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Tellurium,  52Te
""Tellurium2.jpg
General properties
Pronunciation
Appearance silvery lustrous gray (crystalline),
brown-black powder (amorphous)
"Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard) 127.60(3)[1]
Tellurium in the "periodic table
"Hydrogen "Helium
"Lithium "Beryllium "Boron "Carbon "Nitrogen "Oxygen "Fluorine "Neon
"Sodium "Magnesium "Aluminium "Silicon "Phosphorus "Sulfur "Chlorine "Argon
"Potassium "Calcium "Scandium "Titanium "Vanadium "Chromium "Manganese "Iron "Cobalt "Nickel "Copper "Zinc "Gallium "Germanium "Arsenic "Selenium "Bromine "Krypton
"Rubidium "Strontium "Yttrium "Zirconium "Niobium "Molybdenum "Technetium "Ruthenium "Rhodium "Palladium "Silver "Cadmium "Indium "Tin "Antimony Tellurium "Iodine "Xenon
"Caesium "Barium "Lanthanum "Cerium "Praseodymium "Neodymium "Promethium "Samarium "Europium "Gadolinium "Terbium "Dysprosium "Holmium "Erbium "Thulium "Ytterbium "Lutetium "Hafnium "Tantalum "Tungsten "Rhenium "Osmium "Iridium "Platinum "Gold "Mercury (element) "Thallium "Lead "Bismuth "Polonium "Astatine "Radon
"Francium "Radium "Actinium "Thorium "Protactinium "Uranium "Neptunium "Plutonium "Americium "Curium "Berkelium "Californium "Einsteinium "Fermium "Mendelevium "Nobelium "Lawrencium "Rutherfordium "Dubnium "Seaborgium "Bohrium "Hassium "Meitnerium "Darmstadtium "Roentgenium "Copernicium "Nihonium "Flerovium "Moscovium "Livermorium "Tennessine "Oganesson
"Se

Te

"Po
"antimonytellurium → "iodine
"Atomic number (Z) 52
"Group, "period "group 16 (chalcogens), "period 5
"Block "p-block
"Element category   "metalloid
"Electron configuration ["Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 6
Physical properties
"Phase (at "STP) "solid
"Melting point 722.66 "K ​(449.51 °C, ​841.12 °F)
"Boiling point 1261 K ​(988 °C, ​1810 °F)
"Density (near r.t.) 6.24 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 5.70 g/cm3
"Heat of fusion 17.49 "kJ/mol
"Heat of vaporization 114.1 kJ/mol
"Molar heat capacity 25.73 J/(mol·K)
"Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)   (775) (888) 1042 1266
Atomic properties
"Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2 ​(a mildly "acidic oxide)
"Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.1
"Ionization energies
  • 1st: 869.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1790 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2698 kJ/mol
"Atomic radius empirical: 140 "pm
"Covalent radius 138±4 pm
"Van der Waals radius 206 pm
""Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
"Crystal structure ​"hexagonal
""Hexagonal crystal structure for tellurium
"Speed of sound thin rod 2610 m/s (at 20 °C)
"Thermal expansion 18 µm/(m·K)[2] (at r.t.)
"Thermal conductivity 1.97–3.38 W/(m·K)
"Magnetic ordering "diamagnetic[3]
"Magnetic susceptibility −39.5·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[4]
"Young's modulus 43 GPa
"Shear modulus 16 GPa
"Bulk modulus 65 GPa
"Mohs hardness 2.25
"Brinell hardness 180–270 MPa
"CAS Number 13494-80-9
History
Naming after Roman "Tellus, deity of the Earth
"Discovery "Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1782)
First isolation "Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Main "isotopes of tellurium
"Iso­tope "Abun­dance "Half-life (t1/2) "Decay mode "Pro­duct
120Te 0.09% "stable
121Te "syn 16.78 d "ε "121Sb
122Te 2.55% stable
123Te 0.89%[5] stable
124Te 4.74% stable
125Te 7.07% stable
126Te 18.84% stable
127Te syn 9.35 h "β "127I
128Te 31.74% 2.2×1024 y "ββ "128Xe
129Te syn 69.6 min β "129I
130Te 34.08% 7.9×1020 y ββ "130Xe
| "references | in Wikidata

Tellurium is a "chemical element with symbol Te and "atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white "metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to "selenium and "sulfur. It is occasionally found in native form as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the universe as a whole than on Earth. Its extreme "rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of "platinum, is due partly to its high atomic number, but also to its formation of a volatile "hydride which caused it to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of the planet.

