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System administrator
""Professional System Administrator.jpg
A professional system administrator at a server rack in a datacenter
Occupation
Names System administrator, systems administrator, sysadmin, IT professional
"Profession
Activity sectors
"Information technology
Description
Competencies System administration, "network management, "analytical skills, "critical thinking
Education required
Varies from apprenticeship to Masters degree in business

A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of "computer systems; especially "multi-user computers, such as "servers. The system administrator seeks to ensure that the "uptime, "performance, "resources, and "security of the computers he or she manages meet the needs of the "users, without exceeding a set "budget when doing so.

To meet these needs, a system administrator may acquire, install, or "upgrade computer components and software; provide routine automation; maintain security policies; "troubleshoot; train or supervise staff; or offer "technical support for projects.

Contents

Related fields[edit]

Many organizations staff other jobs related to system administration. In a larger company, these may all be separate positions within a computer support or Information Services (IS) department. In a smaller group they may be shared by a few sysadmins, or even a single person.

Training[edit]

""A man speaking from a podium to a room of people with laptop computers
""
Training at a system administration conference

Most employers[1] require a bachelor's degree in a related field, such as "computer science, "information technology, "electronics engineering, or "computer engineering. Some schools also offer undergraduate degrees and graduate programs in system administration[2][3][4][5][6].

One of the primary difficulties with teaching system administration as a formal university discipline is that the industry and technology changes much faster than the typical textbook and coursework certification process. By the time a new textbook has spent years working through approvals and committees, the specific technology for which it is written may have changed significantly or become obsolete.

In addition, because of the practical nature of system administration and the easy availability of "open-source "server software, many system administrators enter the field self-taught.

Generally, a prospective will be required to have some experience with the computer system they are expected to manage. In some cases, candidates are expected to possess industry certifications such as the Microsoft "MCSA, "MCSE, "MCITP, Red Hat "RHCE, Novell "CNA, "CNE, Cisco "CCNA or "CompTIA's "A+ or "Network+, "Sun Certified "SCNA, "Linux Professional Institute, Linux Foundation Certified Engineer or Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator[7], among others.

Sometimes, almost exclusively in smaller sites, the role of system administrator may be given to a skilled user in addition to or in replacement of his or her duties.

Skills[edit]

The subject matter of system administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails a knowledge of "operating systems and "applications, as well as hardware and software "troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.

Perhaps the most important skill for a system administrator is "problem solving—frequently under various sorts of constraints and stress. The sysadmin is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it. They may also need to have teamwork and communication skills; as well as being able to install and configure hardware and software.

Sysadmins must understand the behavior of software in order to deploy it and to troubleshoot problems, and generally know several "programming languages used for "scripting or automation of routine tasks. A typical sysadmin's role is not to design or write new application software but when they are responsible for automating system and/or application configuration with various configuration management tools, the lines somewhat blur. Depending on the sysadmin's role and skillset they may be expected to understand equivalent key/core concepts a software engineer understands. That said, system administrators are not "software engineers or "developers, in the job title sense.

Particularly when dealing with "Internet-facing or business-critical systems, a sysadmin must have a strong grasp of "computer security. This includes not merely deploying software patches, but also preventing break-ins and other security problems with preventive measures. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of "firewalls and "intrusion detection systems, but all sysadmins are generally responsible for the security of computer systems.

Duties[edit]

A system administrator's responsibilities might include:

In larger organizations, some of the tasks above may be divided among different system administrators or members of different organizational groups. For example, a dedicated individual(s) may apply all system upgrades, a "Quality Assurance (QA) team may perform testing and validation, and one or more "technical writers may be responsible for all technical documentation written for a company. System administrators, in larger organizations, tend not to be "systems architects, "systems engineers, or "systems designers.

In smaller organizations, the system administrator might also act as technical support, "Database Administrator, "Network Administrator, Storage (SAN) Administrator or "application analyst.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates "public domain material from the "United States Government document "Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition" by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

  1. ^ "Network and Computer Systems Administrators : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  2. ^ [1] Archived 2 April 2015 at the "Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ B.S. Information Technology | Computer Science. Cs.unh.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  4. ^ [2]. Nssa.rit.edu (2013-01-04). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  5. ^ [3]. mtu.edu. Retrieved on 2014-10-21,
  6. ^ FSU Computer Science - Masters Degree Computer Network and System Administration. Cs.fsu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  7. ^ [4]

Further reading[edit]

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