A self-portrait of Chassériau painted at the age of 16
|Born||September 20, 1819
"El Limón, Samaná, "Santo Domingo
|Died||October 8, 1856
Théodore Chassériau (September 20, 1819 – October 8, 1856) was a French "Romantic "painter noted for his "portraits, historical and religious paintings, allegorical murals, and "Orientalist images inspired by his travels to "Algeria. Early in his career he painted in a "Neoclassical style close to that of his teacher "Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, but in his later works he was strongly influenced by the Romantic style of "Eugène Delacroix. He was a prolific draftsman, and made a suite of prints to illustrate "Shakespeare's "Othello.
Chassériau was born in "El Limón, Samaná, in the Spanish colony of "Santo Domingo (now the "Dominican Republic). His father "Benoît Chassériau was a French adventurer who had arrived in Santo Domingo in 1802 to take an administrative position in what was until 1808 a French colony. Theodore's mother, Maria Magdalena Couret de la Blagniére, was the daughter of a "mulatto landowner born in "Saint-Domingue (now "Haiti). In December 1820 the family left Santo Domingo for "Paris, where the young Chassériau soon showed precocious drawing skill. He was accepted into the studio of "Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres in 1830, at the age of eleven, and became the favorite pupil of the great "classicist, who regarded him as his truest disciple. (An account that may be apocryphal has Ingres declaring "Come, gentlemen, come see, this child will be the Napoleon of painting.")
After Ingres left Paris in 1834 to become director of the French Academy in "Rome, Chassériau fell under the influence of "Eugène Delacroix, whose brand of painterly colorism was anathema to Ingres. Chassériau's art has often been characterized as an attempt to reconcile the classicism of Ingres with the romanticism of Delacroix. He first exhibited at the "Paris Salon in 1836, and was awarded a third-place medal in the category of "history painting. In 1840 Chassériau travelled to Rome and met with Ingres, whose bitterness at the direction his student's work was taking led to a decisive break. While in Italy, Chassériau made landscape sketches and studied Renaissance "frescoes.
Among the chief works of his early maturity are Susanna and the Elders and "Venus Anadyomene (both 1839), "Diana Surprised by "Actaeon (1840), "Andromeda Chained to the Rock by the Nereids (1840), and "The Toilette of Esther (1841), all of which reveal a very personal ideal in depicting the female nude. Chassériau's major religious paintings from these years, "Christ on the "Mount of Olives (a subject he treated in 1840 and again in 1844) and The Descent from the Cross (1842), received mixed reviews from the critics; among the artist's champions was "Théophile Gautier. In 1843, Chassériau painted murals depicting the life of "Saint Mary of Egypt in the "Church of Saint-Merri in Paris, the first of several commissions he received to decorate public buildings in Paris.
Portraits from this period include the Portrait of the Reverend Father Dominique Lacordaire, of the Order of the Predicant Friars (1840), and "The Two Sisters (1843), which depicts Chassériau's sisters Adèle and Aline.
Throughout his life he was a prolific draftsman; his many portrait drawings executed with a finely pointed graphite pencil are close in style to those of Ingres. He also created a body of 29 prints, including a group of eighteen etchings of subjects from "Shakespeare's "Othello in 1844.
He exhibited the colossal portrait Ali-Ben-Hamet, Caliph of Constantine and Chief of the Haractas, Followed by his Escort in the Salon of 1845, where it received equivocal reviews. In 1846, Chassériau made his first trip to Algeria. From sketches made on this and subsequent trips he painted such subjects as Arab Chiefs Visiting Their Vassals and Jewish Women on a Balcony (both 1849, now in the "Louvre). A major late work, The Tepidarium (1853, in the "Musée d'Orsay), depicts a large group of women drying themselves after bathing, in an architectural setting inspired by the artist's trip in 1840 to "Pompeii. His most monumental work was his decoration of the grand staircase of the "Cour des Comptes, commissioned by the state in 1844 and completed in 1848. He followed the example of Delacroix in executing this work in oil on plaster, rather than in fresco. This work was heavily damaged in May 1871 by a fire set during the "Commune, and only fragments could be recovered; these are preserved in the Louvre.
After a period of ill health, exacerbated by his exhausting work on commissions for murals to decorate the Churches of Saint-Roch and Saint-Philippe-du-Roule, Chassériau died at the age of 37 in Paris, on October 8, 1856.
His work had a significant impact on the style of "Puvis de Chavannes and "Gustave Moreau, and—through those artists' influence—reverberations in the work of "Paul Gauguin and "Henri Matisse. There is in Paris a Society for the painter: Association des Amis de Théodore Chassériau.
Works of Chassériau are in the "Musée du Louvre where a room is dedicated to him, in the "Musée d'Orsay, and in the Musée de "Versailles. Collections in the United States holding works by Théodore Chassériau include the "Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the "Fogg Art Museum of "Harvard University, the "National Gallery of Art of "Washington, D.C., the "Detroit Institute of Arts, the "Museum of the Art Rhode Island School of Design, "The J. Paul Getty Museum and the "Art Institute of Chicago.
Portrait de la comtesse de La Tour Maubourg, 1841, "Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Scene in the Jewish Quarter of Constantine, 1851, "Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Tepidarium, 1853, oil on canvas, "Musée d'Orsay
Portrait of Mme Borg de Balsan, 1847, pencil on paper, 33.3 x 27 cm, "Philadelphia Museum of Art
Portrait d'"Alphonse de Lamartine, 1844, pencil on paper
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