Tellurium was discovered in the "Habsburg Empire, at Zlatna (now in Romania) in 1782 by "Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing tellurium and "gold. "Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for "earth", tellus. "Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of "copper and "lead production.

Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is copper and steel "alloys, where it improves machinability. Applications in "CdTe solar panels and "semiconductors also consume a considerable portion of tellurium production.

Tellurium has no biological function, although fungi can use it in place of sulfur and selenium in "amino acids such as "tellurocysteine and "telluromethionine.[6] In humans, tellurium is partly metabolized into "dimethyl telluride, (CH3)2Te, a gas with a "garlic-like odor exhaled in the breath of victims of tellurium exposure or poisoning.

Contents

Characteristics[edit]

Physical properties[edit]

Tellurium has two "allotropes, crystalline and amorphous. When "crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white with a metallic luster. It is a brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is a black-brown powder prepared by precipitating it from a solution of "tellurous acid or "telluric acid (Te(OH)6).[7] Tellurium is a "semiconductor that shows a greater electrical conductivity in certain directions depending on "atomic alignment; the conductivity increases slightly when exposed to light ("photoconductivity).[8] When molten, tellurium is corrosive to copper, "iron, and "stainless steel. Of the "chalcogens, tellurium has the highest melting and boiling points, at 722.66 K (841.12 °F) and 1,261 K (1,810 °F), respectively.[9]

Chemical properties[edit]

Tellurium adopts a polymeric structure consisting of zig-zag chains of Te atoms. This gray material resists oxidation by air and is not volatile.

Isotopes[edit]

Naturally occurring tellurium has eight isotopes. Six of those isotopes, 120Te, 122Te, 123Te, 124Te, 125Te and 126Te, are stable. The other two, 128Te and 130Te, have been found to be slightly radioactive,[10][11][12] with extremely long half-lives, including 2.2 × 1024 years for 128Te. This is the longest known half-life among all "radionuclides[13] and is approximately 160 "trillion (1012) times the "age of the known universe. Stable isotopes comprise only 33.2% of naturally occurring tellurium.

A further thirty artificial "radioisotopes of tellurium are known with "atomic masses ranging from 105 to 142 and with half-lives of 19 days or less. There are also 17 "nuclear isomers, with half-lives of up to 154 days. Tellurium (106Te to 110Te ) is among the lightest elements known to undergo alpha decay.[10]

The atomic mass of tellurium (127.60 g·mol−1) exceeds that of iodine (126.90 g·mol−1), the next element in the periodic table.[14]

Occurrence[edit]

""A dark mass, approximately 2 millimetres in diameter, on a rose-coloured crystal substrate
""
Tellurium on quartz ("Moctezuma, Sonora, Mexico)
""
""
Native tellurium crystal on "sylvanite ("Vatukoula, "Viti Levu, "Fiji). Picture width 2 mm.

With an abundance in the Earth's "crust comparable to that of platinum (about 1 µg/kg), tellurium is one of the rarest stable solid elements.[15] In comparison, even the rarest of the stable "lanthanides have crustal abundances of 500 µg/kg (see "Abundance of the chemical elements).[16]

This rarity of tellurium in the Earth's crust is not a reflection of its cosmic abundance. Tellurium is more abundant than "rubidium in the cosmos, though rubidium is ten thousand times more abundant in the Earth's crust. The rarity of tellurium on Earth is thought to be caused by conditions during the formation of the Earth, when the stable form of certain elements, in the absence of "oxygen and "water, was controlled by the reductive power of free "hydrogen. Under this scenario, certain elements that form volatile "hydrides, such as tellurium, were severely depleted through evaporation of these hydrides. Tellurium and selenium are the heavy elements most depleted by this process.["citation needed]

Tellurium is sometimes found in its native (i.e., elemental) form, but is more often found as the tellurides of "gold such as "calaverite and "krennerite (two different "polymorphs of AuTe2), "petzite, Ag3AuTe2, and "sylvanite, AgAuTe4. The city of "Telluride, Colorado was named in hope of a strike of gold telluride (which never materialized, though gold metal ore was found). Gold itself is usually found uncombined, but when found as a chemical compound, it is most often combined with tellurium.

