As Edison was expanding his "direct current (DC) power delivery system he began receiving stiff competition from companies installing "alternating current (AC) systems. From the early 1880s on AC, "arc lighting systems for streets and large spaces had been an expanding business in the US. With the development of "transformers in Europe and by "Westinghouse Electric in the US in 1885–1886, it became possible to transmit AC very long distances over thinner and cheaper wires, and "step down" the voltage at the destination for distribution to users. This allowed AC to be used not only in street lighting but also in lighting for small business and domestic customers, the market Edison's patented low voltage DC incandescent lamp system had been designed to supply. Edison's DC empire began suffering from one of its chief drawbacks: it was suitable only for the high density of customers found in large cities. Edison's DC plants could not deliver electricity to customers who were more than one mile from the plant and the short range left a patchwork of un-supplied customers in-between plants. Small cities and rural areas could not afford an Edison style system at all. This left a large part of the market without electrical service and AC companies were expanding into this gap.
Edison expressed views that AC was unworkable and the high voltages used were dangerous. As "George Westinghouse was installing his first AC systems in 1886, Thomas Edison began a pattern of striking out personally against his chief rival stating, "Just as certain as death, Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size. He has got a new thing and it will require a great deal of experimenting to get it working practically." Many reasons have been put forward for Edison's anti-AC stance. One notion is that the inventor may not have been able to grasp the more abstract theories behind AC and was trying to avoid developing a system he did not understand. Edison also appeared to have been worried about the high voltage from some competitor's misinstalled AC system killing customers and hurting the sales of electric power systems in general. On top of all that was the simple fact that Edison Electric had based their entire design on low voltage DC and switching a standard after they had installed over 100 systems was, in Edison's mind, out of the question. By the end of 1887, Edison Electric was beginning to lose market share with Westinghouse, who had built 68 AC-based power stations to Edison's 121 DC-based stations. To make matters worse for Edison, the "Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, Massachusetts (another AC-based competitor) had built 22 power stations.
Parallel to the expanding competition between Edison and the AC companies was a rising public furor over a series of deaths in the spring of 1888 caused by pole mounted high voltage alternating current lines that turned into a media frenzy against high voltage alternating current and the seemingly greedy and callous lighting companies that used it. Edison took advantage of the public perception that AC was dangerous and teamed up with the self-styled New York anti-AC crusader "Harold P. Brown in a "propaganda campaign, aiding Brown in the public electrocution of animals with AC as well as supported legislation to control and severely limit AC installations and voltages (to the point of making it an ineffective power delivery system) in what was now being referred to as a ""battle of currents". The development of the "electric chair was used in an attempt to portray AC as having a greater lethal potential than DC and "smear Westinghouse at the same time via Edison colluding with Brown and Westinghouse's chief AC rival, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, to make sure the first electric chair was powered by a Westinghouse AC generator.
Thomas Edison's staunch anti-AC tactics were not sitting well with his own stockholders. By the early 1890s, Edison's company was generating much smaller profits than its AC rivals, and the War of Currents would come to an end in 1892 with Edison being forced out of controlling his own company. That year, the financier "J.P. Morgan engineered a merger of Edison General Electric with Thomson-Houston that basically put the board of Thomson-Houston in charge of the new company called "General Electric (dropping "Edison" from its name). General Electric now controlled three-quarters of the US electrical business and would go on to compete with Westinghouse for the AC market.
Other inventions and projects
Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available "fluoroscope, a machine that uses "X-rays to take "radiographs. Until Edison discovered that "calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium "platinocyanide screens originally used by "Wilhelm Röntgen, the technology was capable of producing only very faint images.
The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, although Edison himself abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously injuring his assistant, "Clarence Dally. Dally had made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and in the process been exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation. He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In 1903, a shaken Edison said: "Don't talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them."
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The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the "stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph.
Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design while his employee "W. K. L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson. In 1891, Thomas Edison built a "Kinetoscope or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.
In April 1896, "Thomas Armat's "Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later, he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.
