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Main article: "History of the light bulb
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Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879

In 1878 Edison began working on a system of electrical illumination, something he hoped could compete with gas and oil based lighting.[50] He began by tackling the problem of creating a long-lasting incandescent lamp, something that would be needed for indoor use. Many earlier inventors had previously devised incandescent lamps, including "Alessandro Volta's demonstration of a glowing wire in 1800 and inventions by "Henry Woodward and "Mathew Evans. Others who developed early and commercially impractical incandescent electric lamps included "Humphry Davy, "James Bowman Lindsay, "Moses G. Farmer,[51] "William E. Sawyer, "Joseph Swan and "Heinrich Göbel. Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as an extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high "electric current drawn, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially.[52]:217–218 Edison realized that in order to keep the thickness of the copper wire needed to connect a series of electric lights to an economically manageable size he would have to come up with a lamp that would draw a low amount of current. This meant the lamp would have to have a high "resistance and run at a relatively low voltage (around 110 volts).[53]

After many experiments, first with "carbon filaments and then with "platinum and other metals, in the end, Edison returned to a carbon filament.[54] The first successful test was on October 22, 1879;[52]:186[55][56][25] it lasted 13.5 hours.[57] Edison continued to improve this design and by November 4, 1879, filed for U.S. patent 223,898 (granted on January 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected to platina contact wires".[58] This was the first commercially practical incandescent light.[59]

Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways",[58] it was not until several months after the patent was granted that Edison and his team discovered a "carbonized "bamboo filament that could last over 1,200 hours. The idea of using this particular raw material originated from Edison's recalling his examination of a few threads from a bamboo fishing pole while relaxing on the shore of Battle Lake in the present-day state of "Wyoming, where he and other members of a scientific team had traveled so that they could clearly observe a total eclipse of the sun on July 29, 1878, from the "Continental Divide.[60]

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U.S. Patent#223898: Electric-Lamp. Issued January 27, 1880.

In 1878, Edison formed the "Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including "J. P. Morgan, "Spencer Trask,[61] and the members of the "Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said: "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles."[62]

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The "Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's new steamship, the "Columbia, was the first commercial application for Edison's incandescent light bulb in 1880.

"Henry Villard, president of the "Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, had attended Edison's 1879 demonstration. Villard quickly became impressed and requested Edison install his electric lighting system aboard his company's new steamer, the "Columbia. Although hesitant at first, Edison relented and agreed to Villard's request. Following most of its completion in May 1880, the Columbia was sent to "New York City, where Edison and his personnel installed Columbia's new lighting system. Due to this, the Columbia became Edison's first commercial application for his incandescent light bulb. The Edison equipment was eventually removed from Columbia in 1895.[63][64][65][66]

"Lewis Latimer joined the Edison Electric Light Company in 1884. Latimer had received a patent in January 1881 for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of carbon filaments for light bulbs. Latimer worked as an engineer, a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigation on electric lights.[67]

"George Westinghouse's company bought "Philip Diehl's competing "induction lamp patent rights (1882) for $25,000, forcing the holders of the Edison patent to charge a more reasonable rate for the use of the Edison patent rights and lowering the price of the electric lamp.[68]

On October 8, 1883, the "US patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of "William E. Sawyer and was, therefore, invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.[69] To avoid a possible court battle with Joseph Swan, whose British patent had been awarded a year before Edison's, he and Swan formed a joint company called "Ediswan to manufacture and market the invention in Britain.

"Mahen Theatre in "Brno (in what is now the Czech Republic), which opened in 1882, was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps, with the installation supervised by Edison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, "Francis Jehl.[70] In September 2010, a sculpture of three giant light bulbs was erected in Brno, in front of the theatre.[71]

Electric power distribution[edit]

After devising a commercially viable electric light bulb on October 21, 1879, Edison went on to develop an electric ""utility" designed to compete with the then existent gas lighting utilities.[72] On December 17, 1880, he founded the "Edison Illuminating Company and during the 1880s he patented a system for "electricity distribution. The company established the first investor-owned electric utility in 1882 on "Pearl Street Station, New York City. It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his "Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts "direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower "Manhattan.[73]

Earlier in the year, in January 1882, he had switched on the first steam-generating power station at "Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19, 1883, the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing "overhead wires began service in "Roselle, New Jersey.

War of currents[edit]

War of Currents
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Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as in this picture from the 1897 "Tennessee Centennial Exposition.

