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Supreme Court of the Philippines
Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas
Korte Suprema ng Pilipinas
""Seal of the Supreme Court of the Republic of the Philippines.svg
Seal of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Established June 11, 1901; 117 years ago (1901-06-11)
Country "Philippines
Location "Manila
"Baguio (summer)
"Coordinates 14°34′46″N 120°59′3″E / 14.57944°N 120.98417°E / 14.57944; 120.98417"Coordinates: 14°34′46″N 120°59′3″E / 14.57944°N 120.98417°E / 14.57944; 120.98417
Composition method "Presidential appointment from the shortlisted candidates submitted by the "Judicial and Bar Council
Authorized by "Constitution of the Philippines
Judge term length no fixed term ("retirement at the age 70)
No. of positions 15
Website sc.judiciary.gov.ph
"Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Currently "Antonio Carpio (Acting) [1]
Since May 14, 2018
""Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
"politics and government of
the Philippines

The Supreme Court of the Philippines ("Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas; colloquially referred to as Korte Suprema) is the highest court in the "Philippines. It is presided over by a Chief Justice and is composed of fifteen (15) Justices, including the "Chief Justice. Pursuant to the "Constitution, the Supreme Court has "administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof".[2]

The Supreme Court Complex, which was formerly the part of the "University of the Philippines Manila campus,[3] occupies the corner of "Padre Faura Street and "Taft Avenue in "Manila, with the main building directly fronting the "Philippine General Hospital. Until 1945, the Court met in "Cavite.

Contents

Constitutional role[edit]

Composition[edit]

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The Sereno Court in 2012

A person must meet the following requirements in order to be appointed to the Supreme Court: (1) "natural-born citizenship; (2) at least 40 years old; and (3) must have been for fifteen years or more a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.[4] An additional constitutional requirement, though less precise in nature, is that a judge "must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence."[5] Upon a vacancy in the Court, whether for the position of "Chief Justice or "Associate Justice, the "President fills the vacancy by appointing a person from a list of at least 3 nominees prepared by the "Judicial and Bar Council.[6]

Beginning with the 1935 Constitution, Supreme Court Justices are obliged to retire upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 70.[7] Some Justices had opted to retire before reaching the age of 70, such as Florentino Feliciano, who retired at 67 to accept appointment to the "Appellate Body of the "World Trade Organization and Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez who retired at 68 due to health reasons.[8] The 1987 "Constitution of the Philippines provides that: "Section 11, Article VIII. The Members of the Supreme Court xxx shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office."[2] Since, 1901, it was only incumbent "Associate Justice "Alicia Austria-Martinez who resigned for health reasons. Thus, on September, 2008, Austria-Martinez, citing health reasons, filed a letter to the Court through "Reynato Puno, tendering her "resignation effective April 30, 2009, or 15 months before her compulsory retirement on December 19, 2010.[9][10][11] This was followed in 2016 however, by Justice Martin Villarama, who resigned in January 2016, due to health reasons.

Adjudication[edit]

The powers of the Supreme Court are defined in Article VIII of the "1987 Constitution. These functions may be generally divided into two – "judicial functions and "administrative functions. The administrative functions of the Court pertain to the supervision and control over the Philippine judiciary and its employees, as well as over members of the Philippine bar. Pursuant to these functions, the Court is empowered to order a change of venue of trial in order to avoid a miscarriage of justice and to appoint all officials and employees of the judiciary.[12] The Court is further authorized to promulgate the rules for admission to the practice of law, for legal assistance to the underprivileged, and the procedural rules to be observed in all courts.[13]

The more prominent role of the Court is located in the exercise of its judicial functions. Section 1 of Article VIII contains definition of judicial power that had not been found in previous constitutions. The judicial power is vested in “one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.”[14] This judicial power is exercised through the judiciary’s primary role of adjudication, which includes the “duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government.”[14]

The definition reaffirms the power of the Supreme Court to engage in "judicial review, a power that had traditionally belonged to the Court even before this provision was enacted. Still, this new provision effectively dissuades from the easy resort to the "political question doctrine as a means of declining to review a law or state action, as was often done by the Court during the rule of "President "Ferdinand Marcos.[15] As a result, the existence of “grave abuse of discretion” on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government is sufficient basis to nullify state action.

Cases[edit]

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Facade of the Supreme Court Building
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Flag

The Court is authorized to sit either "en banc or in divisions of 3, 5 or 7 members. Since the 1970s, the Court has constituted itself in 3 divisions with 5 members each. A majority of the cases are heard and decided by the divisions, rather than the court en banc. However, the Constitution requires that the Court hear en banc “[a]ll cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or executive agreement, as well as “those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations”.[6] The Court en banc also decides cases originally heard by a division when a majority vote cannot be reached within the division. The Court also has the discretion to hear a case en banc even if no constitutional issue is involved, as it typically does if the decision would reverse precedent or presents novel or important questions.

Appellate review[edit]

Far and away the most common mode by which a case reaches the Supreme Court is through an "appeal from a decision rendered by a lower court. Appealed cases generally originate from "lawsuits or "criminal indictments filed and tried before the trial courts. These decisions of the trial courts may then be elevated on appeal to the "Court of Appeals, or more rarely, directly to the Supreme Court if only “questions of law” are involved. Apart from decisions of the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court may also directly review on appeal decisions rendered by the "Sandiganbayan and the "Court of Tax Appeals. Decisions rendered by administrative agencies are not directly appealable to the Supreme Court, they must be first challenged before the Court of Appeals. However, decisions of the "Commission on Elections may be elevated directly for review to the Supreme Court, although the procedure is not, strictly speaking, in the nature of an appeal.

Review on appeal is not as a matter of right, but "of sound judicial discretion and will be granted only when there are special and important reasons therefor".[16] In the exercise of appellate review, the Supreme Court may reverse the decision of lower courts upon a finding of an "error of law". The Court generally declines to engage in review the findings of fact made by the lower courts, although there are notable exceptions to this rule. The Court also refuses to entertain cases originally filed before it that should have been filed first with the trial courts.