Officially the kinetoscope entered Europe when the rich American Businessman "Irving T. Bush (1869–1948) bought from the Continental Commerce Company of Frank Z. Maguire and Joseph D. Baucus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894, the first kinetoscopes in London. At the same time, the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last three months of 1894, The Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe (i.e. the Netherlands and Italy). In Germany and in "Austria-Hungary, the kinetoscope was introduced by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, founded by the Ludwig Stollwerck of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne.
The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the "Fairs in early 1895. The Edison's Kinétoscope Français, a Belgian company, was founded in Brussels on January 15, 1895, with the rights to sell the kinetoscopes in Monaco, France and the French colonies. The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists.
On May 14, 1895, the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was founded in Brussels. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. He had contacts with "Leon Gaumont and the "American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. In 1898, he also became a shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France.
"Edison's film studio made close to 1,200 films. The majority of the productions were short films showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls including titles such as "Fred Ott's Sneeze (1894), "The Kiss (1896), "The Great Train Robbery (1903), "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910), and the first "Frankenstein film in 1910. In 1903, when the owners of "Luna Park, Coney Island announced they would execute "Topsy the elephant by strangulation, poisoning, and electrocution (with the electrocution part ultimately killing the elephant), Edison Manufacturing sent a crew to film it, releasing it that same year with the title "Electrocuting an Elephant.
As the film business expanded, competing exhibitors routinely copied and exhibited each other's films. To better protect the copyrights on his films, Edison deposited prints of them on long strips of "photographic paper with the "U.S. copyright office. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era.
In 1908, Edison started the "Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the "Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929.
Edison said his favorite movie was "The Birth of a Nation. He thought that "talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. "There isn't any good acting on the screen. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf." His favorite stars were "Mary Pickford and "Clara Bow.
Starting in the late 1870s, Thomas Edison became interested and involved with mining. There was a scarcity of high-grade iron ore on the east coast of the United States and so Edison instead tried to mine low-grade ore. Edison would go on to develop a number of rollers and crushers that could pulverize rocks up to 10 tons. The dust would then be sent between three giant magnets that would pull the iron ore from the dust. Despite the failure of his mining company, the "Edison Ore Milling Company, Edison would go on to use some of the materials and equipment to begin producing cement.
In 1901, Edison visited an industrial exhibition in the "Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada and thought nickel and cobalt deposits there could be used in his production of electrical equipment. He returned as a mining prospector and is credited with the original discovery of the "Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to mine the ore body were not successful, however, and he abandoned his mining claim in 1903. A street in Falconbridge, as well as the "Edison Building, which served as the head office of "Falconbridge Mines, are named for him.
The Edison Storage Battery Company was founded in 1901. With this company Edison exploited his invention of the accumulator. In 1904 already 450 people worked at the company. The first accumulators were produced for electric cars. But there were several defects. Several Customers were complaining about the products. When the capital of the company was spent Edison paid for the company with his private money. Not until 1910 Edison showed a mature product: A Nickel-Iron-Battery with Lye as liquid.
Edison became concerned with America's reliance on foreign supply of rubber and was determined to find a native supply of rubber. He partnered with Harvey Firestone and "Henry Ford (all three contributing $25,000 each) to create the Edison Botanic Research Corp. in 1927 and constructed a laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida the following year. Edison did the majority of the research and planting, sending results and sample rubber residues to his West Orange Lab. Edison employed a two-part "Acid-base extraction, to derive latex from the plant material after it was dried and crushed to a powder. After testing 17,000 plant samples, he eventually found an adequate source in the Goldenrod plant.
West Orange and Fort Myers (1886–1931)
Edison moved from Menlo Park after the death of his first wife, Mary, in 1884, and purchased a home known as ""Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for his second wife, Mina, in "Llewellyn Park in "West Orange, New Jersey. In 1885, Thomas Edison had bought property in "Fort Myers, Florida, and built what was later called "Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Edison and Mina spent many winters at their home in Fort Myers, and Edison tried to find a domestic source of natural rubber.
Due to the security concerns around "World War I, Edison suggested forming a science and industry committee to provide advice and research to the US military, and he headed the "Naval Consulting Board in 1915.