As Edison was expanding his "direct current (DC) power delivery system he began receiving stiff competition from companies installing "alternating current (AC) systems. From the early 1880s on AC "arc lighting systems for streets and large spaces had been an expanding business in the US. With the development of "transformers in Europe and by "Westinghouse Electric in the US in 1885-1886 it became possible to transmit AC very long distances over thinner and cheaper wires, and "step down" the voltage at the destination for distribution to users. This allowed AC to be used not only in street lighting but also in lighting for small business and domestic customers, the market Edison's patented low voltage DC incandescent lamp system had been designed to supply.[74] Edison's DC empire began suffering from one of its chief drawbacks: it was suitable only for the high density of customers found in large cities. Edison's DC plants could not deliver electricity to customers who were more than one mile from the plant and the short range left a patchwork of un-supplied customers in-between plants. Small cities and rural areas could not afford an Edison style system at all. This left a large part of the market without electrical service and AC companies were expanding into this gap.

Edison expressed views that AC was unworkable and the high voltages used were dangerous. As "George Westinghouse was installing his first AC systems in 1886, Thomas Edison began a pattern of striking out personally against his chief rival stating, "Just as certain as death, Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size. He has got a new thing and it will require a great deal of experimenting to get it working practically."[75] Many reasons have been put forward for Edison's anti-AC stance. One notion is that the inventor may not have been able to grasp the more abstract theories behind AC and was trying to avoid developing a system he did not understand. Edison also appeared to have been worried about the high voltage from some competitor's misinstalled AC system killing customers and hurting the sales of electric power systems in general.[76] On top of all that was the simple fact that Edison Electric had based their entire design on low voltage DC and switching a standard after they had installed over 100 systems was, in Edison's mind, out of the question. By the end of 1887, Edison Electric was beginning to lose market share with Westinghouse, who had built 68 AC-based power stations to Edison's 121 DC-based stations. To make matters worse for Edison, the "Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, Massachusetts (another AC-based competitor) had built 22 power stations.[77]

Parallel to the expanding competition between Edison and the AC companies was a rising public furor over a series of deaths in the spring of 1888 caused by pole mounted high voltage alternating current lines that turned into a media frenzy against the current and the seemingly greedy and callous lighting companies that used it.[78][79] Edison took advantage of the public perception that AC was dangerous and teamed up with the self-styled New York anti-AC crusader "Harold P. Brown in a "propaganda campaign, aiding Brown in the public electrocution of animals with AC as well as supported legislation to control and severely limit AC installations and voltages (to the point of making it an ineffective power delivery system) in what was now being referred to as a ""battle of currents". The development of the "electric chair was used in an attempt to portray AC as having a greater lethal potential than DC and "smear Westinghouse at the same time via Edison colluding with Brown and Westinghouse's chief AC rival, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, to make sure the first electric chair was powered by a Westinghouse AC generator.

Thomas Edison's staunch anti-AC tactics were not sitting well with his own stockholders. By the early 1890s, Edison's company was generating much smaller profits than its AC rivals, and the War of Currents would come to an end in 1892 with Edison being forced out of controlling his own company. That year the financier "J P Morgan engineered a merger of Edison General Electric with Thomson-Houston that basically put the board of Thomson-Houston in charge of the new company called "General Electric (dropping "Edison" from its name). General Electric now controlled three-quarters of the US electrical business and would go on to compete with Westinghouse for the AC market.[80][81]

Other inventions and projects[edit]

Fluoroscopy[edit]

Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available "fluoroscope, a machine that uses "X-rays to take "radiographs. Until Edison discovered that "calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium "platinocyanide screens originally used by "Wilhelm Röntgen, the technology was capable of producing only very faint images.

The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, although Edison himself abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously injuring his assistant, "Clarence Dally. Dally had made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and in the process been exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation. He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In 1903, a shaken Edison said: "Don't talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them."[82]

Telegraph improvements[edit]

The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the "stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph.

Motion pictures[edit]

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The June 1894 Leonard–Cushing bout. Each of the six one-minute rounds recorded by the Kinetoscope was made available to exhibitors for $22.50.[83] Customers who watched the final round saw Leonard score a knockdown.

Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design, while his employee "W. K. L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.[52] In 1891, Thomas Edison built a "Kinetoscope or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.[84]

In April 1896, "Thomas Armat's "Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.

Officially the kinetoscope entered Europe when the rich American Businessman "Irving T. Bush (1869–1948) bought from the Continental Commerce Company of Frank Z. Maguire and Joseph D. Baucus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894, the first kinetoscopes in London. At the same time, the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last three months of 1894, The Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe (i.e. the Netherlands and Italy). In Germany and in "Austria-Hungary the kinetoscope was introduced by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, founded by the Ludwig Stollwerck[85] of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne.

The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the "Fairs in early 1895. The Edison's Kinétoscope Français, a Belgian company, was founded in Brussels on January 15, 1895, with the rights to sell the kinetoscopes in Monaco, France and the French colonies. The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists.[86]

On May 14, 1895, the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was founded in Brussels. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. He had contacts with "Leon Gaumont and the "American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. In 1898 he also became a shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France.[86]

"Edison's film studio made close to 1,200 films. The majority of the productions were short films showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls including titles such as "Fred Ott's Sneeze (1894), "The Kiss (1896), "The Great Train Robbery (1903), "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910), and the first "Frankenstein film in 1910. In 1903, when the owners of "Luna Park, Coney Island announced they would execute "Topsy the elephant by strangulation, poisoning, and electrocution (with the electrocution part ultimately killing the elephant), Edison Manufacturing sent a crew to film it, releasing it that same year with the title "Electrocuting an Elephant.