Although tellurium is found with gold more often than in uncombined form, it is found even more often combined as tellurides of more common metals (e.g. "melonite, NiTe2). Natural "tellurite and "tellurate minerals also occur, formed by oxidation of tellurides near the Earth's surface. In contrast to selenium, tellurium does not usually replace sulfur in minerals because of the great difference in ion radii. Thus, many common sulfide minerals contain substantial quantities of selenium and only traces of tellurium.[17]

In the gold rush of 1893, miners in "Kalgoorlie discarded a pyritic material as they searched for pure gold, and it was used to fill in potholes and build sidewalks. In 1896, that tailing was discovered to be "calaverite, a telluride of gold, and it sparked a second gold rush that included mining the streets.[18]

History[edit]

""Oval black and white engraving of a man looking left with a scarf and a coat with large buttons.
""
"Klaproth named the new element and credited "von Reichenstein with its discovery

Tellurium ("Latin tellus meaning "earth") was discovered in the 18th century in a gold ore from the mines in "Zlatna, near today's city of "Alba Iulia, Romania. This ore was known as "Faczebajer weißes blättriges Golderz" (white leafy gold ore from Faczebaja, German name of Facebánya, now Fața Băii in "Alba County) or antimonalischer Goldkies (antimonic gold pyrite), and according to Anton von Rupprecht, was Spießglaskönig (argent molybdique), containing native "antimony.[19][20] In 1782 "Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, who was then serving as the Austrian chief inspector of mines in Transylvania, concluded that the ore did not contain antimony but was "bismuth sulfide.[21] The following year, he reported that this was erroneous and that the ore contained mostly gold and an unknown metal very similar to antimony. After a thorough investigation that lasted three years and included more than fifty tests, Müller determined the "specific gravity of the mineral and noted that when heated, the new metal gives off a white smoke with a "radish-like odor; that it imparts a red color to "sulfuric acid; and that when this solution is diluted with water, it has a black precipitate. Nevertheless, he was not able to identify this metal and gave it the names aurum paradoxium (paradoxical gold) and metallum problematicum (problem metal), because it did not exhibit the properties predicted for antimony.[22][23][24]

In 1789, a Hungarian scientist, "Pál Kitaibel, discovered the element independently in an ore from "Deutsch-Pilsen that had been regarded as argentiferous "molybdenite, but later he gave the credit to Müller. In 1798, it was named by "Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who had earlier isolated it from the mineral "calaverite.[25][23][24][26]

The 1960s brought an increase in thermoelectric applications for tellurium (as "bismuth telluride), and in free-machining "steel alloys, which became the dominant use.[27]

Production[edit]

The principal source of tellurium is from "anode "sludges from the electrolytic refining of blister "copper. It is a component of dusts from "blast furnace refining of "lead. Treatment of 1000 tons of copper ore typically yields one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of tellurium.

