A team used only for a "defined period of time and for a separate, concretely definable purpose, often["quantify] becomes known as a project team. This category of team includes negotiation-, commission- and design-team subtypes. In general, these types of teams are multi-talented and composed of individuals with expertise in many different areas. Members of these teams might belong to different groups, but receive assignment to activities for the same "project, thereby allowing outsiders to view them as a single unit. In this way, setting up a team allegedly facilitates the creation, tracking and assignment of a group of people based on the project in hand.["citation needed] The use of the "team" label in this instance often has no relationship to whether the employees work as a team.
Advisory teams make suggestions about a final product (Devine, 2002). For instance, a "quality-control group on an assembly line would be an example of an advisory team: they may examine the products produced and make suggestions about how to improve the quality of the items being made.
Work teams are responsible for the actual act of creating tangible products and services (Devine, 2002). The actual workers on an assembly line would be an example of a production team, whereas waiters and waitresses at a diner would be an example of a service team.
Action teams are highly specialized and coordinated teams whose actions are intensely focused on producing a product or service (Devine, 2002). An NFL football team would be an example of an action team. Other examples occur in the military, paramedics, and transportation (e.g., a "flight crew on an airplane).
A "sports team is a group of people which play "sports (often "team sports) together. Members include all players (even those who are waiting their turn to play), as well as support members such as a team manager or "coach.
Developments in "information and communications technology have seen the emergence of the virtual work-team. A virtual team is a group of people who work interdependently and with shared purpose across space, time, and organisational boundaries using technology to communicate and collaborate. Virtual team members can be located across a country or across the world, rarely meet face-to-face, and include members from different cultures.
In their 2009 literature-review paper, Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S. and Taha, Z. added two key issues to definition of a "virtual team: "as small temporary groups of geographically, organizationally and/ or time dispersed "knowledge workers who coordinate their work predominantly with electronic information and communication technologies in order to accomplish one or more organization tasks". Many virtual teams are cross-functional and emphasize solving customer problems or generating new work processes.
The "United States Department of Labor reported that in 2001, 19 million people "worked from home online or from another location, and that by the end of 2002, over 100 million people worldwide would work outside traditional offices.
Team cognition has been defined as an "emergent state that refers to the manner in which knowledge important to team functioning is organized, represented, and distributed within team." This emergent state can manifest in two ways. Compositional emergence occurs when individual level cognition is similar in form and function to its manifestation at team-level. Compilational emergence, on the other hand, represents a greater degree of synergy among team members and represents a new-team level construct. As such, higher degrees of compilational emergence are more closely related to team process and performance than is compositional emergence.
Research into team cognition has focused on how teams develop mental models and "transactive memory systems. Mental models refer to the degree in which team members have similar cognitive understanding of the situation and performance goals which include shared representations of the task. Transactive memory systems relate to how knowledge is distributed among team members and retrieved in a coordinated fashion, the way that team member rely on knowledge that is possessed by other members and how knowledge sets are differentiated within a team. The emergence of team cognition is thought to impact team effectiveness because it can positively affect a team’s behavioural process, motivational states, and performance.
Team cognition consists of two broad types of content. Task related models are related to knowledge of the major duties and resources possessed by the team. Team-related models refer to interactions and interdependence among the team members.
The formation of teams is most appropriate for tasks that are difficult, complex and important. These types of tasks are often beyond the skills and abilities of any single individual. However, the formation of a team to complete such tasks does not guarantee success. Rather, the proper implementation of teams is positively related to both member satisfaction and increased effectiveness. Organizations who want to receive the benefits afforded by teams need to carefully consider how teams are built and implemented. Often, teams are created without providing members any training to develop the skills necessary to perform well in a team setting. This is critical, because teamwork can be cognitively and interpersonally demanding. Even when a team consists of talented individuals, these individuals must learn to coordinate their actions and develop functional interpersonal interactions. In their review of the relevant scientific literature, Kozlowski and Ilgen demonstrated that such training can greatly benefit team effectiveness. Finally, teams are more likely to be successful when they are fully supported by the organization
Not all groups are teams
Some people use the word "team" when they mean "employees". A ""sales team" is a common example of this loose or perhaps "euphemistic usage, though inter-dependencies exist in "organisations, and a sales group can be let down by poor performance in other parts of the organisation upon which sales depend, like delivery, after-sales service, etc. However "sales staff" is a more accurate description of the typical arrangement.
Groups develop into teams in four stages:
- dependency and inclusion
- counter dependency and fighting
- trust and structure
In the first stage, group development is characterized by members' dependency on the designated "leader (identical to 'Forming' in Tuckman's model). In the second stage, the group seeks to free itself from its dependence on the leader and groups have conflicts about goals and procedures (identical to 'Storming' in Tuckman's model). In the third stage, the group manages to work through the conflicts (identical to 'Norming' in Tuckman's model). And in the last stage, groups focus on team productivity (identical to 'Performing' in Tuckman's model).["clarification needed]
One aspect of teams that can set them apart from other groups is their level of autonomy. Hackman developed a hierarchical model of team autonomy which consists of four levels of team self-management. It is imagined along a continuum, starting with a manager-led team in which team members complete the required tasks but someone outside the team performs the executive functions. Next in the hierarchy are "self-managing teams, followed by self-designing teams. Finally, at the top of the hierarchy, come self-governing teams. The model describes four different types of control that fully self-governing teams can possess. These include control over the execution of the task, monitoring and managing work processes, control over the design and performance of a team, and setting the overall direction of the team.