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A Day with Thomas Edison (1922)

As the film business expanded competing exhibitors routinely copied and exhibited each other's films.[87] To better protect the copyrights on his films, Edison deposited prints of them on long strips of "photographic paper with the "U.S. copyright office. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era.[88]

In 1908, Edison started the "Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the "Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929.

Edison said his favorite movie was "The Birth of a Nation. He thought that "talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. "There isn't any good acting on the screen. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf."[89] His favorite stars were "Mary Pickford and "Clara Bow.[90]

Mining[edit]

Starting in the late 1870s, Thomas Edison became interested and involved with mining. There was a scarcity of high-grade iron ore on the east coast of the United States and so Edison instead tried to mine low-grade ore. Edison would go on to develop a number of rollers and crushers that could pulverize rocks up to 10 tons. The dust would then be sent between three giant magnets that would pull the iron ore from the dust. Despite the failure of his mining company, the "Edison Ore Milling Company, Edison would go on to use some of the materials and equipment to begin producing cement.[91]

In 1901, Edison visited an industrial exhibition in the "Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada and thought nickel and cobalt deposits there could be used in his production of electrical equipment. He returned as a mining prospector and is credited with the original discovery of the "Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to mine the ore body were not successful, however, and he abandoned his mining claim in 1903.[92] A street in Falconbridge, as well as the "Edison Building, which served as the head office of "Falconbridge Mines, are named for him.

Rubber[edit]

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From Left to Right: Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and Harvey Firestone, the three partners of the Edison Botanic Research Corporation.

Edison became concerned with America's reliance on foreign supply of rubber and was determined to find a native supply of rubber. He partnered with Harvey Firestone and "Henry Ford (all three contributing $25,000 each) to create the Edison Botanic Research Corp. in 1927 and constructed a laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida the following year. Edison did the majority of the research and planting, sending results and sample rubber residues to his West Orange Lab. Edison employed a two-part "Acid-base extraction, to derive latex from the plant material after it was dried and crushed to a powder.[93] After testing 17,000 plant samples, he eventually found an adequate source in the Goldenrod plant.

West Orange and Fort Myers (1886–1931)[edit]

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Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, Primary Battery section, 1915

Edison moved from Menlo Park after the death of his first wife, Mary, in 1884, and purchased a home known as ""Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for his second wife, Mina, in "Llewellyn Park in "West Orange, New Jersey. In 1885, Thomas Edison had bought property in "Fort Myers, Florida, and built what was later called "Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Edison and Mina spent many winters at their home in Fort Myers, and Edison tried to find a domestic source of natural rubber.

Due to the security concerns around "World War I, Edison suggested forming a science and industry committee to provide advice and research to the US military, and he headed the "Naval Consulting Board in 1915.[94]

Edison's work on rubber took place largely at his botanic research laboratory in Fort Myers, which has now been designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark.[95] The laboratory was built after Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone pulled together $75,000 to form the Edison Botanical Research Corporation. Initially, only Ford and Firestone were to contribute monetary funds to the project while Edison did all the research. Edison, however, wished to contribute $25,000 as well. After testing over 17,000 plant species, Edison decided on Solidago leavenworthii, also known as Leavenworth's Goldenrod. The plant, which normally grows roughly 3–4 feet tall with a 5% latex yield was adapted by Edison through cross-breeding to produce plants twice the size and with a latex yield of 12%.[96] In October 1931, Edison reported that he was close to finding a domestic source of rubber but died in the same month. His brother-in-law, John Miller, would take over management of the project until it was shuttered in 1936.["citation needed]

Final years[edit]

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"Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, and "Harvey Firestone, respectively. "Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929

"Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat in Fort Myers. Ford once worked as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit and met Edison at a convention of affiliated Edison illuminating companies in Brooklyn, NY in 1896. Edison was impressed with Fords internal combustion engine automobile and encouraged its developments. They were friends until Edison's death. Edison and Ford undertook annual motor camping trips from 1914 to 1924. Harvey Firestone and John Burroughs also participated.

In 1928, Edison joined the Fort Myers "Civitan Club. He believed strongly in the organization, writing that "The Civitan Club is doing things—big things—for the community, state, and nation, and I certainly consider it an honor to be numbered in its ranks."[97] He was an active member in the club until his death, sometimes bringing Henry Ford to the club's meetings.

Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death, the "Lackawanna Railroad inaugurated suburban electric train service from "Hoboken to "Montclair, "Dover, and "Gladstone, New Jersey. Electrical transmission for this service was by means of an overhead catenary system using direct current, which Edison had championed. Despite his frail condition, Edison was at the throttle of the first electric MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken in September 1930, driving the train the first mile through Hoboken yard on its way to "South Orange.[98]

This fleet of cars would serve commuters in northern New Jersey for the next 54 years until their retirement in 1984. A plaque commemorating Edison's inaugural ride can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, which is presently operated by "New Jersey Transit.[98]

Edison was said to have been influenced by a popular "fad diet in his last few years; "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours".[52] He is reported to have believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about him, "correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies." She also said that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, have breakfast at 8:00, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he continued to have all three.[89]

Edison became the owner of his "Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was reportedly shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.["citation needed]

Death[edit]

Edison died of complications of diabetes on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in "Llewellyn Park in "West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina. He is buried behind the home.[99][100]

Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the "Henry Ford Museum. Ford reportedly convinced "Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster "death mask was also made.[101] Mina died in 1947.

Views on politics, religion, and metaphysics[edit]

Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a ""freethinker".[52] Edison was heavily influenced by "Thomas Paine's "The Age of Reason.[52] Edison defended Paine's "scientific "deism", saying, "He has been called an "atheist, but atheist he was not. Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity."[52] In an October 2, 1910, interview in the "New York Times Magazine, Edison stated:

Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me — the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love — He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us — nature did it all — not the gods of the religions.[102]

Edison was accused of being an atheist for those remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he clarified himself in a private letter:

You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made.[52]

He also stated, "I do not believe in the God of the theologians; but that there is a Supreme Intelligence I do not doubt."[103]

"Nonviolence was key to Edison's moral views, and when asked to serve as a naval consultant for World War I, he specified he would work only on defensive weapons and later noted, "I am proud of the fact that I never invented weapons to kill." Edison's philosophy of nonviolence extended to animals as well, about which he stated: "Nonviolence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages."[104][105] He was a "vegetarian[106] but not a "vegan in actual practice, at least near the end of his life.[52]

In 1920, Edison set off a media sensation when he told "B. C. Forbes of "American Magazine that he was working on a "spirit phone" to allow communication with the dead, a story which other newspapers and magazines repeated.[107] Edison later disclaimed the idea, telling the New York Times in 1926 that "I really had nothing to tell him, but I hated to disappoint him so I thought up this story about communicating with spirits, but it was all a joke."[108]

Views on money[edit]

Thomas Edison was an advocate for monetary reform in the United States. He was ardently opposed to the gold standard and debt-based money. Famously, he was quoted in the New York Times stating "Gold is a relic of Julius Caesar, and "interest is an invention of Satan."[109]

In the same article, he expounded upon the absurdity of a monetary system in which the taxpayer of the United States, in need of a loan, be compelled to pay in return perhaps double the principal, or even greater sums, due to interest. His basic point was that if the Government can produce debt-based money, it could equally as well produce money that was a credit to the taxpayer.[109]

He thought at length about the subject of money over 1921 and 1922. In May 1922, he published a proposal, entitled "A Proposed Amendment to the Federal Reserve Banking System".[110] In it, he detailed an explanation of a commodity-backed currency, in which the Federal Reserve would issue interest-free currency to farmers, based on the value of commodities they produced. During a publicity tour that he took with friend and fellow inventor, "Henry Ford, he spoke publicly about his desire for monetary reform. For insight, he corresponded with prominent academic and banking professionals. In the end, however, Edison's proposals failed to find support and were eventually abandoned.[111][112]

Awards[edit]

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Portrait of Edison by "Abraham Archibald Anderson (1890), "National Portrait Gallery

The "President of the "Third French Republic, "Jules Grévy, on the recommendation of his "Minister of Foreign Affairs "Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire and with the presentations of the "Minister of Posts and Telegraphs "Louis Cochery, designated Edison with the "distinction of an '"Officer of the Legion of Honour' ("Légion d'honneur) by decree on November 10, 1881;[113] He also named a Chevalier in 1879, and a Commander in 1889.[114]

In 1887, Edison won the "Matteucci Medal. In 1890, he was elected a member of the "Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

The "Philadelphia City Council named Edison the recipient of the "John Scott Medal in 1889.[114]

In 1899, Edison was awarded the "Edward Longstreth Medal of "The Franklin Institute.[115]

He was named an Honorable Consulting Engineer at the "Louisiana Purchase Exposition "World's fair in 1904.[114]

In 1908, Edison received the American Association of Engineering Societies "John Fritz Medal.[114]

In 1915, Edison was awarded "Franklin Medal of "The Franklin Institute for discoveries contributing to the foundation of industries and the well-being of the human race.[116]

In 1920, The "United States Navy department awarded him the "Navy Distinguished Service Medal.[114]

In 1923, The "American Institute of Electrical Engineers created the Edison Medal and he was its first recipient.[114]

In 1927, he was granted membership in the "National Academy of Sciences.[114]

On May 29, 1928, Edison received the "Congressional Gold Medal.[114]

In 1983, the "United States Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97—198), designated February 11, Edison's birthday, as National "Inventor's Day.[117]

"Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue in 1997, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years", noting that the "light bulb he promoted "lit up the world". In the 2005 television series "The Greatest American, he was voted by viewers as the fifteenth greatest.