""Grey and white world map with four countries colored to show the percentage of worldwide tellurium production. US to produce 40%; Peru 30%; Japan 20% and Canada 10%.
""
Tellurium production 2006

The anode sludges contain the "selenides and tellurides of the "noble metals in compounds with the formula M2Se or M2Te (M = Cu, Ag, Au). At temperatures of 500 °C the anode sludges are roasted with "sodium carbonate under air. The metal ions are reduced to the metals, while the telluride is converted to "sodium tellurite.[28]

M2Te + O2 + Na2CO3 → Na2TeO3 + 2 M + CO2

"Tellurites can be leached from the mixture with water and are normally present as hydrotellurites HTeO3 in solution. "Selenites are also formed during this process, but they can be separated by adding "sulfuric acid. The hydrotellurites are converted into the insoluble "tellurium dioxide while the selenites stay in solution.[28]

HTeO
3
+ OH + H2SO4 → TeO2 + SO2−
4
+ 2 H2O

The metal is produced from the oxide (reduced) either by electrolysis or by reacting the "tellurium dioxide with sulfur dioxide in sulfuric acid.[28]

TeO2 + 2 SO2 + 2H2O → Te + 2 SO2−
4
+ 4 H+

Commercial-grade tellurium is usually marketed as 200-"mesh powder but is also available as slabs, ingots, sticks, or lumps. The year-end price for tellurium in 2000 was "US$14 per pound. In recent years, the tellurium price was driven up by increased demand and limited supply, reaching as high as "US$100 per pound in 2006.[29][30] Despite the expectation that improved production methods will double production, the "United States Department of Energy (DoE) anticipates a supply shortfall of tellurium by 2025.[31]

Tellurium is produced mainly in the United States, Peru, Japan and Canada.[32] The "British Geological Survey gives the following production numbers for 2009: United States 50 "t, Peru 7 t, Japan 40 t and Canada 16 t.[33]

Compounds[edit]

See also: the categories "Tellurium compounds, and "Telluride minerals.

Tellurium belongs to the "chalcogen (group 16) family of elements on the periodic table, which also includes "oxygen, "sulfur, "selenium and "polonium: Tellurium and selenium compounds are similar. Tellurium exhibits the oxidation states −2, +2, +4 and +6, with +4 being most common.[7]

Tellurides

Reduction of Te metal produces the "tellurides and polytellurides, Ten2−. The −2 oxidation state is exhibited in binary compounds with many metals, such as zinc telluride, ZnTe, produced by heating tellurium with zinc.[34] Decomposition of ZnTe with "hydrochloric acid yields "hydrogen telluride (H
2
Te
), a highly unstable analogue of the other chalcogen hydrides, "H
2
O
, "H
2
S
and "H
2
Se
:

ZnTe + 2 HCl → ZnCl
2
+ H
2
Te

H
2
Te
is unstable, whereas salts of its conjugate base [TeH] are stable.

Halides

The +2 oxidation state is exhibited by the dihalides, TeCl
2
, TeBr
2
and TeI
2
. The dihalides have not been obtained in pure form,[35]:274 although they are known decomposition products of the tetrahalides in organic solvents, and the derived tetrahalotellurates are well-characterized:

Te + X
2
+ 2 X
TeX2−
4

where X is Cl, Br, or I. These anions are "square planar in geometry.[35]:281 Polynuclear anionic species also exist, such as the dark brown Te
2
I2−
6
,[35]:283 and the black Te
4
I2−
14
.[35]:285

Fluorine forms two halides with tellurium: the mixed-valence Te
2
F
4
and "TeF
6
. In the +6 oxidation state, the –OTeF
5
structural group occurs in a number of compounds such as "HOTeF
5
, B(OTeF
5
)
3
, Xe(OTeF
5
)
2
, Te(OTeF
5
)
4
and Te(OTeF
5
)
6
.[36] The "square antiprismatic anion TeF2−
8
is also attested.[28] The other halogens do not form halides with tellurium in the +6 oxidation state, but only tetrahalides ("TeCl
4
, "TeBr
4
and "TeI
4
) in the +4 state, and other lower halides (Te
3
Cl
2
, Te
2
Cl
2
, Te
2
Br
2
, Te
2
I
and two forms of TeI). In the +4 oxidation state, halotellurate anions are known, such as TeCl2−
6
and Te
2
Cl2−
10
. Halotellurium cations are also attested, including TeI+
3
, found in TeI
3
AsF
6
.[37]

Oxocompounds
""A sample of pale yellow powder
""
A sample of tellurium dioxide powder