Edison's work on rubber took place largely at his botanic research laboratory in Fort Myers, which has now been designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark. The laboratory was built after Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone pulled together $75,000 to form the Edison Botanical Research Corporation. Initially, only Ford and Firestone were to contribute monetary funds to the project while Edison did all the research. Edison, however, wished to contribute $25,000 as well. After testing over 17,000 plant species, Edison decided on "Solidago leavenworthii, also known as Leavenworth's Goldenrod. The plant, which normally grows roughly 3–4 feet tall with a 5% latex yield was adapted by Edison through cross-breeding to produce plants twice the size and with a latex yield of 12%. In October 1931, Edison reported that he was close to finding a domestic source of rubber but died in the same month. His brother-in-law, John Miller, would take over management of the project until it was shuttered in 1936.["citation needed]
"Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat in Fort Myers. Ford once worked as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit and met Edison at a convention of affiliated Edison illuminating companies in Brooklyn, NY in 1896. Edison was impressed with Ford's internal combustion engine automobile and encouraged its developments. They were friends until Edison's death. Edison and Ford undertook annual motor camping trips from 1914 to 1924. Harvey Firestone and John Burroughs also participated.
In 1928, Edison joined the Fort Myers "Civitan Club. He believed strongly in the organization, writing that "The Civitan Club is doing things—big things—for the community, state, and nation, and I certainly consider it an honor to be numbered in its ranks." He was an active member in the club until his death, sometimes bringing Henry Ford to the club's meetings.
Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death, the "Lackawanna Railroad inaugurated suburban electric train service from "Hoboken to "Montclair, "Dover, and "Gladstone, New Jersey. Electrical transmission for this service was by means of an overhead catenary system using direct current, which Edison had championed. Despite his frail condition, Edison was at the throttle of the first electric MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken in September 1930, driving the train the first mile through Hoboken yard on its way to "South Orange.
This fleet of cars would serve commuters in northern New Jersey for the next 54 years until their retirement in 1984. A plaque commemorating Edison's inaugural ride can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, which is presently operated by "New Jersey Transit.
Edison was said to have been influenced by a popular "fad diet in his last few years; "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours". He is reported to have believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about him, "correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies." She also said that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, have breakfast at 8:00, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he continued to have all three.
Edison became the owner of his "Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was reportedly shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.["citation needed]
Edison died of complications of diabetes on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in "Llewellyn Park in "West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina. He is buried behind the home.
Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at "The Henry Ford museum near Detroit. Ford reportedly convinced "Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster "death mask and casts of Edison's hands were also made. Mina died in 1947.
Views on politics, religion, and metaphysics
Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a ""freethinker". Edison was heavily influenced by "Thomas Paine's "The Age of Reason. Edison defended Paine's "scientific "deism", saying, "He has been called an "atheist, but atheist he was not. Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity." In an October 2, 1910, interview in the "New York Times Magazine, Edison stated:
Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me — the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love — He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us — nature did it all — not the gods of the religions.
Edison was accused of being an atheist for those remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he clarified himself in a private letter:
You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made.
He also stated, "I do not believe in the God of the theologians; but that there is a Supreme Intelligence I do not doubt."
"Nonviolence was key to Edison's moral views, and when asked to serve as a naval consultant for World War I, he specified he would work only on defensive weapons and later noted, "I am proud of the fact that I never invented weapons to kill." Edison's philosophy of nonviolence extended to animals as well, about which he stated: "Nonviolence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages." He was a "vegetarian but not a "vegan in actual practice, at least near the end of his life.
In 1920, Edison set off a media sensation when he told "B. C. Forbes of "American Magazine that he was working on a "spirit phone" to allow communication with the dead, a story which other newspapers and magazines repeated. Edison later disclaimed the idea, telling the New York Times in 1926 that "I really had nothing to tell him, but I hated to disappoint him so I thought up this story about communicating with spirits, but it was all a joke."
Views on money
Thomas Edison was an advocate for monetary reform in the United States. He was ardently opposed to the gold standard and debt-based money. Famously, he was quoted in the New York Times stating "Gold is a relic of Julius Caesar, and "interest is an invention of Satan."
In the same article, he expounded upon the absurdity of a monetary system in which the taxpayer of the United States, in need of a loan, be compelled to pay in return perhaps double the principal, or even greater sums, due to interest. His basic point was that if the Government can produce debt-based money, it could equally as well produce money that was a credit to the taxpayer.
