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Tampere
Tammerfors
"City
Tampereen kaupunki
Tammerfors stad
""Clockwise from top-left: the cityscape (viewed from Näsinneula), the Tampere City Hall, Särkänniemi (from Näsinneula), the Tampere Hall, the skyline with Näsinneula, Tammerkoski from the bridge Hämeensilta, and the Tampere Cathedral.
Clockwise from top-left: the cityscape (viewed from "Näsinneula), the "Tampere City Hall, "Särkänniemi (from Näsinneula), the "Tampere Hall, the skyline with Näsinneula, "Tammerkoski from the bridge "Hämeensilta, and the "Tampere Cathedral.
""Coat of arms of Tampere
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Manchester of the North, Manse (in Finnish), Nääsville (in Finnish)
""Location of Tampere in the Pirkanmaa region and the Tampere sub-region
Location of Tampere in the "Pirkanmaa "region and the "Tampere sub-region
""Tampere is located in Finland
Tampere
Tampere
Location of Tampere in "Finland
Coordinates: 61°30′N 23°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767"Coordinates: 61°30′N 23°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767
Country  "Finland
"Region "Pirkanmaa.vaakuna.svg "Pirkanmaa
"Sub-region "Tampere
Founded 1779
Government
 • "Mayor Lauri Lyly
Area (2016-01-01)[1]
 • "City 524.89 km2 (202.66 sq mi)
 • Land 525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)
 • Water 164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)
 • Urban 258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)
Area rank "166th largest in Finland
Population (2017-08-31)[3]
 • "City 230,537
 • Rank "3rd largest in Finland
 • Density 439.09/km2 (1,137.2/sq mi)
 • "Urban 330,711[2]
 • Urban density 1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)
 • "Metro 370,084
"Population by native language[4]
 • "Finnish 94.9% (official)
 • "Swedish 0.5%
 • Others 4.5%
"Population by age[5]
 • 0 to 14 13.8%
 • 15 to 64 70.6%
 • 65 or older 15.7%
"Time zone "EET ("UTC+2)
 • Summer ("DST) "EEST ("UTC+3)
Municipal tax rate[6] 19%
"Urbanisation 96.9%
"Unemployment rate 14.8%
Website Tampere

Tampere (Finnish pronunciation: "[ˈtɑmpere] (""About this sound listen); "Swedish: Tammerfors "[tamɛrˈfɔʂ]) is a "city in "Pirkanmaa, southern "Finland. It is the most populous inland city in the "Nordic countries.

As of 2011, the city has a population of 223,292[7] with the urban area holding 330,711 people[8] and the metropolitan area, also known as the "Tampere sub-region, holding 364,000 inhabitants in an area of 4,977 km2.[9][10] Tampere is the "second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after "Helsinki and "Espoo municipalities (2014 data). It's also the most populous Finnish city outside the "Greater Helsinki area and a major urban, economic, and cultural hub for "central Finland.

Tampere is wedged between two lakes, "Näsijärvi and "Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linking them, "Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the ""Manchester of Finland" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock".[10][11][12]

Helsinki is approximately 160 kilometres (99 mi) south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1.5 hours by train and 2 hours by car. The distance to "Turku is roughly the same. "Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's third-busiest airport, with over 200,000 passengers annually.

Contents

Names and etymology[edit]

Although the name Tampere is derived from the "Tammerkoski rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in "Swedish), the origin of the Tammer- part of that name has been the subject of much debate. One prominent theory is that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning "milldam; another, that it originates from the ancient "Scandinavian words þambr ("thick bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, meaning the "Ember days of the "Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for "oak, tammi, also features in the speculation,[13] although Tampere is situated outside[14] the natural distribution range of the "European oak.

History[edit]

""
""
The old "Finlayson works.
""
""
The "Renaissance Revival Raatihuone ("City Hall), 1890; the "red manifesto" was read from its balcony in 1905.

Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by "Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779,[15] Tampere was granted full "city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, consisting of only a few square kilometres of land around the rapids.

Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century.[16]

Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous "Red Declaration was proclaimed on "Keskustori.[17] In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites during the "Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with "Hugo Salmela in command. "White forces captured the town after the "Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 "Red prisoners on 6 April 1918.[18][19]

Prevalent in Tampere's post-"World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (aseveliakseli).[20]

After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. "Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, "Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. Tampere was known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and "telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre "Hermia in "Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields.

Geography[edit]

Tampere is part of the "Pirkanmaa "region and is surrounded by the "municipalities of "Kangasala, "Lempäälä, "Nokia, "Orivesi, "Pirkkala, "Ruovesi, and "Ylöjärvi.

Climate[edit]

Tampere has a borderline "humid continental climate/"subarctic climate ("Köppen "Dfb" and "Dfc"). Winters are cold and the average temperature from November to March is below 0 °C (32 °F). Summers are mild. On average, the snow season lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being at the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are on average quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.

