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Strasbourg
"Prefecture and "commune
""Strasbourg Railway Station at Night, Alsace, France - Diliff.jpg
""Strasbourg Cathedral.jpg ""Absolute ponts couverts 02.jpg
""Strasbourg Palais Rohan depuis le quai des Bateliers.jpg ""Absolute Petite France 02.jpg ""Straßburger Kaiserpalast (heute Palais du Rhin).jpg
""Strasbourg-Hôtel Brion (2).jpg ""European Parliament Strasbourg Hemicycle - Diliff.jpg
""Strasbourg seen from Esca Tower in 2014.jpg
From top left: "Central Station; "Strasbourg Cathedral and the "Old Town; "Ponts Couverts; "Palais Rohan; "Petite France; "Palais du Rhin; "Hôtel Brion; Hemicycle of the "European Parliament; Strasbourg skyline in 2014
""Flag of Strasbourg
Flag
""Coat of arms of Strasbourg
Coat of arms
""Strasbourg is located in France
Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Coordinates: 48°35′N 7°45′E / 48.58°N 7.75°E / 48.58; 7.75"Coordinates: 48°35′N 7°45′E / 48.58°N 7.75°E / 48.58; 7.75
Country "France
"Region "Grand Est
"Department "Bas-Rhin
"Arrondissement "Strasbourg
"Canton "6 cantons
"Intercommunality "Strasbourg Eurométropole
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) "Roland Ries ("PS)
Area1 78.26 km2 (30.22 sq mi)
 • Urban (2013[1]) 224 km2 (86 sq mi)
 • Metro (2013[1]) 1,351.5 km2 (521.8 sq mi)
Population (1 January 2014[2])2 276,170
 • Rank "7th in France
 • Density 3,500/km2 (9,100/sq mi)
 • "Urban (2013[1]) 456,759[3]
 • "Metro (2013[1]) 773,347[4]
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
"INSEE/Postal code 67482 /
"Dialling codes 0388, 0390, 0368
Elevation 132–151 m (433–495 ft)
Website www.strasbourg.eu

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 "Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Part of the "series on
"Alsace
""Flag of Alsace (historical).svg
"Rot un Wiss, flag of Alsace.

Strasbourg ("/ˈstræzbɜːrɡ/, French pronunciation: ​"[stʁazbuʁ, stʁasbuʁ]; "Alsatian: Strossburi; "German: Straßburg "[ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]) is the capital and largest city of the "Grand Est "region of "France and is the "official seat of the "European Parliament. Located close to the border with "Germany in the historic region of "Alsace, it is the capital of the "Bas-Rhin département. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants and both the "Eurométropole de Strasbourg (Greater Strasbourg) and the "Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 484,157 inhabitants.[2] Strasbourg's "metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013 (not counting the section across the border in Germany), making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational "Eurodistrict "Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.[5]

Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the "Council of Europe (with its "European Court of Human Rights, its "European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and its "European Audiovisual Observatory) and the "Eurocorps, as well as the "European Parliament and the "European Ombudsman of the "European Union. The city is also the seat of the "Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the "International Institute of Human Rights.[6]

Strasbourg's historic city centre, the "Grande Île (Grand Island), was classified a "World Heritage site by "UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in the Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the "University of Strasbourg, currently the second largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and "Protestant culture. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the "Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.[7]

Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation. The "port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the "Rhine after "Duisburg, Germany.[8]

Contents

Etymology and names[edit]

Before the "5th century, the city was known as Argantorati (in the "nominative, Argantorate in the "locative), a Celtic "Gaulish name "Latinized first as Argentorate (with Gaulish locative ending, as appearing on the first "Roman milestones in the "1st century), and then as "Argentoratum (with regular Latin nominative ending, in later Latin texts). That Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the "Old Irish ráth (see "ringfort), and arganto(n)- (cognate to Latin argentum, which gave modern French argent), the Gaulish word for silver, but also any precious metal, particularly gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.[9]

After the 5th century, the city became known by a completely different name "Gallicized as Strasbourg ("Lower Alsatian: Strossburi, "[ˈʃd̥rɔːsb̥uri]; "German: Straßburg, "[ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]). That name is of "Germanic origin and means "Town (at the crossing) of roads". The modern Stras- is "cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from "Latin strata ("paved road"), while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English "borough, all of which are derived from "Proto-Germanic *burgz ("hill fort, fortress").

"Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his "History of the Franks written shortly after "590 he said that "Egidius, "Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King "Childebert II of "Austrasia in favor of his uncle King "Chilperic I of "Neustria, was tried by a "synod of Austrasian bishops in "Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood, then taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant" ("to the city of Argentoratum, which they now call Strateburgus"), where he was exiled.[10]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

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Strasbourg seen from Spot Satellite

Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the "River Rhine, which also forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town "Kehl. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the "Grande Île in the "River Ill, which here flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city.

The city lies in the "Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres (433 ft) and 151 metres (495 ft) above sea level, with the upland areas of the "Vosges Mountains some 20 km (12 mi) to the west and the "Black Forest 25 km (16 mi) to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, and major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks.

The city is some 400 kilometres (250 mi) east of "Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies approximately 450 kilometres (280 mi) to the north, or 650 kilometres (400 mi) as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in "Basel is some 100 kilometres (62 mi) to the south, or 150 kilometres (93 mi) by river.

Climate[edit]

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Climate diagram of Strasbourg

In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as "Oceanic ("Köppen climate classification Cfb), with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, "overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm (24.9 in) annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year.

The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in August 2003, during the "2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature ever recorded was −23.4 °C (−10.1 °F) in December 1938.

Strasbourg's location in the Rhine valley, sheltered from the dominant winds by the Vosges and Black Forest mountains, results in poor natural ventilation, making Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically polluted cities of France.[11][12] Nonetheless, the progressive disappearance of "heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution.[13]

Climate data for Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France (1981–2010 averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
21.1
(70)
25.7
(78.3)
30.0
(86)
33.4
(92.1)
37.0
(98.6)
38.3
(100.9)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
29.1
(84.4)
22.1
(71.8)
18.3
(64.9)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
6.4
(43.5)
11.4
(52.5)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.0
(69.8)
15.3
(59.5)
8.8
(47.8)
5.2
(41.4)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.9
(37.2)
7
(45)
10.5
(50.9)
15
(59)
18.1
(64.6)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
15.8
(60.4)
11.2
(52.2)
5.8
(42.4)
2.8
(37)
11
(52)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
9.8
(49.6)
12.8
(55)
14.5
(58.1)
14.1
(57.4)
10.6
(51.1)
7.1
(44.8)
2.8
(37)
0.3
(32.5)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −23.6
(−10.5)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−16.7
(1.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34)
4.9
(40.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
−7.6
(18.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−23.6
(−10.5)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 32.2
(1.268)
34.5
(1.358)
42.8
(1.685)
45.9
(1.807)
81.9
(3.224)
71.6
(2.819)
72.7
(2.862)
61.4
(2.417)
63.5
(2.5)
61.5
(2.421)
47.0
(1.85)
50.0
(1.969)
665.0
(26.181)
Average precipitation days 8.4 8.1 9.1 9.2 11.5 10.7 10.8 9.9 8.6 9.5 9.3 9.8 114.9
Average snowy days 7.8 6.7 4.0 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 6.3 29.8
Average "relative humidity (%) 86 82 76 72 73 74 72 76 80 85 86 86 79
Mean monthly "sunshine hours 58.1 83.8 134.8 180.0 202.5 223.8 228.6 219.6 164.5 98.7 55.3 43.1 1,692.7
Source #1: Meteo France[14][15]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)[16]

History[edit]

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"Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor visiting Strasbourg in 1414, detail of a painting by "Léo Schnug

The "Roman camp of "Argentoratum was first mentioned in "12 BC; the city of Strasbourg which grew from it celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1988. The fertile area between the rivers "Ill and "Rhine ("Grand Ried and "Petit Ried) had already been populated since the middle "Paleolithic.[17]

Between 362 and 1262, Strasbourg was governed by the "bishops of Strasbourg; their rule was reinforced in 873 and then more in 982.[18] In 1262, the citizens violently rebelled against the bishop's rule ("battle of Hausbergen) and Strasbourg became a "Free imperial city. It became a French city in 1681, after the conquest of Alsace by the armies of "Louis XIV. In 1871, after the "Franco-Prussian War, the city became German again, until 1918 (end of "World War I), when it reverted to France. After the "defeat of France in 1940 ("World War II), Strasbourg came under German control again; since the end of 1944, it is again a French town. In 2016, Strasbourg was promoted from capital of "Alsace to capital of "Grand Est.