In 2008, Edison was inducted in the "New Jersey Hall of Fame.

In 2010, Edison was honored with a "Technical Grammy Award.

In 2011, Edison was inducted into the "Entrepreneur Walk of Fame and named a "Great Floridian by the Florida Governor and Cabinet.[118]

Tributes[edit]

Places and people named for Edison[edit]

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Thomas Edison commemorative stamp, issued on the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1947

Several places have been named after Edison, most notably the town of "Edison, New Jersey. "Thomas Edison State University, nationally known for adult learners, is in "Trenton, New Jersey. Two community colleges are named for him: "Edison State College (now "Florida SouthWestern State College) in Fort Myers, Florida, and Edison Community College in "Piqua, Ohio.[119] There are numerous high schools named after Edison (see "Edison High School) and other schools including "Thomas A. Edison Middle School. Footballer "Pelé's father originally named him Edson, as a tribute to the inventor of the light bulb, but the name was incorrectly listed on his birth certificate as "Edison".[120]

The small town of "Alva just east of Fort Myers took Edison's middle name.

In 1883, the City Hotel in "Sunbury, Pennsylvania was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was renamed The "Hotel Edison upon Edison's return to the city on 1922.[121]

"Lake Thomas A Edison in "California was named after Edison to mark the 75th anniversary of the "incandescent light bulb.[122]

Edison was on hand to turn on the lights at the "Hotel Edison in "New York City when it opened in 1931.[123]

Three bridges around the "United States have been named in Edison's honor: the "Edison Bridge in New Jersey,[124] the "Edison Bridge in Florida,[125] and the "Edison Bridge in Ohio.[126]

In space, his name is commemorated in "asteroid "742 Edisona.

Museums and memorials[edit]

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Statue of young Thomas Edison by the railroad tracks in Port Huron, Michigan.

In West Orange, New Jersey, the 13.5 acres (5.5 hectares) Glenmont estate is maintained and operated by the "National Park Service as the "Edison National Historic Site, as is his nearby laboratory and workshops including the reconstructed Black Maria- the world's first movie studio.[127] The "Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum is in the town of Edison, New Jersey.[128] In "Beaumont, Texas, there is an "Edison Museum, though Edison never visited there.[129] The "Port Huron Museum, in "Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young news butcher. The depot has been named the "Thomas Edison Depot Museum.[130] The town has many Edison historical landmarks, including the graves of Edison's parents, and a monument along the "St. Clair River. Edison's influence can be seen throughout this city of 32,000.

In Detroit, the Edison Memorial Fountain in "Grand Circus Park was created to honor his achievements. The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, 1929, the fiftieth anniversary of the creation of the lightbulb.[131] On the same night, "The Edison Institute was dedicated in nearby "Dearborn.

He was inducted into the "Automotive Hall of Fame in 1969.

Companies bearing Edison's name[edit]

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In 1915

Awards named in honor of Edison[edit]

The "Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. Four years later the "American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later "IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The first medal was presented in 1909 to "Elihu Thomson. It is the oldest award in the area of "electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."

In the Netherlands, the major music awards are named the "Edison Award after him. The award is an annual Dutch music prize, awarded for outstanding achievements in the music industry, and is one of the oldest music awards in the world, having been presented since 1960.

The "American Society of Mechanical Engineers concedes the Thomas A. Edison Patent Award to individual patents since 2000.[132]

Other items named after Edison[edit]

The "United States Navy named the "USS Edison (DD-439), a "Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II.[133] In 1962, the Navy commissioned "USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610), a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine.["citation needed][134]

In popular culture[edit]

Thomas Edison in popular culture

Thomas Edison has appeared in "popular culture as a character in novels, films, comics and video games. His prolific inventing helped make him an icon and he has made appearances in popular culture during his lifetime down to the present day. Edison is also portrayed in popular culture as an adversary of "Nikola Tesla.

"Camping with Henry and Tom", a fictional play based on Edison's camping trips with Henry Ford, written by Mark St.Gemain. First presented at Lucille Lortel Theatre, New York, February 20, 1995.