Climate data for Tampere (1981–2010, extremes 1900- present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
9.4
(48.9)
14.9
(58.8)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.1
(91.6)
32.1
(89.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.4
(65.1)
11.1
(52)
9.6
(49.3)
32.5
(90.5)
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.2
(34.2)
8.2
(46.8)
15.4
(59.7)
19.5
(67.1)
22.2
(72)
19.9
(67.8)
14.0
(57.2)
7.5
(45.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
8.4
(47.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.8
(27)
3.3
(37.9)
9.7
(49.5)
14.1
(57.4)
16.9
(62.4)
15.0
(59)
9.8
(49.6)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
4.4
(39.9)
Average low °C (°F) −9.7
(14.5)
−10.6
(12.9)
−6.6
(20.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.8
(38.8)
8.6
(47.5)
11.7
(53.1)
10.4
(50.7)
5.9
(42.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.3
(32.5)
Record low °C (°F) −37.0
(−34.6)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−7.3
(18.9)
−2.8
(27)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−14.8
(5.4)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−37.0
(−34.6)
Average "precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
31
(1.22)
32
(1.26)
41
(1.61)
66
(2.6)
75
(2.95)
72
(2.83)
58
(2.28)
60
(2.36)
51
(2.01)
42
(1.65)
598
(23.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 22 18 16 12 12 13 15 15 14 17 21 22 197
Average "relative humidity (%) 90 87 82 70 63 66 69 76 82 87 91 92 80
Source #1: FMI climatological normals for Finland 1981-2010[21]
Source #2: record highs and lows[22]

Economy[edit]

""
""
Offices of "Nokia Networks in Tampere

The Tampere region, "Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 506,000 residents, 244,000 employed people,[23] and a turnover of 28 billion euros as of 2014.[24] According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 14.8% in June 2017.

Education[edit]

""
""
"Tampere University of Technology, Festia building

There are four institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: two universities and two polytechnic institutions ("Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu). The universities are "University of Tampere (UTA), which has more than 16,000 students and is located right next to the city center, and "Tampere University of Technology (TUT), which has more than 12,000 students and is located in "Hervanta. The regional polytechnic institution is "the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu), which has about 10,000 students.[25] The "Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere.

Arts and culture[edit]

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as "Väinö Linna, "Kalle Päätalo, and "Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the famous poet "Lauri Viita of the "Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama.

Tampere is home to the television channel "Yle TV2, with its studios in the Ristimäki district, known for popular TV comedies such as Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen and "Kummeli. "The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international "short film event, is held every March. "Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. The "Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.

A local food speciality is "mustamakkara, which resembles "black pudding of northern England.

Music[edit]

Tampere is home to the "Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; the other one is located in "Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the "Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. "Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: "The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years "The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by "Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere "Conservatoire.

The popular music scene in Tampere is often considered to have begun in August 1969 when the famous musical "Hair was performed for the first time in a local theatre.

Manserock became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included "Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, "Kaseva, "Popeda, and "Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Records, the first record company in Tampere, was founded.

In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of "rock and "heavy/black metal. Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include "Negative, "Uniklubi, and "Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (Maailmantango).[26]

Theatre[edit]

""
""
The Tampere Theatre (Finnish: Tampereen Teatteri)

Tampere has a lengtht tradition of theater, with established institutions such as "Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, "Tampereen Teatteri, and "Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest "revolving auditorium in Europe. "The Tampere Theatre Festival (Tampereen teatterikesä) is an international theatre festival held in the city each August.

Religion[edit]

""
""
"Cathedral of Tampere designed by Finnish architect "Lars Sonck

As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the "Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to "charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the "Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross [27] also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a "LDS "stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the "Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the "Finnish Orthodox Church and the "Nokia Revival.

The Jews had an organized community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time.[28] 

City rivalry with Turku[edit]

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of "Turku, the first capital of Finland. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, "mustamakkara, the state of the "Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the "post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the "Baltic Sea.[29]

Sites of interest[edit]

""
""
The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge of the Tampere Central Square.

One of the main tourist attractions is the "Särkänniemi "amusement park, which includes the landmark "Näsinneula tower, topped by a "revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a "dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are "Tampere Cathedral, "Tampere City Hall, Tampere City Library Metso ("wood grouse"), "Kaleva Church (both designed by "Reima Pietilä), "the Tampere Hall for conferences and concerts, and the Tampere Market Hall.

Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to "Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the "Tampere Workers' Hall where during a subsequent "Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met "Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905 but eventually fled Tampere (for "Sweden) in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian "Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the "Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the "Russian Revolution of 1917.

There are many museums and galleries, including:

Pispala[edit]

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of "Suur-Pirkkala and its successor "Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a popular residential area and together with neighbouring "Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.

Sports[edit]

Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by "ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of "Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Two exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: "Ilves and "Tappara. They both have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the "Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere.

"Association Football is also a popular sport in Tampere. "Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the "American football club in the city. The Saints won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the "Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017.

Tampere hosted some of the "preliminaries for the "1952 Summer Olympics, the "1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the "EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two "canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the "World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior "World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th "European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.

Transport[edit]

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""
Bus terminals at the Tampere Central Square (Finnish: Keskustori)

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, "Helsinki, "Turku and the "Port of Turku, "Oulu, "Jyväskylä, and "Pori. The "Tampere Central Railway Station is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland.