To understand how teams deliver extra performance, we need to distinguish between teams and working groups. A working group’s performance is made up of the individual results of all its individual members. A team’s performance is made up of both individual results and collective results. Teams produce work products/results though the joint contributions of team members. This is what makes the team’s collective performance greater than the sum of all individual members’ best performance. In short, a team is more than the sum of its parts.
|""||Look up teem or team in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to teams.|
- "Air-defense experiments
- "Driving (horse)
- "Group (sociology)
- "Groups of people
- "Judge–advisor system
- "Multiteam System (MTS)
- "Team Action Management
- "Team building
- "Team composition
- "The Five Dysfunctions of a Team
- Jain, Naresh (2009). "Run marathons, not sprints". In Davis, Barbee. 97 Things Every Project Manager Should Know: Collective Wisdom from the Experts. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 96. "ISBN "9781449379568. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
Team members need to learn how to help one another, help other team members realize their true potential, and create an environment that allows everyone to go beyond their limitations.
- Weiss, M. & Hoegl, M. (2015). The History of Teamwork’s Societal Diffusion: A Multi-Method Review. Small Group Research, Vol. 46(6) 589– 622.
- "Cleland, David I. (1996). Strategic Management of Teams. John Wiley & Sons. p. 132. "ISBN "9780471120582. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
Managers may believe that the current use of teams is a management fad that will go away in time, and the traditional vertical organizational design will once again hold forth.
- Compare: Marquardt, Michael J. (2011). Leading with Questions: How Leaders Find the Right Solutions By Knowing What To Ask. J-B US non-Franchise Leadership. 180. John Wiley & Sons. p. 133. "ISBN "9781118046784. Retrieved 2016-03-23.
Margaret Wheatley (2002) observes that in too many organizations team is a four-letter word.
- Hackman, J. R. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for greater performances. New York: Harvard Business School Press.
- "Is Your Team Too Big? Too Small? What's the Right Number?". Knowledge@Wharton. University of Pennsylvania. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Business Insider "The 'Two Pizza Rule' Is Jeff Bezos' Secret To Productive Meetings" 
- Chong, Eric (2007). "Role balance and team development: A study of team role characteristics underlying high and low performing teams" (PDF). Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management, Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Belbin, R. M. (1981). Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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- Margerison, C.; McCann, D. (1990). Team Management. London: W. H. Allan.
- Davis, J.; Millburn, P.; Murphy, T.; Woodhouse, M. (1992). Successful Team Building: How to Create Teams that Really Work. London: Kogan Page.
- Parker, G. M. (1990). Team Players and Teamwork: The Competitive Business Strategy. Oxford: Jossey-Bass.
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- Lindgren, R. (1997). R Meredith Belbin’s Team Roles Viewed from the Perspective of the Big 5: A Content Validation. Oslo: University of Oslo.
- Pervin, L. (1989). Personality: Theory and Research (5 ed.). New York: Wiley.
- Deihl, M.; "Stroebe, W. (1987). "Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: towards the solution of a riddle". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 53 (3): 497–509. "doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527.
- Gersick, C. J. G. (1988). "Time and transition in work teams: toward a new model of group development". Academy of Management Journal. 31 (1): 9–41. "doi:10.2307/256496.
- Evenden, R.; Anderson, G. (1992). Making the Most of People. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
- Furnham, A.; Steele, H.; Pendleton, D. (1993). "A psychometric assessment of the Belbin team role self-perception inventory". Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology: 245–257.
- Cohen, S. G.; Ledford, G. E. Jr. "The effectiveness of self-managing teams: A quasi-experiment". Human Relations. 47: 13–43. "doi:10.1177/001872679404700102.
- Katzenbach, J. R. (1998). Teams at the Top: Unleashing the Potential of Both Teams and Individual Leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
- McFadzean, E. (2002). "Developing and supporting creative problem-solving teams: Part 1 – a conceptual model". Management Decision. 40 (5/6): 463–476. "doi:10.1108/00251740210430443.
- Brounstein, Marty. "Differences between Work Groups and Teams - For Dummies". www.dummies.com. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
Independent-level work groups are the most common form of work groups on the business scene... staff members work on their own assignments with general direction and minimal supervision. Sales representatives, research scientists, accountants, lawyers, police officers, librarians, and teachers are among the professionals who tend to work in this fashion. People in those occupations come together in one department because they serve a common overall function, but almost everyone in the group works fairly independently. [...] Members of an interdependent-level work group rely on each other to get the work done. Sometimes members have their own roles and at other times they share responsibilities. Yet, in either case, they coordinate with one another to produce an overall product or set of outcomes.
- Eikenberry, Kevin (2011-02-17). Remarkable Leadership: Unleashing Your Leadership Potential One Skill at a Time. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 147–148. "ISBN "9781118047552.
- Gratton, Lynda (2015-01-15). The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World's Toughest Problems (in Dutch). HarperCollins Publishers India. pp. 40–41. "ISBN "9789351770220.
- Ferrell, Betty; Nessa Coyle (2006). Textbook of Palliative Nursing (2 ed.). Oxford University Press US. p. 35. "ISBN "0-19-517549-2.
- Tristan Kromer (2015) "The Complete Team"
- IDEO "Our Approach: Design Thinking"
- Kimble et al. (2000) Effective Virtual Teams through Communities of Practice (Department of Management Science Research Paper Series, 00/9), University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde, UK, 2000.
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- Forsyth, D. R. (2006). Teams. In Forsyth, D. R., Group Dynamics (5th Ed.) (P. 351-377). Belmont: CA, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
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- Wheelan, S. (2010). Creating Effective Teams: a Guide for Members and Leaders. Los Angeles: SAGE. Print.
- Group vs Team
- Devine, D. J. (2002). A review and integration of classification systems relevant to teams in organizations. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 291–310.
- Forsyth, D. R. (2006). Teams. In Forsyth, D. R., Group Dynamics (5th Ed.) (P. 351-377). Belmont: CA, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.