He thought at length about the subject of money in 1921 and 1922. In May 1922, he published a proposal, entitled "A Proposed Amendment to the Federal Reserve Banking System". In it, he detailed an explanation of a commodity-backed currency, in which the Federal Reserve would issue interest-free currency to farmers, based on the value of commodities they produced. During a publicity tour that he took with friend and fellow inventor, "Henry Ford, he spoke publicly about his desire for monetary reform. For insight, he corresponded with prominent academic and banking professionals. In the end, however, Edison's proposals failed to find support and were eventually abandoned.
The "President of the "Third French Republic, "Jules Grévy, on the recommendation of his "Minister of Foreign Affairs "Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire and with the presentations of the "Minister of Posts and Telegraphs "Louis Cochery, designated Edison with the "distinction of an '"Officer of the Legion of Honour' ("Légion d'honneur) by decree on November 10, 1881; He also named a Chevalier in 1879, and a Commander in 1889.
In 1887, Edison won the "Matteucci Medal. In 1890, he was elected a member of the "Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The "Philadelphia City Council named Edison the recipient of the "John Scott Medal in 1889.
In 1899, Edison was awarded the "Edward Longstreth Medal of "The Franklin Institute.
He was named an Honorable Consulting Engineer at the "Louisiana Purchase Exposition "World's fair in 1904.
In 1908, Edison received the American Association of Engineering Societies "John Fritz Medal.
In 1915, Edison was awarded "Franklin Medal of "The Franklin Institute for discoveries contributing to the foundation of industries and the well-being of the human race.
In 1920, the "United States Navy department awarded him the "Navy Distinguished Service Medal.
In 1923, the "American Institute of Electrical Engineers created the Edison Medal and he was its first recipient.
In 1927, he was granted membership in the "National Academy of Sciences.
On May 29, 1928, Edison received the "Congressional Gold Medal.
In 1983, the "United States Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97—198), designated February 11, Edison's birthday, as National "Inventor's Day.
"Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue in 1997, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years", noting that the "light bulb he promoted "lit up the world". In the 2005 television series "The Greatest American, he was voted by viewers as the fifteenth greatest.
In 2008, Edison was inducted in the "New Jersey Hall of Fame.
In 2010, Edison was honored with a "Technical Grammy Award.
In 2011, Edison was inducted into the "Entrepreneur Walk of Fame and named a "Great Floridian by the Florida Governor and Cabinet.
Places and people named for Edison
Several places have been named after Edison, most notably the town of "Edison, New Jersey. "Thomas Edison State University, nationally known for adult learners, is in "Trenton, New Jersey. Two community colleges are named for him: "Edison State College (now "Florida SouthWestern State College) in Fort Myers, Florida, and Edison Community College in "Piqua, Ohio. There are numerous high schools named after Edison (see "Edison High School) and other schools including "Thomas A. Edison Middle School. Footballer "Pelé's father originally named him Edson, as a tribute to the inventor of the light bulb, but the name was incorrectly listed on his birth certificate as "Edison".
The small town of "Alva just east of Fort Myers took Edison's middle name.
In 1883, the City Hotel in "Sunbury, Pennsylvania was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was renamed The "Hotel Edison upon Edison's return to the city on 1922.
"Lake Thomas A Edison in "California was named after Edison to mark the 75th anniversary of the "incandescent light bulb.
Edison was on hand to turn on the lights at the "Hotel Edison in "New York City when it opened in 1931.
Three bridges around the "United States have been named in Edison's honor: the "Edison Bridge in New Jersey, the "Edison Bridge in Florida, and the "Edison Bridge in Ohio.
In space, his name is commemorated in "asteroid "742 Edisona.
Museums and memorials
In West Orange, New Jersey, the 13.5 acres (5.5 hectares) Glenmont estate is maintained and operated by the "National Park Service as the "Edison National Historic Site, as is his nearby laboratory and workshops including the reconstructed Black Maria- the world's first movie studio. The "Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum is in the town of Edison, New Jersey. In "Beaumont, Texas, there is an "Edison Museum, though Edison never visited there. The "Port Huron Museum, in "Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young news butcher. The depot has been named the "Thomas Edison Depot Museum. The town has many Edison historical landmarks, including the graves of Edison's parents, and a monument along the "St. Clair River. Edison's influence can be seen throughout this city of 32,000.