Original jurisdiction[edit]

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Session Hall of the Supreme Court

The other mode by which a case reaches the Supreme Court is through an original petition filed directly with the Supreme Court, in cases that the "Constitution establishes "original jurisdiction" with the Supreme Court. Under Section 5(1), Article VIII of the Constitution, they are "cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, and corpus." Resort to "certiorari, "prohibition and "mandamus may be availed of only if "there is no appeal, or any plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law."[17]

However, notwithstanding the grant of original jurisdiction, the Court has, through the years, assigned to lower courts such as the "Court of Appeals the power to hear petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, "quo warranto and "habeas corpus. As a result, the Court has considerable discretion to refuse to hear these petitions filed directly before it on the ground that such should have been filed instead with the Court of Appeals or the appropriate lower court. Nonetheless, cases that have attracted wide public interest or for which a speedy resolution is of the essence have been accepted for decision by the Supreme Court without hesitation.

In cases involving the original jurisdiction of the Court, there must be a finding of "grave abuse of discretion" on the part of the respondents to the suit to justify favorable action on the petition. The standard of "grave abuse of discretion", a markedly higher standard than "error of law", has been defined as "a capricious and whimsical exercise of judgment amounting to lack of jurisdiction"[18]

History[edit]

Pre-Hispanic and Hispanic periods[edit]

In the years prior to the official establishment of the Supreme Court, institutions exercising judicial power were already in existence. Before the Spaniards came, judicial authority was in the hands of "barangay chiefs. During the early years of the Spanish government, these powers were vested upon "Miguel López de Legazpi, the first "Governor-General of the Philippines. He administered civil and "criminal justice under the Royal Order of August 14, 1569.

The present Supreme Court was preceded by the "Real Audiencia, a collegial body established on May 5, 1583 and composed, of a president, four oidores (justices), and a "fiscal, among others. The Chief Judge of the Real Audiencia was the "Governor-General of the Philippines. It was the highest tribunal in the Philippines, below only the "Council of the Indies of "Spain. However, this body also exercised administrative functions, not just judicial functions.

The Audiencia’s functions and structure underwent substantial modifications in 1815 when its president was replaced by a "chief justice and the number of justices was increased. It then came to be known as the Audiencia Territorial de Manila with two branches, civil and criminal, later renamed sala de lo civil and sala de lo criminal. The Audiencia was converted to a purely judicial body by a Royal Decree issued on July 4, 1861, but its decisions were appealable to the Supreme Court of Spain sitting in "Madrid.

On February 26, 1886, a territorial Audiencia was organized in "Cebu, followed by an Audiencia for criminal cases in "Vigan. However, the pre-eminence of the Supreme Court as the sole interpreter of the law was unknown during the Spanish regime.[19]

American period[edit]

From 1898 to 1901 there was no Supreme Court as the new American "Governor-General of the Philippines abolished the colonial "Real Audiencia of Manila as the Philippines was under "US military law under military rule.

The Supreme Court of the Philippines was officially established on June 11, 1901 through the passage of Act No. 136, otherwise known as the "Judiciary Law of the Second "Philippine Commission. By virtue of that law, judicial power in the Philippine Islands was vested in the Supreme Court, Courts of First Instance and "Justice of the Peace courts. Other courts were subsequently established.

The judicial structure introduced by Act No. 136 was reaffirmed by the "US Congress with the passage of the "Philippine Bill of 1902. The "Administrative Code of 1917 ordained the Supreme Court as the highest tribunal of the Philippines with nine members: a chief justice and eight associate justices. Its decisions could be further appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court in Washington, D.C.[19]

Commonwealth and independence[edit]

From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were "Americans. Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the "Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. "Claro M. Recto and "Jose P. Laurel were among the first appointees to replace the American justices. With the ratification of the 1935 "Constitution in a plebiscite held on May 14, 1935, the membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice and ten associate justices, who sat en banc or in two divisions of five members each.

Article V of the "Treaty of Manila (1946) abolished the U.S. Supreme Court's appellate authority over the Supreme Court of the Philippines, but provided that Philippine appeals pending before the U.S. Supreme Court would be allowed to run to completion.[19]

Under the 1973 Constitution, the membership of the Supreme Court was increased to 15. The justices sat "en banc or in divisions. The 1973 Constitution also vested in the Supreme Court administrative supervision over all lower courts which heretofore was under the "Department of Justice.

After the overthrow of "President "Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, President "Corazon C. Aquino, using her emergency powers, promulgated a transitory charter known as the “Freedom Constitution” which did not affect the composition and powers of the Supreme Court. The Freedom Charter was replaced by the 1987 "Constitution which is the fundamental charter in force in the Philippines at present. Section 1 Article VIII of the Constitution vests the judicial power “in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.”

Writ of Amparo[edit]

The Supreme Court approved the Writ of Amparo on September 25, 2007.[20] The writ of amparo (Spanish for protection) strips the military of the defense of simple denial. Under the writ, families of victims have the right to access information on their cases—a constitutional right called the "habeas data" common in several Latin American countries. The rule is enforced retroactively. Chief Justice Puno stated that "If you have this right, it would be very, very difficult for State agents, State authorities to be able to escape from their culpability."[21][22]

The Resolution and the Rule on the Writ of Amparo gave "legal birth to Puno's brainchild.[23][24][25] No "filing or "legal fees is required for Amparo which takes effect on October 24. Puno also stated that the court will soon issue rules on the writ of "Habeas Data and the implementing guidelines for "Habeas Corpus. The petition for the writ of amparo may be filed "on any day and at any time" with the Regional Trial Court, or with the "Sandiganbayan, the Court of Appeals, and the Supreme Court. The interim reliefs under amparo are: temporary protection order (TPO), inspection order (IO), production order (PO), and witness protection order (WPO, RA 6981).[26]

