Third-Worldism is a political concept and ideology that emerged in the late 1940s or early 1950s during the "Cold War and tried to generate unity among the nations that did not want to take sides between the "United States and the "Soviet Union. The concept is related but not identical to the political theory of "Maoism-Third Worldism.
The political thinkers and leaders of Third-Worldism argued that the North-South divisions and conflicts were of primary political importance compared to the "East-"West opposition of the Cold War period. In the "Three-World Model, the countries of the "First World were the ones allied to the "United States. These nations had, and still have, less "political risk, better functioning "democracy and "economic stability, as well as higher "standard of living. The "Second World designation referred to the former "industrial "socialist states under the influence of the "Soviet Union. The "Third World hence defined countries that remained non-aligned with either "NATO, or the "Communist Bloc. The "Third World was normally seen to include many countries with "colonial pasts in "Africa, "Latin America, "Oceania and "Asia. It was also sometimes taken as synonymous with countries in the "Non-Aligned Movement, connected to the world economic division as ""periphery" countries in the world system that is dominated by the ""core" countries.
Third-Wordism was connected to new political movements following the "Decolonization and new forms of regionalism that emerged in the erstwhile colonies of Asia, Africa, and the Middle-East, as well as in the older nation-states of Latin America : "pan-arabism, "pan-africanism, "pan-americanism and "pan-asianism.
The first period of the Third-World movement, that of the "first "Bandung Era", was led by the Egyptian, Indonesian and Indian heads of states : "Nasser, "Sukarno and "Nehru. They were followed in the 1960s and 1970s by a second generation of Third-Worldist governments that emphasized on a more radical and revolutionary socialist vision, personified by the figure of "Che Guevara. Finally at the end of the Cold War in the late 1980s, Third Worldism began to enter into a period of decline.
Several leaders have been associated with the Third-Worldism movement.