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A number of symbols of Europe have emerged since antiquity. In present day, each of these may either apply to the continent as a whole, European unity or specifically to the "European Union (EU). Several symbols were introduced in the 1950s and 1960s by the "Council of Europe (CoE). In addition to those of "Pan-European identity, the EU has created additional symbols for itself through its integration.

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Europa and the bull[edit]

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Nova et accurata totius Europæ descriptio by "Fredericus de Wit, 1700

Europa was used as a geographical term, for one of the great divisions of the "known world, by "Herodotus (in a reduced geographical scope, referring to parts of "Thrace or "Epirus, also in the "Homeric hymn to "Apollo). It became the geographical term for the landmass west of the "Tanais in the Roman-era geography by "Strabo and "Ptolemy. Europa first began to be used in a cultural sense, denoting the territory of "Latin "Christendom, in the "Carolingian period.

Europa is a feminine name, the name of a "nymph in "Hesiod, and in a legend first related by "Herodotus, the name of a "Phoenician noble-woman abducted by Greeks (in Herodotus' opinion, "Cretans). The classical legend of Europa being abducted not by Greek pirates but by "Zeus in the shape of a "bull is told in "Ovid's "Metamorphoses. According to this account, Zeus took the guise of a tame white bull and mixed himself with the herds of Europa's father. While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, and got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of "Crete. There he revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by "Hephaestus and three additional gifts: "Talos, "Laelaps and a "javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation "Taurus.

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The emblem displayed on all EU residence permits

In addition to generally being a frequent motif in European art since "Greco-Roman times, the "founding myth of Europa and the bull has frequently been alluded to in relation to the continent and by the modern European Union, and can thus be considered not only a piece of "toponymy, but also as a symbol, or "national personification of Europe. For instance, statues of Europa and the bull are located outside several of the European Union's institutions, as well as on the "Greek €2 coin. Europa's name appeared on postage stamps commemorating the Council of Europe, which were first issued in 1956.["citation needed] Furthermore, the dome of the "European Parliament's "Paul-Henri Spaak building contains a large mosaic by "Aligi Sassu portraying the "abduction of Europa with other elements of "Greek mythology. The bull is also in the top-left corner of the new design of the residence permit card of all European Union countries.[1]

Europa regina[edit]

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Europa regina in "Sebastian Münster's ""Cosmographia".

Europa regina ("Latin for Queen Europe) is the "cartographic depiction of the European continent as a queen.[2][3] Introduced and made popular during the "mannerist period, Europa Regina is typically standing upright with the "Iberian Peninsula forming her "crowned head, and "Bohemia her heart, and other European regions shown as a "sceptre and a "globus cruciger("Sicily).[4]

The first map to depict Europe in this manner was made by Johannes Bucius Aenicola (1516–1542) in 1537.[4][5][5][6] Though much about the origination and initial perception of this map is uncertain,[6] it is known that Putsch maintained close relations with "Holy Roman Emperor "Ferdinand I of "Habsburg,[6][7] and that the map's popularity increased significantly during the second half of the 16th century.[6] At the time, Holy Roman Emperor "Charles V had united the lands of the Habsburg's in his hands, including "Spain.[7] Thus, the map is oriented westwards to have Spain as the crowned head,[7] pointing at the Habsburgs' claim to be universal emperors of Europe.[8] The most conspicuous reference to the Holy Roman Empire is the "Carolingian "hoop crown.[8] Another connection to Charles V is the gown, which resembles the contemporary dress code at the Habsburg court, and the face of the queen, which some say resembles Charles V's wife "Isabella.[9] As in contemporary portraits of couples, Europa regina has her head turned to her right and she also holds the orb with her right hand, which has been interpreted as facing and offering power to her imaginary husband, the emperor.[9] More general, Europe is shown as the res publica christiana,[7] the united "Christendom in medieval tradition,[8] and "great[2] or even dominant power in the world.[9]

Another allegory is the attribution of Europe as the "paradise by special placement of the water bodies.[7] As contemporary iconography depicted the paradise as a closed form, Europa regina is enclosed by seas and rivers.[7] The "Danube river is depicted in a way that it resembles the course of the biblical river flowing through the paradise, with its estuary formed by four arms.[7] That Europa regina is surrounded by water is also an allusion to the mythological Europa, who was abducted by Zeus and carried over the water.[9] Europa regina belongs to the Early Modern allegory of Europa triumphans, as opposed to Europa deplorans.[10]

Pater Europae[edit]

"Charlemagne ("Latin: Carolus Magnus; "King of the Franks from 768; "Holy Roman Emperor c. 742 – 814), also known as Charles the Great, is considered the founder of the "French and "German monarchies. Known as Pater Europae («Father of Europe»),[11][12] he established "an empire that represented the most expansive European unification since the fall of the Roman Empire and brought about "a renaissance that formed a pan-European identity whilst marking the end of the "Dark Ages.[11][13] There was also a contemporary intellectual and cultural revival which profoundly marked the history of Western Europe. This gave Charlemagne a legendary standing that transcended his military accomplishments.[11][14][15]