The "Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has criticized the "Writ of Amparo and Habeas Data for being insufficient, saying further action must be taken, including enacting laws for protection against torture, "enforced disappearance, and laws to provide legal remedies to victims. AHRC said the "writ failed to protect non-witnesses, even if they too face threats.[27]

Habeas Data[edit]

On August 30, 2007, Puno vowed to institute the writ of habeas data as a new legal remedy to the "extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances. Puno explained that the writ of amparo denies to authorities defense of simple denial, and habeas data can find out what information is held by the officer, rectify or even the destroy erroneous data gathered.[28]

On January 22, 2008, the Supreme Court En Banc approved the rules for the writ of "Habeas Data ("to protect a person’s right to privacy and allow a person to control any information concerning them"), effective on February 2, the Philippines’ Constitution Day.[29]

Language[edit]

Since the courts' creation, English had been used in court proceedings. But for the first time in Philippine judicial history, or on August 22, 2007, three "Malolos City regional trial courts in "Bulacan will use "Filipino, to promote the national language. Twelve "stenographers from Branches 6, 80 and 81, as model courts, had undergone training at Marcelo H. del Pilar College of Law of "Bulacan State University College of Law following a directive from the Supreme Court of the Philippines. De la Rama said it was the dream of Chief Justice "Reynato Puno to implement the program in other areas such as "Laguna, "Cavite, "Quezon, "Nueva Ecija, "Batangas, "Rizal and "Metro Manila.[30]

Judicial corruption[edit]

On January 25, 2005, and on December 10, 2006, "Philippines "Social Weather Stations released the results of its two surveys on corruption in the "judiciary; it published that: a) like 1995, 1/4 of "lawyers said many/very many "judges are corrupt. But (49%) stated that a judges received bribes, just 8% of lawyers admitted they reported the "bribery, because they could not prove it. [Tables 8-9]; judges, however, said, just 7% call many/very many judges as corrupt[Tables 10-11];b) "Judges see some corruption; proportions who said - many/very many corrupt judges or justices: 17% in reference to RTC judges, 14% to MTC judges, 12% to Court of Appeals justices, 4% i to Shari'a Court judges, 4% to "Sandiganbayan justices and 2% in reference to Supreme Court justices [Table 15].[31][32]

The September 14, 2008, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) survey, ranked the "Philippines 6th (6.10) among corrupt Asian judicial systems. PERC stated that "despite India and the Philippines being democracies, expatriates did not look favourably on their judicial systems because of corruption." PERC reported "Hong Kong and "Singapore have the best judicial systems in "Asia, with Indonesia and Vietnam the worst: Hong Kong's judicial system scored 1.45 on the scale (zero representing the best performance and 10 the worst); Singapore with a grade of 1.92, followed by Japan (3.50), South Korea (4.62), Taiwan (4.93), the "Philippines (6.10), Malaysia (6.47), India (6.50), Thailand (7.00), China (7.25), Vietnam's (8.10) and Indonesia (8.26).[33]<[34]

In 2014, "Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (global "survey ranking countries in terms of perceived corruption), the Philippines ranked 85th out of 175 countries surveyed, an improvement from placing 94th in 2013. It scored 38 on a scale of 1 to 100 in the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI).[35]

The Philippines jumped nine places in the recently published "World Justice Project (WJP) Rule of Law Index 2015, making it one of the most improved countries in terms of global rankings. It ranked 51st out of 102 countries on the ROLI, a significant jump from last year when the country ranked 60th out of 99 countries. This makes the Philippines the most improved among ASEAN member nations. "Results showed that the country ranked high in terms of constraints on government powers (39th); absence of corruption (47th), and open government (50th)."

"The Philippines, however, fell to the bottom half of the global rankings in terms of regulatory enforcement (52nd); order and security (58th); criminal justice (66th); fundamental rights (67th), and civil justice (75th)."[36]

“Bantay Korte Suprema”[edit]

"Watch the Supreme Court" "coalition was launched at the Training Center, Ground Floor, Supreme Court Centennial Bldg on November 17, 2008, "to ensure the fair and honest selection of the 7 "Associate Justices of the Supreme Court on 2009." Members of “Bantay Korte Suprema” include retired Philippine presidents, retired Supreme Court justices, legislators, legal practitioners, the academe, the business community and the media. former Senate President "Jovito Salonga, UP Law Dean "Marvic Leonen, Senate Majority Leader and "Judicial and Bar Council member "Kiko Pangilinan, the Philippine Bar Association, "Artemio Panganiban, and Rodolfo Urbiztondo, of the 48,000-strong "Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP), and the chambers of commerce, witnessed the landmark event. BKS will neither select nor endorse a candidate, “but if it receive information that makes a candidate incompetent, it will divulge this to the public and inform the "JBC." At the BKS launching, the "memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the public monitoring of the selection of justices to the SC was signed.

Meanwhile, the Supreme Court Appointments Watch (SCAW) coalition of law groups and civil society to monitor the appointment of persons to judicial positions was also re-launched. The SCAW "consortium, composed of the Alternative Law Groups, "Libertas, Philippine Association of law Schools and the Transparency and Accountability Network, together with the online news magazine "Newsbreak, reactivated itself for the JBC selection process of candidates.[37][38][39][40]

Current Justices[edit]

Name Born Law school Date of appointment Date of retirement Chief Executive Replacing Division[41]

""Carpio
"Antonio T. Carpio
("Acting Chief Justice)
("Senior Associate Justice)

October 26, 1949
(age 68)
in "Davao City
"University of the Philippines College of Law October 26, 2001 October 26, 2019 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes Second

""Velasco in robes.jpg
"Presbitero Velasco Jr.

