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Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014
""Great Seal of the United States
Full title To provide for the costs of loan guarantees for Ukraine.
Introduced in "113th United States Congress
Introduced on March 5, 2014
Sponsored by "Rep. Harold Rogers (R, KY-5)
Number of co-sponsors 1
Agencies affected "United States Department of State
Legislative history

The Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (H.R. 4152; Pub.L. 113–95) is an American "Act of Congress that provides "Ukraine with "loan guarantees of up to $1 billion in response to the "2014 Russian military intervention in the country.[1]

This act became law during the "113th United States Congress. Congress considered several other bills that would provide aid to Ukraine around that same time, including "S. 2124, a Senate bill with the same name, and the "Ukraine Support Act.[2][3]

Contents

Background[edit]

The "2014 Ukrainian revolution[4][5] began with "civil unrest in "Kiev, "Ukraine, as part of Ukraine's ongoing "Euromaidan protest movement against the government.[6] The conflict escalated rapidly, leading to the downfall of the government of President "Viktor Yanukovych and the setting up of a new government to replace it within a few days.[4] Yanukovych fled to Russia,[7] and is wanted in Ukraine for the killing of protesters.[8] The conflict continued with the "2014 Crimean crisis when Russian forces "seized control of the Crimea region.[9]

The 2014 Crimean crisis began in late February 2014 in the aftermath of the "Ukrainian Revolution, when—after months of protests by "Euromaidan and days of violent clashes between protesters and police in the Ukrainian capital "Kiev—the "President of Ukraine, "Viktor Yanukovych, fled the capital on February 21.[10] The "Verkhovna Rada (the "parliament of Ukraine) subsequently voted unanimously to "impeach Yanukovych.[11][12] This was followed by the "interim appointment of the "Yatsenyuk Government, as well as the appointment of a new Acting President of Ukraine, "Oleksandr Turchynov. However, "Russian President "Vladimir Putin has said President Yanukovych was illegally impeached and that Russia continues to regard him as Ukraine’s legitimate president.[13][a] Russia describes the Yatsenyk government as "self-proclaimed" and the events in Kiev as a ""coup d'etat".[13][b][c][d] Yanukovych supporters point out that not enough members of the parliament were present for the vote to reach the three-fourths majority required to impeach a President according to the "Constitution of Ukraine.[18][19]

Beginning on February 26, pro-Russian forces gradually "took control of the Crimean peninsula. Russia claimed that the uniformed men were "local self-defense forces, but they are generally claimed in Western media to be Russian military personnel without insignia.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

On 28 February, President "Barack Obama's statement was released warning Russia not to intervene in Crimea. The statement said that President Obama is "deeply concerned by reports of military movements taken by the Russian Federation inside of Ukraine." It added that "any violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity would be deeply destabilizing, which is not in the interest of Ukraine, Russia, or Europe" and that it would be "a clear violation of Russia's commitment to respect the independence and sovereignty and borders of Ukraine, and of international laws."[28]

On 1 March, Obama held a phone conversation with Putin and said that the Russian invasion was a "violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity ... [and a] breach of international law." He warned of "greater political and economic isolation" and threatened to withdraw the United States from the "40th G8 summit chaired by Russia.[29]

""
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Barack Obama talks on the phone with Russian President Vladimir Putin about Ukraine, March 1, 2014

Secretary of State "John Kerry then labeled and condemned Russia's "invasion" of Ukraine on March 2 in an interview for "Face the Nation. He called it an "incredible act of aggression," and said that "you just don't in the 21st century behave in 19th century fashion by invading another country on completely trumped up pretext."[30]

On 3 March, "National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden announced that the United States would not send a presidential delegation to the "2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi (which was to be led by "Tammy Duckworth), "in addition to other measures we are taking in response to the situation in Ukraine." As with the British boycott effort, it will not affect the country's participation in the Games themselves.[31]

On 6 March, Obama signed "Executive Order 13660, Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, authorizing sanctions against persons who, being determined by the Secretary of the Treasury in consultation with the Secretary of State, have violated or assisted in the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[32][33]

On March 11, the Supreme Council of Crimea and the "City Council of Sevastopol "adopted a joint resolution expressing their intention to "unilaterally declare Crimea's independence from Ukraine as a "single united nation with the possibility of joining the "Russian Federation as a federal subject. In a "referendum on March 16, officials said that nearly 96% of those who voted in Crimea supported joining Russia.[34] Election officials said the turnout was a record high,[35] although many Tatars and opponents of the referendum were reported to have boycotted the vote.[36] On March 17, the "Crimean parliament officially declared its independence from "Ukraine and requested to join the "Russian Federation.[37] On March 18, President Putin reclaimed Crimea as a part of Russia on both moral and material grounds, citing the principle of self-determination and Crimea's strategic importance for Russia.[38]