On February 11, 2011, on Thomas Edison's 164th birthday, "Google's homepage featured an animated "Google Doodle commemorating his many inventions. When the cursor was hovered over the doodle, a series of mechanisms seemed to move, causing a lightbulb to glow.[135]

List of people who worked for Edison[edit]

The following is a list of people who worked for Thomas Edison in his laboratories at Menlo Park or West Orange or at the subsidiary electrical businesses that he supervised.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Adrian Wooldridge (15 September 2016). "The alphabet of success". "The Economist. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "The Wizard of Menlo Park". The Franklin Institute. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Walsh, Bryan (July 15, 2009). "The Electrifying Edison". Time.com. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Con Edison: A Brief History of Con Edison - electricity". Coned.com. January 1, 1998. Retrieved October 11, 2012. 
  5. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL)". Tps.cr.nps.gov. January 12, 1965. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Samuel and Nancy Elliott Edison". National Park Service. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  7. ^ Baldwin, Neal (1995). Edison: Inventing the Century. "Hyperion. pp. 3–5. "ISBN "978-0-7868-6041-8. 
  8. ^ Naeger, Travis. "Thomas Alva Edison". Ste. Genevieve school. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  9. ^ Ong, Bao (November 30, 2009). "For Sesquicentennial, Cooper Union Puts Artifacts on View". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ "Edison" by "Matthew Josephson. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959, "ISBN 978-0-07-033046-7
  11. ^ "Edison: Inventing the Century" by "Neil Baldwin, University of Chicago Press, 2001, "ISBN 978-0-226-03571-0
  12. ^ Josephson, p 18
  13. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Homans, James E., ed. (1918). "Edison, Thomas Alva". The Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: The Press Association Compilers, Inc. 
  14. ^ "GE emerges world's largest company: Forbes". Trading Markets.com. April 10, 2009. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  15. ^ "GE emerges world's largest company: Forbes". Indian Express.com. April 9, 2009. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  16. ^ Baldwin, page 37
  17. ^ Baldwin, pages 40–41
  18. ^ "U.S. Patent 90,646". Patimg1.uspto.gov. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2010. 
  19. ^ The Edison Papers, Rutgers University. Retrieved March 20, 2007.
  20. ^ Baldwin 1995, p.60
  21. ^ Baldwin 1995, p.67
  22. ^ "Older Son To Sue To Void Edison Will; William, Second Child Of The Counsel". New York Times. October 31, 1931. The will of Thomas A. Edison, filed in Newark last Thursday, which leaves the bulk of the inventor's $12 million estate to the sons of his second wife, was attacked as unfair yesterday by William L. Edison, second son of the first wife, who announced at the same time that he would sue to break it. 
  23. ^ "The Life of Thomas Edison", American Memory, Library of Congress, Retrieved March 3, 2009.
  24. ^ "Thomas Edison's First Wife May Have Died of a Morphine Overdose", Rutgers Today. Retrieved November 18, 2011
  25. ^ a b c "Business: The Quintessential Innovator". TIME.com. 22 October 1979. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  26. ^ "Thomas Edison's Children". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. December 16, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Madeleine Edison a Bride. Inventor's Daughter Married to J. E. Sloan by Mgr. Brann". New York Times. June 18, 1914. 
  28. ^ "Mrs. John Eyre Sloane Has a Son at the Harbor Sanitarium Here". New York Times. January 10, 1931. 
  29. ^ "Charles Edison, 78, Ex-Governor Of Jersey and U.S. Aide, Is Dead". New York Times. August 1969. 
  30. ^ "Edison's Widow Very III". New York Times. August 21, 1947. 
  31. ^ "Rites for Mrs. Edison". New York Times. August 26, 1947. 
  32. ^ "The Life of Thomas A. Edison". The Library of Congress. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  33. ^ Edison, Thomas A. 1989. Menlo Park: The early years, April 1876 - December 1877. Edited by P. B. Israel, K. A. Nier and L. Carlat. Vol. 3, The papers of Thomas A Edison. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Doc. 1117
  34. ^ Baldwin, Neil. 2001. Edison: Inventing the century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp.97-98
  35. ^ Washington Post. 1878. Genius before science. Washington Post, 19 April.
  36. ^ Edison, Thomas A. 1877. Telephones or speaking-telegraphs. US patent 203,018 filed 13 December 1877, and issued 30 April 1878.
  37. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  38. ^ Trollinger, Vernon (February 11, 2013). "Happy Birthday, Thomas Edison!". Bounce Energy. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  39. ^ Biographiq (2008). Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. p. 9. "ISBN "9781599862163. 
  40. ^ "The Thomas A. Edison Papers". Edison.rutgers.edu. Archived from the original on July 22, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  41. ^ Evans, Harold, "They Made America." Little, Brown and Company, New York, 2004. "ISBN 978-0-316-27766-2. p. 152.