Strasbourg played an important part in "Protestant Reformation, with personalities such as "John Calvin, "Martin Bucer, "Wolfgang Capito, but also in other aspects of Christianity such as "German mysticism, with "Johannes Tauler, "Pietism, with "Philipp Spener, and "Reverence for Life, with "Albert Schweitzer. It was also one of the first centres of the printing industry with pioneers such as "Johannes Gutenberg, "Johannes Mentelin, and "Heinrich Eggestein. Among the darkest periods in the city's long history were the years 1349 ("Strasbourg massacre), 1793 ("Reign of Terror), 1870 ("Siege of Strasbourg) and the years 1940–1944 with the Nazi occupation (atrocities such as the "Jewish skeleton collection) and the British and American "bombing raids. Some other notable dates were the years 357 ("Battle of Argentoratum), 842 ("Oaths of Strasbourg), 1538 (establishment of "the university), 1605 (world's first newspaper printed by "Johann Carolus), 1792 ("La Marseillaise), and 1889 (pancreatic origin of "diabetes discovered by "Minkowski and "Von Mering).

Strasbourg is the seat of "European Institutions since 1949: first of the "International Commission on Civil Status and of the "Council of Europe, later of the "European Parliament, of the "European Science Foundation, of "Eurocorps, and others as well.

Districts[edit]

Strasbourg is divided into the following districts:[19]

  1. Bourse, Esplanade, Krutenau
  2. Centre République
  3. Centre Gare
  4. Conseil des XV, Rotterdam
  5. Cronenbourg, Hautepierre, Poteries, Hohberg
  6. Koenigshoffen, Montagne-Verte, Elsau
  7. Meinau
  8. Neudorf, Schluthfeld, Port du Rhin, Musau
  9. "Neuhof, Stockfeld, Ganzau
  10. Robertsau, Wacken

Main sights[edit]

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Panorama from the "Barrage Vauban with the medieval bridge "Ponts Couverts in the foreground (the fourth tower being hidden by trees at the left) and the "cathedral in the distance on the right.

Architecture[edit]

The city is chiefly known for its "sandstone "Gothic "Cathedral with its famous "astronomical clock, and for its medieval cityscape of "Rhineland black and white "timber-framed buildings, particularly in the "Petite France district or Gerberviertel ("tanners' district") alongside the Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral, where the renowned "Maison Kammerzell stands out.

Notable medieval streets include Rue Mercière, Rue des Dentelles, Rue du Bain aux Plantes, Rue des Juifs, Rue des Frères, Rue des Tonneliers, Rue du Maroquin, Rue des Charpentiers, Rue des Serruriers, Grand' Rue, Quai des Bateliers, Quai Saint-Nicolas and Quai Saint-Thomas. Notable medieval squares include Place de la Cathédrale, Place du Marché Gayot, Place Saint-Étienne, Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait and Place Benjamin Zix.

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Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait.
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Place Gutenberg with statue of Gutenberg and Carousel.
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Maison des tanneurs.
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View of the River Ill with "Église Saint-Thomas.

In addition to the cathedral, Strasbourg houses several other medieval churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have plagued the city: the "Romanesque Église Saint-Étienne, partly destroyed in 1944 by Allied "bombing raids, the part Romanesque, part Gothic, very large "Église Saint-Thomas with its "Silbermann organ on which "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and "Albert Schweitzer played,[20] the Gothic "Église protestante Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune with its crypt dating back to the seventh century and its "cloister partly from the eleventh century, the Gothic "Église Saint-Guillaume with its fine early-Renaissance "stained glass and furniture, the Gothic Église Saint-Jean, the part Gothic, part "Art Nouveau "Église Sainte-Madeleine, etc. The "Neo-Gothic church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Catholique (there is also an adjacent church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Protestant) serves as a shrine for several 15th-century wood worked and painted "altars coming from other, now destroyed churches and installed there for public display. Among the numerous secular medieval buildings, the monumental Ancienne Douane (old "custom-house) stands out.