The Ukrainian parliament has stated that the referendum is unconstitutional.[39] The "United States and the "European Union said they consider the vote to be illegal, and warned that there may be repercussions for the Crimean ballot.[40]

On 17 March, Obama signed Executive Order 13661, Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine, which expanded the scope of the previous sanctions imposed by EO 13660, to include the freezing of certain Russian government officials' assets in the US and blocking their entry into the US.[41]

Provisions of the bill[edit]

According to the "Congressional Research Service report, the initial House version of the bill would make "specified funds under the "Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 and prior Acts for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs available to "Ukraine for loan guarantees."[42] The bill would state that such amounts shall not be considered 'assistance' for the purpose of provisions of law limiting assistance to such country.[42] The bill provides only for loan guarantees, not actual loans themselves.[43]

Senators "Bob Menendez and "Bob Corker propose to amend the bill to include provisions about sanctions.[1]

Procedural history[edit]

H.R. 4152 was introduced into the "United States House of Representatives on March 5, 2014 by "Rep. Harold Rogers (R, KY-5).[44] It was referred to the "United States House Committee on Appropriations and the "United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs. On March 6, 2014, the House voted in Roll Call Vote 114 to pass the bill 385-23.[44]

On March 25, 2014, Senate Majority Leader "Harry Reid indicated that "United States Senate would vote on this bill on March 27, 2014, but only after amending it to include provisions that would put "sanctions "against anyone deemed by the president to have undermined Ukraine's security or independence, or to have engaged in corruption in Ukraine or Russia."[1] The Senate has been pursuing its own Ukraine aid bill, the "Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014 (S. 2124; 113th Congress), but that bill included changes to the "International Monetary Fund that House Republicans had made it clear they would not accept.[1] The Senate did vote to pass the bill by a "voice vote on March 27, 2014 after amending it.[44] President "Barack Obama signed the bill into law on April 3, 2014, making it Pub.L. 113–95.[44]

Debate and discussion[edit]

Senator Reid spoke in favor of the bill saying that "the people of Ukraine are watching... It's time to send a clear message to Putin that the U.S. condemns the annexation of Ukraine."[1]