  42. ^ Wilson, Wendell E. "Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)". The Mineralogical Record. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  43. ^ Shulman, Seth (1999). Owning the Future. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 158–160. 
  44. ^ "AERONAUTICS: Real Labor". "TIME Magazine. December 8, 1930. Retrieved January 10, 2008. 
  45. ^ Israel, Paul. "Edison's Laboratory". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  46. ^ Adrian Hope, 100 Years of Mocrophone, New Scientist May 11, 1978 Vol. 78, No. 1102, page 378 ISSN 0262-4079
  47. ^ a b c IEEE Global History Network: Carbon Transmitter. New Brunswick, NJ: IEEE History Center "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-18. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  48. ^ Adrian Hope, 100 Years of Mocrophone, New Scientist May 11, 1978 Vol. 78, No. 1102, page 378 ISSN 0262-4079
  49. ^ David Edward Hughes: Concertinist and Inventor "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  50. ^ Howard B. Rockman, Intellectual Property Law for Engineers and Scientists, John Wiley & Sons - 2004, page 131
  51. ^ "Moses G. Farmer, Eliot's Inventor". Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved March 11, 2006. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Israel, Paul (2000). Edison: A Life of Invention. "John Wiley & Sons. "ISBN "978-0-471-36270-8. 
  53. ^ Jill Jonnes, Empires Of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, And The Race To Electrify The World, Random House - 2004, page 60
  54. ^ Burns, Elmer Ellsworth (1910). The story of great inventions. "Harper & Brothers. Retrieved September 12, 2013. 
  55. ^ "Edison's Electric Light". "New York Times. 1879. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  56. ^ Latson, Jennifer (21 October 2014). "Thomas Edison Invents Light Bulb and Myths About Himself". TIME.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  57. ^ "Thomas Edison, Original Letters and Primary Source Documents". Shapell Manuscript Foundation. 
  58. ^ a b U.S. Patent 0,223,898
  59. ^ "In Our Time Archive: Thomas Edison". "BBC Radio 4. 
  60. ^ Flannery, L. G. (Pat) (1960). John Hunton's Diary, Volume 3. pp. 68, 69. 
  61. ^ "Handbook of Research on Venture Capital". Colin Mason. Edward Elgar Publishing. Jan 1, 2012. pg 17
  62. ^ "Keynote Address – Second International ALN1 Conference (PDF)". Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. 
  63. ^ Jehl, Francis Menlo Park reminiscences : written in Edison's restored Menlo Park laboratory, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, Whitefish, Mass, Kessinger Publishing, 1 July 2002, page 564
  64. ^ Dalton, Anthony A long, dangerous coastline: shipwreck tales from Alaska to California Heritage House Publishing Company, 1 Feb 2011 - 128 pages
  65. ^ Swann, p. 242.
  66. ^ "Lighting A Revolution: 19th Century Promotion". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  67. ^ "Lewis Howard Latimer". "National Park Service. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  68. ^ "Diehl's Lamp Hit Edison Monopoly," Elizabeth Daily Journal, Friday Evening, October 25, 1929
  69. ^ Biographiq (2008). Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. p. 15. "ISBN "9781599862163. 
  70. ^ "About the Memory of a Theatre". National Theatre Brno. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  71. ^ Michal Kašpárek (September 8, 2010). "Sculpture of three giant light bulbs: in memory of Thomas Alva Edison". Brnonow.com. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  72. ^ Ahmad Faruqui, Kelly Eakin, Pricing in Competitive Electricity Markets, Springer Science & Business Media - 2000, page 67
  73. ^ "A brief history of Con Edison:"Electricity"". Coned.com. January 1, 1998. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  74. ^ Jill Jonnes, Empires Of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, And The Race To Electrify The World, Random House - 2004, pages 54-60
  75. ^ Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America, Bloomsbury Publishing USA - 2008, page 257
  76. ^ Empires Of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, And The Race To Electrify The By Jill Jonnes page 146
  77. ^ "Edison to Enron". 
  78. ^ Jill Jonnes, Empires Of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, And The Race To Electrify The World, Random House - 2004, page 143
  79. ^ Mark Essig, Edison and the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death, Bloomsbury Publishing USA - 2009, pages 139-140
  80. ^ Mark Essig, Edison and the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death, Bloomsbury Publishing USA - 2009, page 268
  81. ^ Robert L. Bradley, Jr., Edison to Enron: Energy Markets and Political Strategies, John Wiley & Sons - 2011, pages 28-29
  82. ^ Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library: Edison fears the hidden perils of the x-rays. New York Worldb/, August 3, 1903, Durham, NC.
  83. ^ Leonard–Cushing fight Part of the Library of Congress/Inventing Entertainment educational website. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
  84. ^ "History of Edison Motion Pictures". Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2007. 