August 8, 1948
(age 69)
in "Pasay
"University of the Philippines College of Law March 31, 2006 August 8, 2018 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo "Artemio V. Panganiban Third

""Decastro in robes.jpg
"Teresita Leonardo-de Castro

October 8, 1948
(age 69)
"University of the Philippines College of Law December 3, 2007 October 8, 2018 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo "Cancio Garcia First

""Peralta in robes.jpg
"Diosdado M. Peralta

March 27, 1952
(age 66)
"University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law January 14, 2009 March 27, 2022 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo "Ruben Reyes Second

""Bersamin in robes.jpg
"Lucas P. Bersamin

October 18, 1949
(age 68)

in Bangued, Abra

"University of the East College of Law April 3, 2009 October 18, 2019 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo "Adolfo Azcuna Third

""Delcastillo in robes.jpg
"Mariano C. del Castillo

July 29, 1949
(age 68)
"Ateneo de Manila Law School July 29, 2009 July 29, 2019 "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo "Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez First

""Bernabe in robes.jpg
"Estela Perlas-Bernabe

May 14, 1952
(age 66)
"Ateneo de Manila Law School September 16, 2011 May 14, 2022 "Benigno Aquino III "Conchita Carpio-Morales Second

""Leonen
"Marvic Mario Victor F. Leonen

December 29, 1962
(age 55)
"University of the Philippines College of Law November 21, 2012 December 29, 2032 "Benigno Aquino III "Maria Lourdes Sereno Third

""Justice Francis H. Jardeleza Official.jpg
"Francis H. Jardeleza

September 26, 1949
(age 68)
"University of the Philippines College of Law August 19, 2014 September 26, 2019 "Benigno Aquino III "Roberto Abad First

""SCPh Justice Alfredo Benjamin S. Caguioa.jpg
"Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa

September 30, 1959
(age 58)
"Ateneo de Manila Law School January 22, 2016 September 30, 2029 "Benigno Aquino III "Martin Villarama Jr. Second


"Samuel R. Martires

January 2, 1949
(age 69)
"San Beda College of Law March 2, 2017 January 2, 2019 "Rodrigo Duterte "Jose P. Perez Third

""Tijam in robes.jpg
"Noel G. Tijam

January 5, 1949
(age 69)
"San Beda College of Law March 8, 2017 January 5, 2019 "Rodrigo Duterte "Arturo D. Brion First


"Andres Reyes Jr.

May 11, 1950
(age 68)
"Ateneo de Manila Law School July 12, 2017 May 11, 2020 "Rodrigo Duterte "Bienvenido L. Reyes Second


"Alexander G. Gesmundo

November 6, 1956
(age 61)
"Ateneo de Manila Law School August 14, 2017 November 6, 2026 "Rodrigo Duterte "Jose C. Mendoza Third

Supreme Court Justices of the Philippines[edit]

