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See also: "Democratic deficit in the European Union
In a supranational union, the problem of how to reconcile the principle of equality among nation states, which applies to international (intergovernmental) organisations, and the principle of equality among citizens, which applies within "nation states is resolved by taking a sectoral approach. This allows an innovatory, democratic broadening the number of actors to be included. These are present not only in the classical Parliament which has slightly different functions but also in the Consultative Committees such as the "European Economic and Social Committee and the "Committee of the Regions which the treaties give powers equivalent to parliaments in their own areas but which are at present still developing their potential. In the European Union, the "Lisbon Treaty mixes two principles (classical parliamentary government with a politically elected government) and a supranational community with a totally independent "European Commission. Governments are also trying to treat the Lisbon Treaty as a simple classical treaty, or even an amendment to one, which does not require citizens' support or democratic approval. The proposed Lisbon Treaty and the earlier Constitutional draft still retain in the European Union elements of a supranational union, as distinct from a federal state on the lines of the United States of America. But this is at the expense of the democratic potentialities of a full supranational union as conceived in the first Community.
Other international organisations with some degree of integration
Global map showing several regional organisations of non-overlapping memberships as of the early-2000s.
The only union generally recognised as having achieved the status of a supranational union is the European Union.
There are a number of "other regional organisations that, while not supranational unions, have adopted or intend to adopt policies that may lead to a similar sort of integration in some respects.
Other organisations that have also discussed greater integration include:
Notes and references
- ^ a b c d e f Kiljunen, Kimmo (2004). The European Constitution in the Making. "Centre for European Policy Studies. pp. 21–26. "ISBN "978-92-9079-493-6.
- ^ Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions (New York: Crown/Bonanza, 1954), p. 147 (emphasis in original); cf. pp. 118-61. See also Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007), ch. 22, pp. 487-500.
- ^ Schuman's speeches at the United Nations 1948. 1949 ,
- ^ Schuman's May 1949 speech at Strasbourg calling for a supranational union for Europe
- ^ a b Der Schuman Plan. Vertrag ueber die Gruendung der europaeischen Gemeinschaft fuer Kohl und Stahl, p21 Ulrich Sahm mit einem Vorwort von Walter Hallstein. Frankfurt 1951. Schuman or Monnet? The real Architect of Europe. Robert Schuman's speeches and texts on the origin, purpose and future of Europe p 129. Bron 2004
- ^ La Communaute du Charbon et de l'Acier p 7 Paul Reuter, preface by Robert Schuman. Paris 1953
- ^ The institutions of a supranational Community
- ^ Kiljunen, Kimmo (2004). The European Constitution in the Making. "Centre for European Policy Studies. pp. 45–46. "ISBN "978-92-9079-493-6.
- ^ Schuman, Robert. [Pour l'Europe] Paris, 1963
- ^ European Parliament study, The European Elections, EU legislation, national provisions and civic participation
- ^ Pour l'Europe, page 146
- ^ Lowi, T. The End of the Republican Era ("ISBN 0-8061-2887-9), "University of Oklahoma Press, 1995–2006. p. 6.
- ^ a b Pernice, Ingolf; Katharina Pistor (2004). "Institutional settlements for an enlarged European Union". In George A. Bermann and Katharina Pistor. Law and governance in an enlarged European Union: essays in European law. Hart Publishing. pp. 3–38. "ISBN "978-1-84113-426-0.
- ^ http://www.Schuman.info/ComHonest.htm/ Should the Commission be elected politically or be independent?
- ^ Bauböck, Rainer (2007). "Why European Citizenship? Normative Approaches to Supranational Union". "Theoretical Inquiries in Law. "Berkeley Electronic Press. 8 (2, Article 5). "doi:10.2202/1565-3404.1157. "ISSN 1565-3404. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
A normative theory of supranational citizenship will necessarily be informed by the EU as the only present case and will be addressed to the EU in most of its prescriptions
"Supranational Alliance". Retrieved 20 February 2011.