In Detroit, the Edison Memorial Fountain in "Grand Circus Park was created to honor his achievements. The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, 1929, the fiftieth anniversary of the creation of the lightbulb. On the same night, "The Edison Institute was dedicated in nearby "Dearborn.
He was inducted into the "Automotive Hall of Fame in 1969.
A bronze statue of Edison was placed in the "National Statuary Hall Collection at the "United States Capitol in 2016, with the formal dedication ceremony held on September 20 of that year. The Edison statue replaced one of 19th-century state governor "William Allen that had been one of Ohio's two allowed contributions to the collection.
Companies bearing Edison's name
- Edison General Electric, merged with "Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form "General Electric
- "Commonwealth Edison, now part of "Exelon
- "Consolidated Edison
- "Edison International
- "Detroit Edison, a unit of "DTE Energy
- "Edison S.p.A., a unit of Italenergia
- Trade association the "Edison Electric Institute, a lobbying and research group for investor-owned utilities in the United States
- "Edison Ore-Milling Company
- "Edison Portland Cement Company
- Ohio Edison (merged with Centerior in 1997 to form "First Energy)
- "Southern California Edison
Awards named in honor of Edison
The "Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. Four years later the "American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later "IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The first medal was presented in 1909 to "Elihu Thomson. It is the oldest award in the area of "electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."
In the Netherlands, the major music awards are named the "Edison Award after him. The award is an annual Dutch music prize, awarded for outstanding achievements in the music industry, and is one of the oldest music awards in the world, having been presented since 1960.
The "American Society of Mechanical Engineers concedes the Thomas A. Edison Patent Award to individual patents since 2000.
Other items named after Edison
The "United States Navy named the "USS Edison (DD-439), a "Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. In 1962, the Navy commissioned "USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610), a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine.["citation needed]
In popular culture
Thomas Edison has appeared in "popular culture as a character in novels, films, comics and video games. His prolific inventing helped make him an icon and he has made appearances in popular culture during his lifetime down to the present day. Edison is also portrayed in popular culture as an adversary of "Nikola Tesla.
"Camping with Henry and Tom", a fictional play based on Edison's camping trips with Henry Ford, written by Mark St.Gemain. First presented at Lucille Lortel Theatre, New York, February 20, 1995.
On February 11, 2011, on what would have been Thomas Edison's 164th birthday, "Google's homepage featured an animated "Google Doodle commemorating his many inventions. When the cursor was hovered over the doodle, a series of mechanisms seemed to move, causing a lightbulb to glow.
List of people who worked for Edison
The following is a list of people who worked for Thomas Edison in his laboratories at Menlo Park or West Orange or at the subsidiary electrical businesses that he supervised.
- "Edward Goodrich Acheson - chemist, worked at Menlo Park 1880–1884
- "William Symes Andrews - started at the Menlo Park machine shop 1879
- "Charles Batchelor - "chief experimental assistant"
- "John I. Beggs - manager of "Edison Illuminating Company in New York, 1886
- "William Kennedy Dickson - joined Menlo Park in 1823, worked on the motion picture camera
- "Justus B. Entz - joined "Edison Machine Works in 1887
- "Reginald Fessenden - worked at the "Edison Machine Works in 1886
- "Henry Ford - engineer "Edison Illuminating Company Detroit, Michigan, 1891–1899
- "William Joseph Hammer - started as laboratory assistant Menlo Park in 1879
- "Miller Reese Hutchison - inventor of hearing aid
- "Edward Hibberd Johnson - started in 1909, chief engineer at West Orange laboratory 1912–1918
- "Samuel Insull - started in 1881, rose to become VP of General Electric (1892) then President of Chicago Edison
- "Kunihiko Iwadare - joined "Edison Machine Works in 1887
- "Francis Jehl - laboratory assistant Menlo Park 1879–1882
- "Arthur E. Kennelly - engineer, experimentalist at West Orange laboratory 1887–1894
- "John Kruesi - started 1872, was head machinist, at Newark, Menlo Park, "Edison Machine Works
- "Lewis Howard Latimer - hired 1884 as a draftsman, continued working for General Electric
- "John W. Lieb - worked at the "Edison Machine Works in 1881
- "Thomas Commerford Martin - electrical engineer, worked at Menlo Park 1877–1879
- "George F. Morrison - started at Edison Lamp Works 1882
- "Edwin Stanton Porter - joined the "Edison Manufacturing Company 1899
- "Frank J. Sprague - Joined Menlo Park 1883, became known as the "Father of Electric Traction".