# Justice Born Start of term End of term Replacing Chief Justices Chief Executive
1 "Cayetano Arellano March 2, 1847 June 11, 1901 April 12, 1920 Newly created seat First Chief Justice "William Howard Taft
2 Florentino Torres October 16, 1844 June 17, 1901 April 20, 1920 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
3 "Victorino Mapa February 25, 1855 June 17, 1901 October 31, 1913 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
4 "James Francis Smith January 28, 1859 June 17, 1901 February 17, 1903 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
5 Joseph F. Cooper March 30, 1854 June 17, 1901 October 17, 1904 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
6 Charles A. Willard May 21, 1857 June 17, 1901 April 24, 1904 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
7 Fletcher Ladd December 21, 1862 June 17, 1901 July 13, 1903 Newly created seat "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
8 "John T. McDonough July 12, 1843 February 18, 1903 May 1, 1904 James Francis Smith "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
9 Elias Finley Johnson June 24, 1861 October 3, 1903 April 1, 1933 Fletcher Ladd "Cayetano Arellano "William Howard Taft
10 Adam Clarke Carson January 14, 1869 November 16, 1904 November 30, 1920 Charles A. Willard "Cayetano Arellano "Luke Edward Wright
11 James F. Tracy March 30, 1854 July 1, 1905 July 2, 1909 John T. Mcdonough "Cayetano Arellano "Luke Edward Wright
12 "Sherman Moreland October 16, 1868 February 1, 1909 April 23, 1917 "Cayetano Arellano "James Francis Smith
13 "Charles Burke Elliott January 6, 1861 June 3, 1909 February 13, 1910 "Cayetano Arellano "James Francis Smith
14 Grant T. Trent February 28, 1910 April 23, 1917 "Cayetano Arellano "William Cameron Forbes
15 "Manuel Araullo January 1, 1853 December 16, 1913 October 31, 1921 "Victorino Mapa "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
16 Thomas A. Street March 14, 1872 June 13, 1917 June 1, 1935 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
17 "George A. Malcolm November 5, 1881 July 9, 1917 February 1, 1936 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
18 "Ramón Avanceña April 13, 1872 October 31, 1917 March 31, 1925 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
19 Frederich Charles Fisher November 17, 1917 November 16, 1918 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
20 Percy M. Moir November 25, 1918 November 20, 1920 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
21 Ignacio Villamor February 1, 1863 May 19, 1920 May 23, 1933 "Cayetano Arellano "Francis Burton Harrison
22 James A. Ostrand January 20, 1871 September 27, 1921 June 30, 1933 "Victorino Mapa "Charles Yeater
23 "Charles A. Johns June 25, 1857 October 7, 1921 January 11, 1932 Percy M. Moir "Victorino Mapa "Charles Yeater
24 "Norberto Romualdez June 6, 1875 November 1, 1921 April 1, 1932 "Manuel Araullo "Manuel Araullo "Leonard Wood
25 "Antonio Villareal January 17, 1880 June 16, 1925 June 5, 1940 "Ramón Avanceña "Ramón Avanceña "Leonard Wood
26 "John A. Hull August 7, 1874 June 1, 1932 February 1, 1936 "Charles A. Johns "Ramón Avanceña "Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
27 James C. Vickers August 5, 1877 June 1, 1932 February 1, 1936 "Ramón Avanceña "Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
28 "José Abad Santos February 19, 1886 June 18, 1932 December 23, 1941 "Norberto Romualdez "Ramón Avanceña "Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
29 Carlos A. Imperial November 4, 1880 June 22, 1932 May 20, 1941 "Ramón Avanceña "Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
30 George C. Butte May 9, 1877 July 1, 1932 February 1, 1936 "Ramón Avanceña "Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
31 "Anacleto Diaz November 20, 1878 November 20, 1933 December 19, 1941 "Ramón Avanceña "Frank Murphy
32 Leonard S. Goddard January 29, 1871 January 9, 1934 January 29, 1936 "Ramón Avanceña "Frank Murphy
33 "Claro M. Recto February 8, 1890 July 3, 1935 November 1, 1936 "Ramón Avanceña "Frank Murphy
34 "José P. Laurel March 9, 1891 February 29, 1936 February 5, 1942 "Ramón Avanceña "Manuel L. Quezon
35 "Pedro Concepción October 31, 1936 January 1, 1940 "Ramón Avanceña "Manuel L. Quezon
36 "Manuel V. Moran October 27, 1893 December 12, 1938 July 9, 1945 "Ramón Avanceña "Manuel L. Quezon
37 Roman Ozaeta February 28, 1891 June 24, 1941 October 16, 1950 "Antonio Villareal "Ramón Avanceña "Manuel L. Quezon
38 "Ricardo Parás February 17, 1891 December 28, 1941 April 1, 1951 "José Abad Santos "Manuel L. Quezon
39 "José Yulo September 24, 1894 February 5, 1942 May 7, 1942 "José Abad Santos "Manuel L. Quezon
40 Jorge C. Bocobo October 19, 1886 February 5, 1942 January 31, 1944 "José Abad Santos "Manuel L. Quezon
41 Jose Generoso May 11, 1942 July 15, 1948 "José Yulo "Manuel L. Quezon
42 Jose Lopez Vito May 12, 1872 May 11, 1942 January 31, 1944 "José Yulo "Manuel L. Quezon
43 Antonio Horrilleno February 13, 1878 July 1, 1943 August 17, 1945 "José Yulo "Manuel L. Quezon
44 "Delfin Jaranilla December 24, 1883 June 6, 1945 June 6, 1946 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
45 Felicisimo R. Feria August 6, 1883 June 6, 1945 August 6, 1953 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
46 Mariano H. De Joya September 8, 1887 June 6, 1945 June 25, 1945 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
47 Guillermo Pablo June 25, 1886 June 6, 1945 June 4, 1955 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
48 "Gregorio Perfecto November 28, 1891 June 6, 1945 August 17, 1949 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
49 Emilio Y. Hilado November 1, 1891 June 6, 1945 May 31, 1948 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
50 Jose A. Espiritu April 10, 1886 June 6, 1945 August 15, 1945 "José Yulo "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
51 Manuel C. Briones January 1, 1894 September 15, 1945 May 24, 1949 "Manuel V. Moran "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
52 "César Bengzon May 29, 1896 September 15, 1945 April 28, 1961 "Manuel V. Moran "José P. Laurel
"Sergio Osmeña
53 Sabino B. Padilla August 21, 1894 June 25, 1946 August 21, 1964 "Manuel V. Moran "Manuel Roxas
54 "Pedro Tuazon September 15, 1884 June 25, 1946 January 4, 1954 "Manuel V. Moran "Manuel Roxas
55 Jose Hontiveros March 19, 1889 June 25, 1946 October 16, 1947 "Manuel V. Moran "Manuel Roxas
56 Alejandro A. Reyes June 4, 1899 August 6, 1948 June 3, 1959 Jose Generoso "Manuel V. Moran "Elpidio Quirino
57 Marcelino R. Montemayor July 27, 1890 August 21, 1948 July 27, 1960 "Manuel V. Moran "Elpidio Quirino
58 Luis P. Torres April 8, 1880 August 20, 1949 April 1, 1950 "Manuel V. Moran "Elpidio Quirino
59 Felix Angelo Bautista May 20, 1896 October 20, 1950 May 20, 1956 "Manuel V. Moran "Elpidio Quirino
60 Fernando Jugo May 14, 1891 October 20, 1950 June 3, 1956 "Manuel V. Moran "Elpidio Quirino
61 Alejo Labrador July 17, 1894 April 22, 1952 July 17, 1964 "Ricardo Parás "Elpidio Quirino
62 "Roberto Concepcion June 7, 1903 February 9, 1954 June 17, 1966 "Ricardo Parás "Ramon Magsaysay
63 Ramon Diokno March 28, 1886 February 10, 1954 April 21, 1954 "Ricardo Parás "Ramon Magsaysay
64 "Jose B. L. Reyes August 19, 1902 June 30, 1954 August 19, 1972 Ramon Diokno "Ricardo Parás "Ramon Magsaysay
65 Pastor M. Endencia July 26, 1890 December 20, 1955 July 26, 1960 "Ricardo Parás "Ramon Magsaysay