Tellurium monoxide was first reported in 1883 as a black amorphous solid formed by the heat decomposition of TeSO
3
in vacuum, disproportionating into "tellurium dioxide, TeO
2
and elemental tellurium upon heating.[38][39] Since then, however, existence in the solid phase is doubted and in dispute, although it is known as a vapor fragment; the black solid may be merely an equimolar mixture of elemental tellurium and tellurium dioxide.[40]

Tellurium dioxide is formed by heating tellurium in air, whence it burns with a blue flame.[34] Tellurium trioxide, β-TeO
3
, is obtained by thermal decomposition of Te(OH)
6
. The other two forms of trioxide reported in the literature, the α- and γ- forms, were found not to be true oxides of tellurium in the +6 oxidation state, but a mixture of Te4+
, OH
and O
2
.[41] Tellurium also exhibits mixed-valence oxides, Te
2
O
5
and Te
4
O
9
.[41]

The tellurium oxides and hydrated oxides form a series of acids, including "tellurous acid (H
2
TeO
3
), "orthotelluric acid (Te(OH)
6
) and metatelluric acid ((H
2
TeO
4
)
n
).[40] The two forms of telluric acid form tellurate salts containing the TeO2–
4
and TeO6−
6
anions, respectively. Tellurous acid forms tellurite salts containing the anion TeO2−
3
. Other tellurium cations include TeF2+
8
, which consists of two fused tellurium rings and the polymeric TeF2+
7
.

Zintl cations

When tellurium is treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the result is a red solution of the "Zintl ion, Te2+
4
.[42] The oxidation of tellurium by "AsF
5
in liquid "SO
2
produces the same "square planar cation, in addition to the "trigonal prismatic, yellow-orange Te4+
6
:[28]

4 Te + 3 AsF
5
Te2+
4
(AsF
6
)
2
+ AsF
3
6 Te + 6 AsF
5
Te4+
6
(AsF
6
)
4
+ 2 AsF
3

Other tellurium Zintl cations include the polymeric Te2+
7
and the blue-black Te2+
8
, consisting of two fused 5-membered tellurium rings. The latter cation is formed by the reaction of tellurium with "tungsten hexachloride:[28]

8 Te + 2 WCl
6
Te2+
8
(WCl
6
)
2

Interchalcogen cations also exist, such as Te
2
Se2+
6
(distorted cubic geometry) and Te
2
Se2+
8
. These are formed by oxidizing mixtures of tellurium and selenium with AsF
5
or "SbF
5
.[28]

Organotellurium compounds

Tellurium does not readily form analogues of "alcohols and "thiols, with the functional group –TeH, that are called "tellurols. The –TeH functional group is also attributed using the prefix tellanyl-.[43] Like "H2Te, these species are unstable with respect to loss of hydrogen. Telluraethers (R–Te–R) are more stable, as are "telluroxides.

Applications[edit]

Metallurgy[edit]

The largest consumer of tellurium is "metallurgy in "iron, "stainless steel, "copper, and lead alloys. The addition to steel and copper produces an alloy more machinable than otherwise. It is alloyed into "cast iron for promoting chill for spectroscopy, where the presence of electrically conductive free graphite tends to interfere with spark emission testing results. In lead, tellurium improves strength and durability, and decreases the corrosive action of "sulfuric acid.[27][44]

Semiconductor and electronic industry uses[edit]

Tellurium is used in "cadmium telluride (CdTe) "solar panels. "National Renewable Energy Laboratory lab tests of tellurium demonstrated some of the greatest efficiencies for solar cell electric power generators. Massive commercial production of "CdTe solar panels by "First Solar in recent years has significantly increased tellurium demand.[45][46][47] Replacing some of the cadmium in CdTe by "zinc, producing "(Cd,Zn)Te, produces a solid-state "X-ray detector, providing an alternative to single-use "film badges.[48]

"Infrared sensitive "semiconductor material is formed by alloying tellurium with cadmium and "mercury to form "mercury cadmium telluride.[49]