- "Nikola Tesla - electrical engineer and inventor, worked at the "Edison Machine Works in 1884
- "Francis Robbins Upton - mathematician/physicist, joined Menlo Park 1878
- "List of Edison patents
- "Thomas Alva Edison Birthplace
- "Thomas Edison National Historical Park
- "Edison Pioneers - a group formed in 1918 by employees and other associates of Thomas Edison
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- "Older Son To Sue To Void Edison Will; William, Second Child Of The Counsel". New York Times. October 31, 1931.
The will of Thomas A. Edison, filed in Newark last Thursday, which leaves the bulk of the inventor's $12 million estate to the sons of his second wife, was attacked as unfair yesterday by William L. Edison, second son of the first wife, who announced at the same time that he would sue to break it.
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- "Edison to Enron".
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- Reader's Digest, March 1930, pp. 1042–1044, "Living With a Genius", condensed from The American Magazine February 1930
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Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels seized the opportunity created by Edison's public comments to enlist Edison's support. He agreed to serve as the head of a new body of civilian experts - the Naval Consulting Board - to advise the Navy on science and technology. ...
- "Edison Botanic Research Laboratory - Edison & Ford Winter Estates - (239) 334-7419". Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Growing American Rubber by Mark Finlay
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- "Thomas Edison Dies in Coma at 84; Family With Him as the End Comes; Inventor Succumbs at 3:24 A.M. After Fight for Life Since He Was Stricken on August 1. World-Wide Tribute Is Paid to Him as a Benefactor of Mankind". New York Times. October 18, 1931.
"West Orange, New Jersey, Sunday, October 18, 1931. Thomas Alva Edison died at 3:24 o'clock this morning at his home, Glenmont, in the Llewellyn Park section of this city. The great inventor, the fruits of whose genius so magically transformed the everyday world, was 84 years and 8 months old.
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- ""No Immortality of the Soul" says Thomas A. Edison. In Fact, He Doesn't Believe There Is a Soul — Human Beings Only an Aggregate of Cells and the Brain Only a Wonderful Machine, Says Wizard of Electricity". New York Times. October 2, 1910.
Thomas A. Edison in the following interview for the first time speaks to the public on the vital subjects of the human soul and immortality. It will be bound to be a most fascinating, an amazing statement, from one of the most notable and interesting men of the age ... Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me — the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love — He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us — nature did it all — not the gods of the religions.
- The Freethinker (1970), G.W. Foote & Company, Volume 90, p. 147
- Cited in Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America's Greatest Inventor by Sarah Miller Caldicott, Michael J. Gelb, page 37.
- "Vegetarianism Quotes from Noteworthy People".
- "10 Genius Vegetarians". Mines Green Circle.
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- Edison, 1922
- 2006, Hammes, D.L. and Wills, D.T.,"Thomas Edison's Monetary Option", The Journal of the History of Economic Thought. (Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2006). "ISSN 1042-7716., pps. 295-308
- 2012, Hammes, David L., Harvesting Gold: Thomas Edison's Experiment to Re-Invent American Money, Mahler Publishing.
- NNDB online website. The same decree awarded German physicist "Hermann von Helmholtz with the designation of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor, as well as "Alexander Graham Bell. The decree preamble cited "for services provided to the Congress and to the International Electrical Exhibition"
- Kennelly, Arthur E. (1932). Biographical Memoir of Thomas Alva Edison (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. pp. 300–301.
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- "Great Floridian Program". Retrieved 2 April 2012.