66 Alfonso Felix September 17, 1888 July 24, 1956 September 17, 1958 "Ricardo Parás "Ramon Magsaysay
67 Jesus G. Barrera December 18, 1896 June 5, 1959 December 18, 1966 "Ricardo Parás "Carlos P. García
68 Jose Gutierrez David January 29, 1891 August 28, 1959 January 29, 1961 "Ricardo Parás "Carlos P. García
69 Arsenio Dizon October 5, 1901 July 26, 1960 October 5, 1971 "Ricardo Parás "Carlos P. García
70 Jose Ma. Paredes August 15, 1895 August 18, 1960 August 15, 1965 "Ricardo Parás "Carlos P. García
71 Dionisio De Leon April 8, 1892 April 28, 1961 April 8, 1962 "César Bengzon "Carlos P. García
72 Felipe Natividad September 20, 1891 April 8, 1962 September 20, 1962 "César Bengzon "Diosdado Macapagal
73 Roberto Regala June 7, 1897 May 23, 1962 December 22, 1975 "César Bengzon "Diosdado Macapagal
74 "Querube Makalintal December 22, 1910 May 23, 1962 October 21, 1973 "César Bengzon "Diosdado Macapagal
75 "Calixto Zaldivar September 13, 1904 September 12, 1964 September 13, 1974 "César Bengzon "Diosdado Macapagal
76 Jose P. Bengzon May 5, 1898 September 12, 1964 May 5, 1968 "César Bengzon "Diosdado Macapagal
77 Conrado V. Sanchez February 19, 1900 May 29, 1966 February 19, 1970 "César Bengzon "Ferdinand Marcos
78 "Fred Ruiz Castro September 2, 1914 May 29, 1966 January 5, 1976 "César Bengzon "Ferdinand Marcos
79 Eugenio Angeles November 2, 1868 June 30, 1967 November 2, 1968 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
80 "Enrique Fernando July 25, 1915 June 30, 1967 July 1, 1979 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
81 Francisco Capistrano October 6, 1899 September 16, 1968 October 6, 1969 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
82 "Claudio Teehankee April 18, 1918 December 17, 1968 April 1, 1986 Eugenio Angeles "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
83 Antonio P. Barredo October 1, 1912 December 17, 1968 October 4, 1982 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
84 Julio Villamor April 12, 1902 January 24, 1970 April 12, 1972 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
85 "Felix Makasiar November 20, 1915 August 2, 1970 July 25, 1985 Conrado V. Sanchez "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
86 Felix Q. Antonio May 18, 1911 June 1972 May 18, 1980 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
87 Salvador V. Esguerra June 19, 1906 June 1972 June 19, 1976 "Roberto Concepcion "Ferdinand Marcos
88 "Estanislao A. Fernandez March 28, 1910 October 19, 1973 March 28, 1975 "Jose B. L. Reyes "Querube Makalintal "Ferdinand Marcos
89 "Cecilia Muñoz-Palma November 22, 1913 October 29, 1973 November 22, 1978 Newly created seat "Querube Makalintal "Ferdinand Marcos
90 "Ramon Aquino August 31, 1917 October 29, 1973 November 19, 1985 Newly created seat "Querube Makalintal "Ferdinand Marcos
91 Hermogenes Concepcion Jr. April 7, 1920 April 18, 1975 April 16, 1986 Calixto Zaldivar "Querube Makalintal "Ferdinand Marcos
92 Ruperto G. Martin March 27, 1913 April 18, 1975 January 10, 1978 "Estanislao A. Fernandez "Querube Makalintal "Ferdinand Marcos
93 Guillermo S. Santos January 23, 1915 May 27, 1977 January 23, 1980 "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos
94 Ramon C. Fernandez February 16, 1916 May 27, 1977 May 11, 1982 "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos
95 Juvenal K. Guerrero November 4, 1916 May 11, 1977 November 4, 1984 "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos
96 "Vicente Abad Santos July 12, 1916 January 17, 1979 July 12, 1986 "Fred Ruiz Castro "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos
97 Pacifico P. De Castro July 16, 1915 January 17, 1979 May 31, 1984 "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos
98 "Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera May 11, 1922 January 17, 1979 May 11, 1992 Cecilia Muñoz-Palma "Fred Ruiz Castro "Ferdinand Marcos (1979)
"Corazon Aquino (1986)
99 Vicente G. Ericta February 3, 1915 November 20, 1981 May 11, 1982 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
100 Efren I. Plana June 28, 1928 November 20, 1981 April 16, 1986 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
101 Venicio T. Escolin February 13, 1921 November 20, 1981 April 15, 1986 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
102 "Conrado M. Vasquez September 13, 1913 May 14, 1982 September 30, 1983 Ramon C. Fernandez "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
103 "Lorenzo Relova January 20, 1916 May 14, 1982 January 19, 1986 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
104 "Hugo Gutierrez Jr. January 29, 1927 May 14, 1982 March 31, 1993 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
105 Buenaventura S. De La Fuente July 14, 1922 February 28, 1984 March 6, 1986 "Conrado M. Vasquez "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
106 "Serafin R. Cuevas June 25, 1928 June 1, 1984 April 16, 1986 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
107 Nestor B. Alampay February 17, 1920 January 24, 1985 March 17, 1986 "Enrique Fernando "Ferdinand Marcos
108 Lino M. Patajo September 23, 1916 July 31, 1985 April 16, 1986 "Felix Makasiar "Ferdinand Marcos
109 "Jose Feria January 11, 1917 April 7, 1986 January 10, 1987 "Felix Makasiar "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
110 "Pedro Yap July 1, 1918 April 8, 1986 April 18, 1988 Leo D. Medialdea "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
111 "Marcelo Fernan October 24, 1927 April 9, 1986 June 30, 1988 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
112 "Andres Narvasa November 30, 1928 April 10, 1986 December 7, 1991 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
113 "Isagani A. Cruz October 11, 1924 April 16, 1986 October 11, 1994 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
114 Edgardo L. Paras July 4, 1922 April 16, 1986 July 4, 1992 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
115 Florentino P. Feliciano March 14, 1928 August 8, 1986 December 13, 1995 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
116 Teodoro R. Padilla August 24, 1927 January 12, 1987 August 22, 1997 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
117 "Abdulwahid A. Bidin April 7, 1925 January 12, 1987 May 7, 1995 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
118 Emilio A. Gancayco August 20, 1921 January 12, 1987 August 20, 1991 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
119 "Abraham F. Sarmiento October 8, 1921 January 25, 1987 October 8, 1991 Vicente Abad Santos "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
120 "Irene R. Cortes October 20, 1921 February 1, 1987 October 20, 1990 "Jose Feria "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
121 "Carolina Griño-Aquino October 22, 1923 February 2, 1988 October 22, 1993 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
122 Leo D. Medialdea August 17, 1927 May 2, 1988 November 7, 1992 "Claudio Teehankee "Corazon Aquino
123 "Florenz D. Regalado October 13, 1928 July 29, 1988 October 13, 1998 "Marcelo Fernan "Marcelo Fernan "Corazon Aquino
124 "Hilario Davide Jr. December 20, 1935 January 24, 1991 November 29, 1998 "Irene R. Cortes "Marcelo Fernan "Corazon Aquino
125 "Flerida Ruth Romero August 1, 1929 October 21, 1991 August 1, 1999 "Abraham F. Sarmiento "Marcelo Fernan "Corazon Aquino
126 Rodolfo A. Nocon March 15, 1924 December 2, 1991 March 15, 1994 "Marcelo Fernan "Corazon Aquino