"Organotellurium compounds such as "dimethyl telluride, diethyl telluride, diisopropyl telluride, diallyl telluride and methyl allyl telluride are precursors for synthesizing "metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth of II-VI "compound semiconductors.[50] Diisopropyl telluride (DIPTe) is the preferred precursor for low-temperature growth of CdHgTe by "MOVPE.[51] The greatest purity "metalorganics of both "selenium and tellurium are used in these processes. The compounds for semiconductor industry and are prepared by "adduct purification.[52][53]

Tellurium, as tellurium suboxide, is used in the media layer of rewritable "optical discs, including "ReWritable Compact Discs ("CD-RW), ReWritable Digital Video Discs ("DVD-RW), and ReWritable "Blu-ray Discs.[54][55]

"Tellurium dioxide is used to create "acousto-optic modulators (AOTFs and AOBSs) for confocal microscropy.

Tellurium is used in the new "phase change memory chips[56] developed by "Intel.[57] "Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and "lead telluride are working elements of "thermoelectric devices. "Lead telluride is used in far-"infrared detectors.

Other uses[edit]

Biological role[edit]

Tellurium has no known biological function, although fungi can incorporate it in place of sulfur and selenium into amino acids such as telluro-"cysteine and telluro-"methionine.[6][70] Organisms have shown a highly variable tolerance to tellurium compounds. Many bacteria, such as "Pseudomonas aeruginosa, take up tellurite and reduce it to elemental tellurium, which accumulates and causes a characteristic and often dramatic darkening of cells.[71] In yeast, this reduction is mediated by the sulfate assimilation pathway.[72] Tellurium accumulation seems to account for a major part of the toxicity effects. Many organisms also metabolize tellurium partly to form dimethyl telluride, although dimethyl ditelluride is also formed by some species. Dimethyl telluride has been observed in hot springs at very low concentrations.[73][74]

Precautions[edit]

Tellurium and tellurium compounds are considered to be mildly "toxic and need to be handled with care, although acute poisoning is rare.[75] Tellurium poisoning is particularly difficult to treat as many "chelation agents used in the treatment of metal poisoning will increase the toxicity of tellurium. Tellurium is not reported to be carcinogenic.[75]

Humans exposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m3 or less in air exude a foul "garlic-like odor known as "tellurium breath".[58] This is caused by the body converting tellurium from any oxidation state to "dimethyl telluride, (CH3)2Te. This is a volatile compound with a pungent garlic-like smell. Even though the metabolic pathways of tellurium are not known, it is generally assumed that they resemble those of the more extensively studied "selenium because the final methylated metabolic products of the two elements are similar.[76][77][78]

People can be exposed to tellurium in the workplace by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, and eye contact. The "Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) limits ("permissible exposure limit) tellurium exposure in the workplace to 0.1 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. The "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set the "recommended exposure limit (REL) at 0.1 mg/m3 over an eight-hour workday. In concentrations of 25 mg/m3, tellurium is "immediately dangerous to life and health.[79]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  5. ^ Alessandrello, A.; Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.; Vanzini, M.; Zanotti, L.; Giuliani, A.; Pedretti, M.; Bucci, C.; Pobes, C. (2003). "New limits on naturally occurring electron capture of 123Te". Physical Review C. 67: 014323. "arXiv:hep-ex/0211015Freely accessible. "Bibcode:2003PhRvC..67a4323A. "doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.67.014323. 
  6. ^ a b Ramadan, Shadia E.; Razak, A. A.; Ragab, A. M.; El-Meleigy, M. (1989). "Incorporation of tellurium into amino acids and proteins in a tellurium-tolerant fungi". Biological Trace Element Research. 20 (3): 225–32. "doi:10.1007/BF02917437. "PMID 2484755. 
  7. ^ a b Leddicotte, G. W. (1961). "The radiochemistry of tellurium" (PDF). Nuclear science series (3038). Subcommittee on Radiochemistry, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council: 5. 
  8. ^ Berger, Lev Isaakovich (1997). "Tellurium". Semiconductor materials. CRC Press. pp. 89–91. "ISBN "978-0-8493-8912-2. 
  9. ^ Periodic Table. ptable.com
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