Speaker of the House "John Boehner said that the "best thing" that the House could do would be to "work with the administration, strengthening their hand to deal with what is a very difficult situation."[43] This aid package was considered "a rare show of support for President Barack Obama" by House Republicans.[45] House Majority Leader "Eric Cantor argued that the bill would show that the United States was "against this invasion."[45]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lally; Englund (2014) "The current government is illegitimate, Russia contends, because Yanukovych was not properly removed from power in a formal impeachment."[14]
  2. ^ Gumuchian; Morgan; Chance (2014) "Moscow has denounced the events that led to Yanukovych's ouster as an illegitimate coup and has refused to recognize the new Ukrainian authorities, putting the two countries on a collision course over control of Crimea, which has longstanding ties to Russia and has thousands of Russian troops stationed there."[15]
  3. ^ Dawber (2014) "Vladimir Putin has given a confident performance in front of the media, insisting that the events of the last 10 days in Ukraine amounted to nothing less than a coup d’état."[16]
  4. ^ The Washington Post (2014) "[Putin says:] Are the current authorities legitimate? The Parliament is partially, but all the others are not. The current Acting President is definitely not legitimate. There is only one legitimate President, from a legal standpoint. Clearly, he has no power. However, as I have already said, and will repeat: Yanukovych is the only undoubtedly legitimate President."[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Cox, Ramsey (25 March 2014). "Reid sets up Ukraine vote for Thursday". The Hill. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "S. 2124 - CBO Cost Estimate" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "H.R. 4278 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Damien McElroy (23 February 2014). "Ukraine revolution: live – Ukraine's president has disappeared as world awakes to the aftermath of a revolution". The Daily Telegraph. 
  5. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Tymoshenko speech ends historic day of revolution". BBC News. 22 February 2014. 
    Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk (22 February 2014). "Yanukovich toppled in new Ukrainian revolution". Financial Times. 
  6. ^ "Yanukovych: The man who sparks revolution in Ukraine". "Yahoo! News. "Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Myers, Steven Lee. "Ousted Ukrainian Leader, Reappearing in Russia, Says, 'Nobody Deposed Me'". New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "Ukraine's Yanukovich wanted for mass murder". Euronews. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Sullivan, Tim (1 March 2014). "Russian troops take over Ukraine's Crimea region". Associated Press. 
  10. ^ Booth, William (22 February 2014). "Ukraine's Yanukovych missing as protesters take control of presidential residence in Kiev". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Update: The Ukrainian Parliament declared that President Yanukovych has failed to perform his duties hence he is relieved from the post of president" Forbes What Does The Future Hold For Ukraine
  12. ^ Parliament votes 328-0 to impeach Yanukovych on Feb. 22; sets May 25 for new election; Tymoshenko free (VIDEO) Feb. 23, 2014, 2:39 a.m. https://www.kyivpost.com/content/kyiv/euromaidan-rallies-in-ukraine-feb-21-live-updates-337287.html
  13. ^ a b United Nations News Centre - UN Security Council action on Crimea referendum blocked
  14. ^ Lally, Kathy; Englund, Will (4 March 2014). "Putin defends Ukraine stance, cites lawlessness". "The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  15. ^ Gumuchian, Marie-Louise; Morgan, Kellie; Chance, Matthew (10 March 2014). "Demonstrators rally as Crimea crisis mounts". "CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  16. ^ Dawber, Alistair (5 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: How do you solve a problem like Crimea?". "The Independent. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "Transcript: Putin defends Russian intervention in Ukraine". "The Washington Post. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-feffer/who-are-these-people-anyw_b_4964526.html Who Are These 'People,' Anyway?
  19. ^ Sindelar, Daisy (February 23, 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Warning shots end OSCE Crimea entry bid - Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  21. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia vows troops will stay". BBC. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  22. ^ Jones, Sam (21 February 2014). "US scorns Russia's version of Crimean intervention". Financial Times. 
  23. ^ "OSCE team say Crimea roadblock gunmen threatened to shoot at them". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  24. ^ "Gunmen Seize Government Buildings in Crimea". The New York Times. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. Masked men with guns seized government buildings in the capital of Ukraine's Crimea region on Thursday, barricading themselves inside and raising the Russian flag after mysterious overnight raids that appeared to be the work of militant Russian nationalists who want this volatile Black Sea region ruled from Moscow. 
  25. ^ "Armed men seize two airports in Ukraine's Crimea, Yanukovich reappears". Reuters. 1 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "Putin ready to invade Ukraine; Kiev warns of war". Reuters. 1 March 2014{{inconsistent citations}} 
  27. ^ "Telecom services sabotaged in Ukraine's Crimea region". United Press International. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  28. ^ "Statement by the President on Ukraine". White House. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  29. ^ DeYoung, Karen (1 March 2014). "Obama speaks with Putin by phone, calls on Russia to pull forces back to Crimea bases". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "Kerry condemns Russia's 'incredible act of aggression' in Ukraine". Reuters. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "USA won't send presidential delegation to Sochi Paralympics". USA Today. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  32. ^ "Executive Order 13660 -- Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine" (Press release). White House Office of the Press Secretary. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "Sanctions: US and EU action on Ukraine" (PDF). http://www.pwc.com/us/en/financial-services/regulatory-services/publications/sanctions-us-and-eu-action-on-ukraine.jhtml. PwC Financial Services Regulatory Practice, March, 2014.  External link in |website= ("help)
  34. ^ Crimea Applies to Join Russia
  35. ^ Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russia union', "BBC, March 16, 2014
  36. ^ Crimea election chief reports 95% vote to secede, half of ballots counted "CBC Retrieved on March 16, 2014
  37. ^ Crimean parliament formally applies to join Russia, "BBC, March 17, 2014
  38. ^ Uriel Abulof, Self-Determination, Redux?, "Huffingtonpost, March 20, 2014
  39. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia isolated in UN Crimea vote". BBC. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  40. ^ Obama: US, EU Prepared to Penalize Russia for Crimea Ballot, "VOA, March 16, 2014
  41. ^ "Executive Order -- Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine" (Press release). The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  42. ^ a b "H.R. 4152 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  43. ^ a b Roxana Tiron; Derek Wallbank (6 March 2014). "House Passess $1 Billion in Loan Guarantees to Aid Ukraine". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c d "H.R. 4152 - All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  45. ^ a b David Lawder; Patricia Zengerle (5 March 2014). "U.S. lawmakers say to vote on Ukraine aid package soon". Reuters. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates "public domain material from websites or documents of the "United States Government.

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