127 Josue N. Bellosillo November 13, 1933 March 3, 1992 November 13, 2003 "Andres Narvasa "Andres Narvasa "Corazon Aquino
128 "Jose Melo May 30, 1932 August 10, 1992 May 30, 2002 "Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
129 Jose C. Campos Jr. April 9, 1923 September 3, 1992 April 9, 1993 "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
130 Camilo D. Quiason July 18, 1925 February 1, 1993 July 18, 1995 Leo D. Medialdea "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
131 "Reynato Puno May 17, 1940 June 28, 1993 December 7, 2007 Hugo Gutierrez "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
132 Jose C. Vitug July 15, 1934 June 28, 1993 July 15, 2004 Jose C. Campos Jr. "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
133 Santiago M. Kapunan August 12, 1932 January 5, 1994 August 12, 2002 "Carolina Griño-Aquino "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
134 Vicente V. Mendoza April 5, 1933 June 7, 1994 April 5, 2003 Rodolfo A. Nocon "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
135 Ricardo J. Francisco February 13, 1928 January 5, 1995 February 13, 1998 "Isagani A. Cruz "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
136 "Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. February 2, 1929 January 10, 1995 October 18, 1997 "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
137 "Artemio Panganiban December 7, 1937 October 5, 1995 December 19, 2005 Camilo Quiason "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
138 Justo P. Torres Jr. November 1, 1927 March 11, 1996 November 1, 1997 "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
139 Antonio M. Martinez February 2, 1929 November 10, 1997 February 2, 1999 "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
140 "Leonardo A. Quisumbing November 6, 1939 January 15, 1998 November 6, 2009 Justo P. Torres Jr. "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
141 Fidel P. Purisima October 28, 1930 January 20, 1998 October 28, 2000 "Regino C. Hermosisima Jr. "Andres Narvasa "Fidel Ramos
142 "Bernardo P. Pardo February 11, 1932 September 30, 1998 February 11, 2002 Ricardo J. Francisco "Andres Narvasa "Joseph Estrada
143 Arturo B. Buena March 25, 1932 January 5, 1999 March 25, 2002 "Florenz D. Regalado "Hilario Davide Jr. "Joseph Estrada
144 Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes September 25, 1931 January 5, 1999 September 25, 2001 "Hilario Davide Jr. "Hilario Davide Jr. "Joseph Estrada
145 "Consuelo Ynares-Santiago October 5, 1939 April 6, 1999 October 5, 2009 Antonio Martinez "Hilario Davide Jr. "Joseph Estrada
146 Sabino R. De Leon Jr. June 9, 1932 October 12, 1999 June 9, 2002 "Flerida Ruth Pineda-Romero "Hilario Davide Jr. "Joseph Estrada
147 "Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez February 28, 1938 December 22, 2000 February 28, 2008 Fidel P. Purisima "Hilario Davide Jr. "Joseph Estrada
148 "Antonio T. Carpio October 26, 1949 October 26, 2001 October 26, 2019 Minerva P. Gonzaga-Reyes "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
149 "Alicia Austria-Martinez December 19, 1940 April 9, 2002 April 30, 2009 Bernardo P. Pardo "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
150 "Renato C. Corona October 15, 1948 April 9, 2002 May 17, 2010 Arturo B. Buena "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
151 "Conchita Carpio-Morales June 19, 1941 August 26, 2002 June 19, 2011 Jose Melo "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
152 "Romeo J. Callejo, Sr. April 28, 1937 August 26, 2002 April 28, 2007 Sabino R. De Leon Jr. "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
153 "Adolfo S. Azcuna February 16, 1939 October 17, 2002 February 16, 2009 Santiago M. Kapunan "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
154 "Dante O. Tiñga May 11, 1939 July 4, 2003 May 11, 2009 Vicente V. Mendoza "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
155 "Minita V. Chico-Nazario December 5, 1939 February 10, 2004 December 5, 2009 Josue N. Bellosillo "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
156 "Cancio C. Garcia October 30, 1937 October 7, 2004 October 30, 2007 Jose C. Vitug "Hilario Davide Jr. "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
157 "Presbitero Velasco Jr. August 8, 1948 March 31, 2006 August 8, 2018 "Artemio V. Panganiban "Artemio V. Panganiban "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
158 "Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura June 13, 1941 February 7, 2007 June 13, 2011 Reynato Puno "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
159 "Ruben T. Reyes January 3, 1939 August 2, 2007 January 3, 2009 Romeo J. Callejo, Sr. "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
160 "Teresita De Castro October 8, 1948 December 3, 2007 October 8, 2018 "Cancio Garcia "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
161 "Arturo D. Brion December 29, 1946 March 17, 2008 December 29, 2016 "Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
162 "Diosdado M. Peralta March 27, 1952 January 14, 2009 March 27, 2022 "Ruben Reyes "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
163 "Lucas P. Bersamin October 18, 1949 April 3, 2009 October 18, 2019 "Adolfo Azcuna "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
164 "Mariano C. del Castillo July 29, 1949 July 29, 2009 July 29, 2019 "Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
165 "Roberto A. Abad May 22, 1944 August 7, 2009 May 22, 2014 Dante O. Tiñga "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
166 "Martin Villarama Jr. April 14, 1946 November 6, 2009 January 16, 2016 "Consuelo Ynares-Santiago "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
167 "Jose P. Perez December 14, 1946 December 26, 2009 December 14, 2016 "Leonardo A. Quisumbing "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
168 "Jose C. Mendoza August 13, 1947 January 4, 2010 August 13, 2017 "Minita Chico-Nazario "Reynato Puno "Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
169 "Maria Lourdes Sereno July 2, 1960 August 13, 2010 May 11, 2018 "Renato C. Corona "Renato C. Corona "Benigno Aquino III
170 "Bienvenido L. Reyes July 6, 1947 August 20, 2011 July 6, 2017 "Antonio Eduardo Nachura "Renato C. Corona "Benigno Aquino III
171 "Estela Perlas-Bernabe May 14, 1952 September 16, 2011 May 14, 2022 "Conchita Carpio-Morales "Renato C. Corona "Benigno Aquino III
172 "Marvic Mario Victor F. Leonen December 29, 1962 November 21, 2012 December 29, 2032 "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Benigno Aquino III
173 "Francis H. Jardeleza September 26, 1949 August 19, 2014 September 26, 2019 "Roberto Abad "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Benigno Aquino III
174 "Alfredo Benjamin Caguioa September 30, 1959 January 22, 2016 September 30, 2029 "Martin Villarama Jr. "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Benigno Aquino III
175 "Samuel R. Martires January 2, 1949 March 2, 2017 January 2, 2019 "Jose P. Perez "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Rodrigo Duterte
176 "Noel G. Tijam January 5, 1949 March 8, 2017 January 5, 2019 "Arturo D. Brion "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Rodrigo Duterte
177 "Andres Reyes Jr. May 11, 1950 July 12, 2017 May 11, 2020 "Bienvenido L. Reyes "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Rodrigo Duterte
178 "Alexander G. Gesmundo November 6, 1956 August 14, 2017 November 6, 2026 "Jose C. Mendoza "Maria Lourdes Sereno "Rodrigo Duterte

