu and "Bhutias In 1990 Sikkimese Nationalist leaders declared the annexation of Sikkim by India to be illegal[72]
"Lakota people
""Pine Ridge Flag.svg
"Lakota, "English "Christianity with native 170,000[73] America "United States "Lakotah "Sioux Wars, "Lakota Freedom Movement "Native American reservation politics.
"Sami people
""Sami flag.svg
"Sami languages, "Norwegian, "Swedish, "Finnish, "Russian "Christianity 163,400 Europe "Norway, "Sweden, "Finland and "Russia "Sapmi "Sámi politics Have their own Parliaments in Norway, Sweden & Finland but Sami groups seek more territorial autonomy.
"Inuit
""Flag of Greenland.svg
"Inuit languages "Christianity with native 135,991 America "Canada, "United States and "Denmark "Siberia, "Alaska, "Northern Canada and "Greenland "Greenland Referendum, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Semi-autonomous rule in Greenland with autonomy in Canada.
"Pamiris "Pamir languages "Islam 135,000[74] Asia "Tajikistan "Badakhshan Pamiri nationalism, "Lali Badakhshan party, "Tajikistani Civil War Regional autonomy in "Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
"Acadians
""Flag of Acadia.svg
"Acadian French, "American English "Catholicism, minority "irreligious 102,250 (Maine and Atlantic Canada only) North America "United States and "Canada "Acadia There have been several attempts at splitting Aroostook County off of Maine,[75] and the short lived "Republic of Madawaska in the 1800s[76]
"Rusyns
""Flag of Carpathian Ruthenia.svg
"Rusyn, "Ukrainian, "Slovak, "Serbian "Christianity 68,000 (official; the actual population may be 1.2 million) Europe "Ukraine, "Slovakia, "Serbia, "Poland, "Hungary and "Romania "Carpathian Ruthenia "World Congress of Rusyns, "Rusyn separatist movement The Rusyn ethnicity is not recognised by Ukraine and does not appear in the Ukrainian census. Many speakers of the "Lemko and "Hutsul dialects identify primarily as Lemkos and Hutsuls, rather than Rusyns or Ukrainians. A separate population, the "Pannonian Rusyns, are a minority in Serbia and Croatia.
"Faroese people
""Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg
"Faroese language "Christianity 66,000 Europe "Denmark "Faroe Islands "Faroese independence movement Regional autonomy in Faroe Islands.
"Sorbs
""Flag of Sorbs.svg
"Sorbian language "Christianity("Roman Catholicism) 60,000–70,000 (est.) Europe "Germany and "Czech Republic "Lusatia "Domowina Divided into "Upper Sorbs and "Lower Sorbs.
"Ainu people
""Айнский флаг.gif
"Ainu languages, "Japanese people, "Russian language "Animism, "Shintoism, "Buddhism, "Christianity 25,000- 200,000 (est.) Asia "Japan, "Russia "Hokkaido Ainu Movement Seek greater independence in Japan[77][78][79]
"Orcadians
""2007 Flag of Orkney.svg
"Norn language (extinct), "Scottish English, "Insular Scots "Christianity 21,349 Europe "United Kingdom "Orkney "Orkney and Shetland Movement Formerly a part of the "Earldom of Orkney (along with "Shetland)

Many residents have hoped for greater autonomy from the Scottish Government in the past, and were promised more powers in the event of Scottish independence[80]

"Rapa Nui people
""Easter Island flag 1876 to 1888.png
"Rapa Nui language, "Spanish language "Christianity("Catholicism) 5,682 Oceania "Chile "Easter Island Rapa Nui independence movement[81][82] The Rapa Nui Parliament is a pro-independence organisation[83]
"Sahrawi people[84]
""Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg
"Hassaniya Arabic (native), "Berber languages (native), "Modern Standard Arabic (written only), and "Spanish ("lingua franca) "Islam ("Sunni Islam ("Maliki), "Sufism) 500,000,[85] Africa "Morocco, "Algeria, "Mauretania "Western Sahara "Western Sahara conflict, "Polisario Front, "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic partially controlled by the self-proclaimed "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-"occupied
"Crimean Tatars ""Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg "Crimean Tatar "Islam 500,000 Europe "Ukraine "Crimea "Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
"Republic of Crimea#Crimean Tatars
"Deportation of the Crimean Tatars
Previously an "autonomous republic within Ukraine, after being "invaded and "annexed by Russia in 2014 the Crimean Tatars are currently seeking autonomy[86]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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