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Reliquary, golden bust of Charlemagne wearing the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire in "Aachen Cathedral, with the German "reichsadler embossed on the metal and the French "fleur-de-lis embroidered on the fabric

For many centuries, European royal houses sought to associate themselves with the Carolingian heritage. The crowns of the "Holy Roman Empire and "Napoleon Bonaparte were for instance both respectively named "The Crown of Charlemagne", and Charlemagne's personal sword, "Joyeuse, served as a coronation sword for French kings from the 11th century onwards.[16] The cult of Charlemagne was further embellished by the French renaissance author "Jean Lemaire de Belges, who postulated that the emperor was part of an illustrious "translatio imperii originating with King "Priam of "Troy during the "Trojan Wars, and thus by extension "Zeus, the "Father of Gods and men" in "Greek Mythology.

Today, much of the pan-European, symbolic value of Charlemagne is attributed to the fact that he is considered an embodiment of the Franco-German friendship which was absent during "the long-lasting enmity which culminated in the two world wars, but has become indispensable in the process of "European integration. Thus, in the 1952 design competition for the Council of Europe's flag, several of the unsuccessful proposals were redolent of the "Oriflamme; the banner given to Charlemagne by "Pope Leo III at his coronation in the "St. Peter's Basilica in the year 800.[17][18] Similarities between Charlemagne's empire and the modern European integration were also suggested by professor Hans von Hentig the same year.[19] The "European Commission is also alluding to Charlemagne by means of naming one of its central buildings in Brussels after him (The "Charlemagne building). The German city of "Aachen has since 1949 annually awarded the "Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unity, including "Alcide De Gasperi, "Jean Monnet and the "euro itself. Each edition of the international affairs newspaper "The Economist features a column called «Charlemagne's notebook», focusing on European Union affairs.[20] In his speech at the award ceremony for the 2010 "Charlemagne Youth Prize, "European Parliament President "Jerzy Buzek said the following:[21]

Later monarchs who also have carried "sobriquets as "relatives" of Europe include "Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (grandmother of Europe), "Christian IX of Denmark and "Nicholas I of Montenegro (both respectively "father-in-law of Europe). These late 19th and early 20th century sobriquets are however purely on account of the marriage of these monarchs' offspring to foreign princes and princesses, and involve no wider symbolism.

Patron saints[edit]

There are at least seven "patron saints of Europe venerated in "Roman Catholicism, six of them so declared by "Pope John Paul II between 1980–1999: Saints "Cyril and Methodius, "Saint Bridget of Sweden, "Catherine of Siena, "Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein), and "Jadwiga of Poland. The exception is "Benedict of Nursia, who had already been declared "Patron Saint of all Europe" by "Pope Paul VI in 1964.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Demey, Thierry (2007). Brussels, capital of Europe. S. Strange (trans.). Brussels: Badeaux. p. 387. "ISBN "2-9600414-2-9. 
  2. ^ a b Landwehr & Stockhorst (2004), p. 279
  3. ^ Werner (2009), p. 243
  4. ^ a b Bennholdt-Thomsen (1999), p. 22
  5. ^ a b Borgolte (2001), p. 16
  6. ^ a b c d Schmale (2004), p. 244
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Wendehorst & Westphal (2006), p. 63
  8. ^ a b c Werner (2009), p. 244
  9. ^ a b c d Werner (2009), p. 245
  10. ^ Werner (2009), pp. 243ff
  11. ^ a b c Riché, Preface xviii, Pierre Riché reflects: "[H]e enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of Western Europe."
  12. ^ "Der Karlspreisträger Seine Heiligkeit Papst Johannes Paul II. außerordentlicher Karlspreis 2004". Karlspreis.de. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  13. ^ humnet.ucla.edu
  14. ^ "karlspreis.de". karlspreis.de. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  15. ^ Chamberlin, Russell, The Emperor Charlemagne, p. ???
  16. ^ Coronation sword and scabbard of the Kings of France, Decorative Arts : Early Middle Ages, Louvre
  17. ^ "Proposals for European flags from Arsène Heitz (1952–1955)". cvce.eu. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  18. ^ "Proposals for European flags from Arsène Heitz (1952–1955)". cvce.eu. 5 January 1952. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  19. ^ "'Charlemagne and coke' from the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (5 January 1952)". cvce.eu. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  20. ^ «Must try harder». The Economist.
  21. ^ "europarl.europa.eu". europarl.europa.eu. 11 May 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  22. ^ Johan Fornäs, Signifying Europe (2012), p. 255f.

External links[edit]

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