Philippine court system[edit]

""
""
Judicial regions

See also[edit]

Books[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ See Section 6, Article VIII, Constitution
  3. ^ http://www.up.edu.ph/beginnings-university-of-the-philippines-manila/
  4. ^ See Section 7(1), Article VIII, Constitution
  5. ^ See Section 7(3), Article VIII, Constitution
  6. ^ a b See Section 9, Article VIII, Constitution
  7. ^ Changed to 65 during 1973-1978, but since restored to 70.
  8. ^ See
  9. ^ manilastandardtoday.com, Justice Austria-Martinez wants early retirement
  10. ^ abs-cbnnews.com, Exclusive: SC Justice Alicia Martinez to retire early
  11. ^ opinion.inquirer.net, With Due Respect - A libertarian decision; a decent jurist Archived 2008-10-06 at the "Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ See 5(4) & (5), Article VIII, Constitution
  13. ^ See
  14. ^ a b See 1, Article VIII, Constitution
  15. ^ See J. Bernas, The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentary (1996 ed.), at 831
  16. ^ See Section 6, Rule 45, 1997 Rules on Civil Procedure
  17. ^ See Sections 1, 2, & 3, Rule 65, 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure
  18. ^ See, e.g., Toh v. CA, "G.R. No. 140274, November 15, 2000.
  19. ^ a b c http://d-arch.ide.go.jp/idedp/IAL/IAL000500_003.pdf
  20. ^ Inquirer.net, SC approves use of writ of amparo Archived 2007-10-17 at the "Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Inquiret.net, Military can’t shrug off killings--Chief Justice
  22. ^ ABS-CBN Interactive, SC ready with writ of amparo by Sept - Puno
  23. ^ Supremecourt.gov.ph, A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC, THE RULE ON THE WRIT OF AMPARO["permanent dead link]
  24. ^ S.C. Resolution, A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC, THE RULE ON THE WRIT OF AMPARO Archived 2008-02-28 at the "Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Supremecourt.gov.ph, SC Approves Rule on Writ of Amparo Archived 2007-12-23 at the "Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ GMA NEWS.TV, SC approves rule on writ of amparo vs extralegal killings
  27. ^ GMA NEWS.TV, Writ of amparo not enough – Hong Kong rights group
  28. ^ Inquirer.net, Habeas data: SC’s new remedy vs killings, disappearances
  29. ^ newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews, Supreme Court okays rules of ‘habeas data’
  30. ^ Inquirer.net, 3 Bulacan courts to use Filipino in judicial proceedings Archived 2008-05-21 at the "Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ www.sws.org.ph, New Diagnostic Study Sets Guideposts for Systematic Development of the Judiciary Archived 2015-05-17 at the "Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ www.sws.org.ph, New SWS Study of the Judiciary and the Legal Profession Sees Some Improvements, But Also Recurring Problems Archived 2015-05-17 at the "Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ afp.google.com/article, Hong Kong has best judicial system in Asia: business survey Archived 2011-05-21 at the "Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ www.abs-cbnnews.com, Hong Kong has best judicial system in Asia: business survey
  35. ^ PH improves rank in global corruption index
  36. ^ Inquirer.net PH is most improved in rule of law index
  37. ^ newsinfo.inquirer.net, SC watchdog launched
  38. ^ supremecourt.gov.ph, LAUNCHING OF BANTAY KORTE SUPREMA
  39. ^ gmanews.tv/story, Group launches ‘Bantay Korte Suprema’ to guard selection of new SC justices
  40. ^ balita.ph, Bantay Korte Suprema launched
  41. ^ "Supreme Court reorganizes 3 divisions - The Manila Times Online". www.manilatimes.net. Retrieved 2018-05-24. 

External links[edit]

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