The "German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy buildings (especially "the current Chambre de commerce et d'industrie, former "town hall, on Place Gutenberg), as did the "French Baroque and Classicism with several hôtels particuliers (i.e. "palaces), among which the "Palais Rohan (1742, now housing three museums) is the most spectacular. Other buildings of its kind are the ""Hôtel de Hanau" (1736, now the city hall), the "Hôtel de Klinglin (1736, now residence of the "préfet), the "Hôtel des Deux-Ponts (1755, now residence of the "military governor), the Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin (1725, now seat of the administration of the "Port autonome de Strasbourg) etc. The largest baroque building of Strasbourg though is the 150-metre-long (490 ft) 1720s main building of the "Hôpital civil. As for French "Neo-classicism, it is the "Opera House on "Place Broglie that most prestigiously represents this style.

Strasbourg also offers high-class "eclecticist buildings in its very extended German district, the "Neustadt, being the main memory of "Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany proper suffered intensive damage during World War II. Streets, boulevards and avenues are homogeneous, surprisingly high (up to seven stories) and broad examples of German urban lay-out and of this "architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of European architecture as well as Neo-Egyptian, "Neo-Greek and Neo-Babylonian styles. The former imperial palace "Palais du Rhin, the most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this period. But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times are the École internationale des Pontonniers (the former Höhere Mädchenschule, girls college) with its towers, turrets and multiple round and square angles[21] and the "Haute école des arts du Rhin with its lavishly ornate façade of painted bricks, woodwork and "majolica.[22]

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The baroque organ of the "Église Saint-Thomas

Notable streets of the German district include: Avenue de la Forêt Noire, Avenue des Vosges, Avenue d'Alsace, Avenue de la Marseillaise, Avenue de la Liberté, Boulevard de la Victoire, Rue Sellénick, Rue du Général de Castelnau, Rue du Maréchal Foch, and Rue du Maréchal Joffre. Notable squares of the German district include: Place de la République, Place de l'Université, Place Brant, and Place Arnold.

Impressive examples of "Prussian military architecture of the 1880s can be found along the newly reopened Rue du Rempart, displaying large-scale fortifications among which the aptly named Kriegstor (war gate).

As for modern and "contemporary architecture, Strasbourg possesses some fine "Art Nouveau buildings (such as the huge "Palais des Fêtes and houses and villas like "Villa Schutzenberger and "Hôtel Brion), good examples of post-World War II functional architecture (the Cité Rotterdam, for which "Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural contest) and, in the very extended Quartier Européen, some spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size, among which the "European Court of Human Rights building by "Richard Rogers is arguably the finest. Other noticeable contemporary buildings are the new "Music school Cité de la Musique et de la Danse, the "Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain and the Hôtel du Département facing it, as well as, in the outskirts, the tramway-station "Hoenheim-Nord designed by "Zaha Hadid.

The city has many bridges, including the medieval and four-towered "Ponts Couverts that, despite their name, are no longer covered. Next to the Ponts Couverts is the "Barrage Vauban, a part of "Vauban's 17th-century fortifications, that does include a covered bridge. Other bridges are the ornate 19th-century Pont de la Fonderie (1893, stone) and Pont d'Auvergne (1892, iron), as well as architect Marc Mimram's futuristic Passerelle over the Rhine, opened in 2004.

The largest square at the centre of the city of Strasbourg is the "Place Kléber. Located in the heart of the city's commercial area, it was named after general "Jean-Baptiste Kléber, born in Strasbourg in 1753 and assassinated in 1800 in "Cairo. In the square is a statue of Kléber, under which is a vault containing his remains. On the north side of the square is the "Aubette (Orderly Room), built by "Jacques François Blondel, architect of the king, in 1765–1772.

Parks[edit]

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The Pavillon Joséphine (rear side) in the Parc de l'Orangerie
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The Château de Pourtalès (front side) in the park of the same name

Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks, of which several are of cultural and historical interest: the Parc de l'Orangerie, laid out as a French garden by "André le Nôtre and remodeled as an "English garden on behalf of "Joséphine de Beauharnais, now displaying noteworthy French gardens, a neo-classical castle and a small "zoo; the Parc de la Citadelle, built around impressive remains of the 17th-century "fortress erected close to the "Rhine by "Vauban;[23] the Parc de Pourtalès, laid out in English style around a "baroque castle (heavily restored in the 19th century) that now houses a small three-star hotel,[24] and featuring an "open-air museum of international contemporary sculpture.[25] The "Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg (botanical garden) was created under the German administration next to the "Observatory of Strasbourg, built in 1881, and still owns some "greenhouses of those times. The Parc des Contades, although the oldest park of the city, was completely remodeled after World War II. The futuristic Parc des Poteries is an example of European park-conception in the late 1990s. The Jardin des deux Rives, spread over Strasbourg and "Kehl on both sides of the Rhine opened in 2004 and is the most extended (60-hectare) park of the agglomeration. The most recent park is Parc du Heyritz (8,7 ha), opened in 2014 along a canal facing the "hôpital civil.