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- Thomas Edison Depot. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
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|Booknotes interview with Neil Baldwin on Edison: Inventing the Century, March 19, 1995, "C-SPAN|
|Booknotes interview with Jill Jonnes on Empires of Light, October 26, 2003, "C-SPAN|
- Albion, Michele Wehrwein. (2008). The Florida Life of Thomas Edison. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. "ISBN "978-0-8130-3259-7.
- Adams, Glen J. (2004). The Search for Thomas Edison's Boyhood Home. "ISBN "978-1-4116-1361-4.
- Angel, Ernst (1926). Edison. Sein Leben und Erfinden. Berlin: Ernst Angel Verlag.
- Baldwin, Neil (2001). Edison: Inventing the Century. University of Chicago Press. "ISBN "978-0-226-03571-0.
- Clark, Ronald William (1977). Edison: The man who made the future. London: Macdonald & Jane's: Macdonald and Jane's. "ISBN "978-0-354-04093-8.
- Conot, Robert (1979). A Streak of Luck. New York: Seaview Books. "ISBN "978-0-87223-521-2.
- Davis, L. J. (1998). Fleet Fire: Thomas Edison and the Pioneers of the Electric Revolution. New York: Doubleday. "ISBN "978-0-385-47927-1.
- Essig, Mark (2004). Edison and the Electric Chair. Stroud: Sutton. "ISBN "978-0-7509-3680-4.
- Essig, Mark (2003). Edison & the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death. New York: Walker & Company. "ISBN "978-0-8027-1406-0.
- Israel, Paul (1998). Edison: A Life of Invention. New York: Wiley. "ISBN "978-0-471-52942-2.
- Jonnes, Jill (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House. "ISBN "978-0-375-50739-7.
- Josephson, Matthew (1959). Edison. McGraw Hill. "ISBN "978-0-07-033046-7.
- Koenigsberg, Allen (1987). Edison Cylinder Records, 1889-1912. APM Press. "ISBN "0-937612-07-3.
- Pretzer, William S. (ed). (1989). Working at Inventing: Thomas A. Edison and the Menlo Park Experience. Dearborn, Michigan: Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. "ISBN "978-0-933728-33-2.
- Stross, Randall E. (2007). The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World. Crown. "ISBN "1-4000-4762-5.
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- Menlo Park Museum and Edison Memorial Tower
- Thomas Edison National Historical Park (National Park Service)
- Edison exhibit and Menlo Park Laboratory at Henry Ford Museum
- Edison Museum
- Edison Depot Museum
- Edison Birthplace Museum
- Thomas Edison House
Information and media
- Thomas Edison on "In Our Time at the "BBC. (listen now)
- Interview with Thomas Edison in 1931
- The Diary of Thomas Edison
- Works by Thomas Edison at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Thomas Edison at "Internet Archive
- Edison's patent application for the light bulb at the National Archives.
- Thomas Edison at the "Internet Movie Database
- "January 4, 1903: Edison Fries an Elephant to Prove His Point" – "Wired article about Edison's "macabre form of a series of animal electrocutions using AC."
- "The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories" National Park Service (NPS)
- Thomas Edison Personal Manuscripts and Letters
- Edison, His Life and Inventions at "Project Gutenberg by Frank Lewis Dyer and Thomas Commerford Martin.
- The short film Story of Thomas Alva Edison is available for free download at the "Internet Archive
- Edison Papers Rutgers.
- Edisonian Museum Antique Electrics
- Edison Innovation Foundation – "Non-profit foundation supporting the legacy of Thomas Edison.
- Thomas Alva Edison at "Find a Grave
- The Illustrious Vagabonds Henry Ford Heritage Association
- "The World's Greatest Inventor" October 1931, "Popular Mechanics. Detailed, illustrated article.
- 14 minutes "instructional" film with fictional elements The boyhood of Thomas Edison from 1964, produced by Coronet, published by archive.org
- "A Day with Thomas A. Edison" Video on "YouTube - 1922 - A rare and great documentary silent film
- "Edison's Miracle of Light" PBS - American Experience. Premiered January 2015.
|Awards and achievements|
|"Cover of Time magazine||Succeeded by
"Richard Swann Lull