Tampere is served by "Tampere–Pirkkala Airport, located in neighboring municipality "Pirkkala some 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city. The airport served 208,930 passengers in 2016.

The "public transport network in Tampere currently consists solely of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive "trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland.[36] As of 2017, construction is underway for a "light rail system in the city to replace some of the more popular bus lines (see "Tampere light rail), as well as initiating "commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring cities of "Nokia and "Lempäälä.[37]

Government[edit]

In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of two years by the city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure. Timo P. Nieminen ("kok.) was elected the first mayor of Tampere for the years 2007–09. He was re-elected in 2009 and was succeeded in 2013 by Anna-Kaisa Ikonen ("kok.), who served as mayor for two terms, during the years 2013–17. The current mayor, Lauri Lyly ("sd.), was elected in 2017, and is set to rule for the years 2017-19.

Notable people[edit]

For a list of notable persons, see "Category:People from Tampere.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Tampere is "twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Population density by area 1.1.2016". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  2. ^ "Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.20161" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus). 2016-12-31. Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, elokuu 2017" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  4. ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  5. ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  6. ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  7. ^ http://vrk.fi/default.aspx?docid=8830&site=3&id=0
  8. ^ http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/sq/960bccd6-df90-4e56-acd3-8be6c28323d5 Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.2016
  9. ^ "Kunnat - Tampereen kaupunkiseutu". tampereenseutu.fi. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  10. ^ a b "Tampere in brief" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  11. ^ Tampere Economy, Tampere International Business Office Archived March 27, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Katko, Tapio S. and Juuti, Petri S. Watering the city of Tampere, publications of the 5th IWHA Conference, 2007. Available at the website of the city of Tampere.
  13. ^ "Utain - Tampereen yliopiston toimittajakoulutuksen viikkolehti". Uta.fi. Archived from the original on March 26, 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  14. ^ "Metsätammi (Quercus robur)". Kasviatlas. Retrieved 3 September 2017. 
  15. ^ The City Of Tampere – Tampere in brief – History Archived December 28, 2009, at the "Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Andy Symington; George Dunford (2009). Finland. Lonely Planet. pp. 224–225. "ISBN "978-1-74104-771-4. 
  17. ^ Gary Kaunonen (19 February 2010). Challenge Accepted: A Finnish Immigrant Response to Industrial America in Michigan's Copper Country. MSU Press. p. 22. "ISBN "978-1-62895-154-7. 
  18. ^ The Finnish Civil War 1918: History, Memory, Legacy. BRILL. 14 August 2014. p. 100. "ISBN "978-90-04-28071-7. 
  19. ^ Roger Norum (1 June 2010). The Rough Guide to Finland. Rough Guides. p. 438. "ISBN "978-1-84836-969-6. 
  20. ^ Marianne Ekman; Björn Gustavsen; Bjorn Terje Asheim (15 January 2011). Learning Regional Innovation: Scandinavian Models. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 174. "ISBN "978-0-230-27560-7. 
  21. ^ "FMI normals 1981-2010" (PDF). fmi.fi. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  22. ^ "FMI open data". FMI. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  23. ^ "Appendix table 1. Turnover of establishments by region in 2014". www.stat.fi. Statistics Finland. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2017. 
  24. ^ "Tampere Region The Council of Tampere Region 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 2 October 2017. 
  25. ^ TAMK. 22 January 2010. Tampere polytechnic. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
  26. ^ C.G. (11 October 2017). "Explaining the Finnish love of tango". "The Economist. 
  27. ^ "Pyhä Risti Seurakunta". Kolumbus.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  28. ^ "About Our Community". Jewish Community of Helsinki (in Finnish; English version available via dropdown menu on page). Archived from the original on 2017-11-27. Retrieved 2017-11-27. 
  29. ^ http://www.students.tut.fi/~eto/turunsanomat06.pdf
  30. ^ "Museum Centre Vapriikki [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  31. ^ "Tampere Art Museum [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  32. ^ "Front Page - Muumimuseo". Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  33. ^ "Vakoilumuseo - Spy Museum". Vakoilumuseo.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  34. ^ "City of Tampere - Amuri museum of workers' housing". Tampere.fi. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "Ahtojäälle ei ole helppo löytää uutta kotia". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2017-11-25. 
  36. ^ Alameri, Mikko. "Trolleybus City of Tampere". Raitio (in Finnish). Suomen Raitiotieseura. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  37. ^ "Joukkoliikennejärjestelmävaihtoehdot - Vaikutusten arviointi ja suositus Tampereen kaupunkiseudun joukkoliikennejärjestelmäksi" (PDF). TASE 2025 (in Finnish). City of Tampere. March 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  38. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.  External link in |publisher= ("help)
  39. ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com]". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  40. ^ "Trondheims offisielle nettsted - Vennskapsbyer" (in Norwegian). Trondheim.com. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  41. ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  42. ^ "Some 15 Finnish towns have twinned with friendship cities in China". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 


External links[edit]

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