Museums[edit]

For a city of comparatively small size, Strasbourg displays a large quantity and variety of museums:

Fine art museums[edit]

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A room in the "Musée des Arts décoratifs

Unlike most other cities, Strasbourg's collections of "European art are divided into several museums according not only to type and area, but also to epoch. "Old master paintings from the Germanic "Rhenish territories and until 1681 are displayed in the Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame, old master paintings from all the rest of Europe (including the Dutch Rhenish territories) and until 1871 as well as old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories between 1681 and 1871 are displayed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts. Old master "graphic arts until 1871 is displayed in the Cabinet des estampes et dessins. "Decorative arts until 1681 ("German period") are displayed in the Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame, decorative arts from 1681 to 1871 ("French period") are displayed in the Musée des Arts décoratifs. International art (painting, sculpture, graphic arts) and decorative art since 1871 is displayed in the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain. The latter museum also displays the city's photographic library.

Other museums[edit]

University museums[edit]

The "Université de Strasbourg is in charge of a number of permanent public displays of its collections of scientific artefacts and products of all kinds of exploration and research.[26]

Museums in the suburbs[edit]

Demographics[edit]

The "metropolitan area of Strasbourg had a population of 768,868 inhabitants in 2012 (French side of the border only), while the transnational "Eurodistrict had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.

Population growth[edit]

1684 1789 1851 1871 1890 1910 1921 1936 1946
22,000 49,943 75,565 85,654 123,500 178,891 166,767 193,119 175,515
1954 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2014
200,921 228,971 249,396 253,384 248,712 252,338 263,941 272,975 276,170
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"River Ill, seen from the terrace of the Palais Rohan

Population composition[edit]

2012  % 2007  %
Total Population 274,394 100 272,123 100
0–14 years 47,473 17.3 46,263 17.0
15–29 years 77,719 28.3 78,291 28.8
30–44 years 54,514 19.9 54,850 20.2
45–59 years 45,436 16.6 47,236 17.4
60–74 years 30,321 11.1 27,060 9.9
75+ years 18,931 6.9 18,424 6.8

Culture[edit]

Strasbourg is the seat of internationally renowned institutions of music and drama:

Other theatres are the Théâtre jeune public, the TAPS Scala, the Kafteur... 

Events[edit]

Education[edit]

Universities and tertiary education[edit]

Strasbourg, well known as centre of "humanism, has a long history of excellence in higher-education, at the crossroads of French and German intellectual traditions. Although Strasbourg had been annexed by the Kingdom of France in 1683, it still remained connected to the German-speaking intellectual world throughout the 18th century and the university attracted numerous students from the "Holy Roman Empire, including "Goethe, "Metternich and "Montgelas, who studied law in Strasbourg, among the most prominent. Nowadays, Strasbourg is known to offer among the best university courses in France, after Paris.

Up until January 2009 there were three "universities in Strasbourg, with an approximate total of 48,500 students as of 2007 (another 4,500 students are being taught at one of the diverse "post-graduate schools):[31]

Since 1 January 2009, those three universities have merged and constitute now the "Université de Strasbourg. Schools part of the "Université de Strasbourg include:

Primary and secondary education[edit]

International schools include:

Multiple levels:

For elementary education:[32]

For middle school/junior high school education:[32]

For senior high school/sixth form college:[32]

Libraries[edit]

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Lateral view of the "National Library.

The "Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (BNU) is, with its collection of more than 3,000,000 titles,[34] the second largest library in France after the "Bibliothèque nationale de France. It was founded by the German administration after the complete destruction of the previous municipal library in 1871 and holds the unique status of being simultaneously a students' and a national library. The Strasbourg municipal library had been marked erroneously as "City Hall" in a French commercial map, which had been captured and used by the German artillery to lay their guns. A librarian from Munich later pointed out "...that the destruction of the precious collection was not the fault of a German artillery officer, who used the French map, but of the slovenly and inaccurate scholarship of a Frenchman."[35]

The municipal library Bibliothèque municipale de Strasbourg (BMS) administrates a network of ten medium-sized librairies in different areas of the town. A six stories high "Grande bibliothèque", the Médiathèque "André Malraux, was inaugurated on 19 September 2008 and is considered the largest in Eastern France.[36]

Incunabula[edit]

As one of the earliest centers of book-printing in Europe (see above: History), Strasbourg for a long time held a large number of "incunabula—documents printed before 1500—in her library as one of her most precious heritages. After the total destruction of this institution in 1870, however, a new collection had to be reassembled from scratch. Today, Strasbourg's different public and institutional libraries again display a sizable total number of incunabula, distributed as follows: Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, ca. 2 098[37] Médiathèque de la ville et de la communauté urbaine de Strasbourg, 394[38] Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire, 238[39] Médiathèque protestante, 94[40] and Bibliothèque alsatique du Crédit Mutuel, 5.[41]

Transportation[edit]

""
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One of Strasbourg's trams passes over one of its canals, whilst a tourist trip boat passes underneath

Train services operate from the "Gare de Strasbourg, the city's main station in the city centre, eastward to "Offenburg and "Karlsruhe in Germany, westward to "Metz and Paris, and southward to "Basel. Strasbourg's links with the rest of France have improved due to its recent connection to the "TGV network, with the first phase of the "TGV Est (Paris–Strasbourg) in 2007, the "TGV Rhin-Rhône (Strasbourg-"Lyon) in 2012, and the second phase of the TGV Est in July 2016.

Strasbourg also has its "own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe and "northern Africa. The airport is linked to the Gare de Strasbourg by a frequent train service.[42][43]

City transportation in Strasbourg includes the futurist-looking "Strasbourg tramway that opened in 1994 and is operated by the regional transit company "Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS), consisting of 6 lines with a total length of 55.8 km (34.7 mi). The CTS also operates a comprehensive bus network throughout the city that is integrated with the trams. With more than 500 km (311 mi) of bicycle paths, biking in the city is convenient and the CTS operates a cheap "bike-sharing scheme named Vélhop'. The CTS, and its predecessors, also operated a previous generation of "tram system between 1878 and 1960, complemented by "trolleybus routes between 1939 and 1962.

Being a city on the "Ill and close to the "Rhine, Strasbourg has always been an important centre of "fluvial navigation, as is attested by archeological findings. In 1682 the "Canal de la Bruche was added to the river navigations, initially to provide transport for "sandstone from quarries in the "Vosges for use in the fortification of the city. That canal has since closed, but the subsequent "Canal du Rhone au Rhine, "Canal de la Marne au Rhin and "Grand Canal d'Alsace are still in use, as is the important activity of the "Port autonome de Strasbourg. Water tourism inside the city proper attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists yearly.

The tram system that now criss-crosses the historic city centre complements walking and biking in it. The centre has been transformed into a pedestrian priority zone that enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of ""filtered permeability" to the existing irregular network of streets. It means that the network adaptations favour active transportation and, selectively, "filter out" the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip. This logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the "Fused Grid.

At present the "A35 autoroute, which parallels the Rhine between "Karlsruhe and "Basel, and the "A4 autoroute, which links "Paris with Strasbourg, penetrate close to the centre of the city. The Grand contournement ouest (GCO) project, programmed since 1999, plans to construct a 24-kilometre-long (15 mi) highway connection between the junctions of the A4 and the A35 autoroutes in the north and of the A35 and A352 autoroutes in the south. This routes well to the west of the city and is meant to divest a significant portion of motorized traffic from the "unité urbaine.[44]

European role[edit]

Institutions[edit]

Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions,[45] most famously of the "Council of Europe and of the "European Parliament, of which it is the "official seat. Strasbourg is considered the legislative and democratic capital of the "European Union, while "Brussels is considered the executive and administrative capital and "Luxembourg the judiciary and "financial capital.[46]

Strasbourg is the seat of the following organisations, among others:

Eurodistrict[edit]

France and Germany have created a "Eurodistrict straddling the Rhine, combining the Greater Strasbourg and the "Ortenau district of "Baden-Württemberg, with some common administration. It was established in 2005 and is fully functional since 2010.

Sports[edit]

Sporting teams from Strasbourg are the "Racing Club de Strasbourg Alsace ("football), "Strasbourg IG (basketball) and the "Étoile Noire ("ice hockey).[47] The women's tennis "Internationaux de Strasbourg is one of the most important French tournaments of its kind outside "Roland-Garros. In 1922, Strasbourg was the venue for the XVI Grand Prix de l’A.C.F. which saw Fiat battle Bugatti, Ballot, Rolland Pilain, and Britain's Aston Martin and "Sunbeam.

Honours[edit]

Honours associated with the city of Strasbourg.

Notable people[edit]

In chronological order, notable people born in Strasbourg include: "Eric of Friuli, "Johannes Tauler, "Sebastian Brant, "Jean Baptiste Kléber, "Louis Ramond de Carbonnières, "François Christophe Kellermann, "Marie Tussaud, "Ludwig I of Bavaria, "Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, "Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger, "Gustave Doré, "Émile Waldteufel, "René Beeh, "Jean/Hans Arp, "Charles Münch, "Hans Bethe, "Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, "Marcel Marceau, "Tomi Ungerer, "Arsène Wenger, "Petit and "Matt Pokora.

In chronological order, notable residents of Strasbourg include: "Johannes Gutenberg, "Hans Baldung, "Martin Bucer, "John Calvin, "Joachim Meyer, "Johann Carolus, "Johann Wolfgang Goethe, "Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, "Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, "Georg Büchner, "Louis Pasteur, "Ferdinand Braun, "Albrecht Kossel, "Georg Simmel, "Albert Schweitzer, "Otto Klemperer, "Marc Bloch, "Alberto Fujimori, "Marjane Satrapi, "Paul Ricoeur and "Jean-Marie Lehn.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Strasbourg is "twinned with:[49]

Strasbourg has cooperative agreements with:

In popular culture[edit]

In film[edit]

In literature[edit]

In music[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Only the part of the urban area on French territory.
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  4. ^ "Aire urbaine de Strasbourg (partie française) (009)". insee.fr. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "Données relatives à l'Eurodistrict". eurodistrict.eu. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  6. ^ "The international institute of Human Rights". 
  7. ^ France Vows to Kick out Islamic Troublemakers.
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  29. ^ "Pixel Museum". pixel-museum.fr. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
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  32. ^ a b c "International schooling in Strasbourg" (Archive). City of Strasbourg. Retrieved on 28 March 2016. p. 1.
  33. ^ "Контакты." Russian Mission School in Strasbourg. Retrieved on March 28, 2016. "6, alle'e de la Robertsau, 67000, Strasbourg"
  34. ^ "Figures". Bnu.fr. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  35. ^ Butler, Pierce. 1945. Books and libraries in wartime. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. Page 15.
  36. ^ Strasbourg ouvre une grande médiathèque sur le port in "L'Express (in French)
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  38. ^ "Strasbourg - Médiathèque André Malraux" (in French). Catalogue collectif de France (CCFr). Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  39. ^ "La bibliothèque ancienne du Grand Séminaire" (in French). Séminaire Sainte Marie Majeure - Diocèse de Strasbourg. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  40. ^ "Catalogue de la Médiathèque protestante". Médiathèque protestante. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  41. ^ "Général". Bacm.creditmutuel.fr. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 
  42. ^ "Destination map". Aéroport Strasbourg. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  43. ^ "Shuttle train". Aéroport Strasbourg. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  44. ^ Grand Contournement Ouest de Strasbourg(in French)["dead link]
  45. ^ "List of international institutions in Strasbourg". Investir-strasbourg.com. 15 January 2003. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  46. ^ "Comparative Law Academy: the ECHR and the FCC". The Brief. 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
  47. ^ "Etoile Noire de Strasbourg". Etoile-noire.fr. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 
  48. ^ http://www.cachecoins.org/strasbourg.htm
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  50. ^ "Boston Sister Cities". The City of Boston. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
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  52. ^ "Twinning". Leicester City council. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
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  55. ^ "Ramat Gan Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008. 
  56. ^ "Full text". Tristramshandyweb.it. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  57. ^ Lempfrid, Wolfgang. "Wolfgng Amadeus Mozart: Konzert für Violine und Orchester in D-Dur, KV 218". koelnklavier.de. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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