  85. ^ "Martin Loiperdinger. Film & Schokolade. Stollwercks Geschäfte mit lebenden Bildern. KINtop Schriften Stroemfeld Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, Basel 1999 ISBN 3-87877-764-7 (Buch) ISBN 3-87877-760-4 (Buch und Videocassette)". Victorian-cinema.net. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  86. ^ a b "Guido Convents, Van Kinetoscoop tot Cafe-Cine de Eerste Jaren van de Film in Belgie, 1894–1908, pp. 33–69. Universitaire Pers Leuven. Leuven: 2000. Guido Convents, "'Edison's Kinetscope in Belgium, or, Scientists, Admirers, Businessmen, Industrialists and Crooks", pp. 249–258. in C. Dupré la Tour, A. Gaudreault, R. Pearson (Ed.) Cinema at the Turn of the Century. Québec, 1999". Imdb.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  87. ^ Siegmund Lubin (1851–1923), Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  88. ^ "History of Edison Motion Pictures: Early Edison Motion Picture Production (1892–1895)", Memory.loc.gov, "Library of Congress. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  89. ^ a b Reader's Digest, March 1930, pp. 1042–1044, "Living With a Genius", condensed from The American Magazine February 1930
  90. ^ "Edison Wears Silk Nightshirt, Hates Talkies, Writes Wife", Capital Times, October 30, 1930
  91. ^ "Edison's Companies - The Edison Papers". Retrieved December 30, 2016. 
  92. ^ "Thomas Edison". "Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2007. 
  93. ^ "Green Chemistry: The Nexus Blog: Thomas Edison'... | ACS Network". communities.acs.org. Retrieved 2016-08-01. 
  94. ^ "Thomas Edison's Vision". "United States Navy. Retrieved 2013-12-18. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels seized the opportunity created by Edison's public comments to enlist Edison's support. He agreed to serve as the head of a new body of civilian experts - the Naval Consulting Board - to advise the Navy on science and technology. ... 
  95. ^ "Edison Botanic Research Laboratory - Edison & Ford Winter Estates - (239) 334-7419". Retrieved December 30, 2016. 
  96. ^ Growing American Rubber by Mark Finlay
  97. ^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. p. 34. 
  98. ^ a b Holland, Kevin J. (2001). Classic American Railroad Terminals. Osceola, WI: MBI. "ISBN "9780760308325. "OCLC 45908903. 
  99. ^ "Thomas Edison Dies in Coma at 84; Family With Him as the End Comes; Inventor Succumbs at 3:24 A.M. After Fight for Life Since He Was Stricken on August 1. World-Wide Tribute Is Paid to Him as a Benefactor of Mankind". New York Times. October 18, 1931. "West Orange, New Jersey, Sunday, October 18, 1931. Thomas Alva Edison died at 3:24 o'clock this morning at his home, Glenmont, in the Llewellyn Park section of this city. The great inventor, the fruits of whose genius so magically transformed the everyday world, was 84 years and 8 months old. 
  100. ^ Benoit, Tod (2003). Where are they buried? How did they die?. Black Dog & Leventhal. p. 560. "ISBN "978-1-57912-678-0. 
  101. ^ "Is Thomas Edison's last breath preserved in a test tube in the Henry Ford Museum?", "The Straight Dope, September 11, 1987. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  102. ^ ""No Immortality of the Soul" says Thomas A. Edison. In Fact, He Doesn't Believe There Is a Soul — Human Beings Only an Aggregate of Cells and the Brain Only a Wonderful Machine, Says Wizard of Electricity". New York Times. October 2, 1910. Thomas A. Edison in the following interview for the first time speaks to the public on the vital subjects of the human soul and immortality. It will be bound to be a most fascinating, an amazing statement, from one of the most notable and interesting men of the age ... Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me — the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love — He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us — nature did it all — not the gods of the religions. 
  103. ^ The Freethinker (1970), G.W. Foote & Company, Volume 90, p. 147
  104. ^ Cited in Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America's Greatest Inventor by Sarah Miller Caldicott, Michael J. Gelb, page 37.
  105. ^ "Vegetarianism Quotes from Noteworthy People". 
  106. ^ "10 Genius Vegetarians". Mines Green Circle. 
  107. ^ "Edison's Forgotten 'Invention': A Phone That Calls the Dead". GE Reports. October 28, 2010. 
  108. ^ "Invention Geek – Edison Spirit Phone?". 
  109. ^ a b "FORD SEES WEALTH IN MUSCLE SHOALS" (PDF). "The New York Times. December 6, 1921. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  110. ^ Edison, 1922
  111. ^ 2006, Hammes, D.L. and Wills, D.T.,"Thomas Edison's Monetary Option", The Journal of the History of Economic Thought. (Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2006). "ISSN 1042-7716., pps. 295-308
  112. ^ 2012, Hammes, David L., Harvesting Gold: Thomas Edison's Experiment to Re-Invent American Money, Mahler Publishing.
  113. ^ NNDB online website. The same decree awarded German physicist "Hermann von Helmholtz with the designation of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor, as well as "Alexander Graham Bell. The decree preamble cited "for services provided to the Congress and to the International Electrical Exhibition"
  114. ^ a b c d e f g h Kennelly, Arthur E. (1932). Biographical Memoir of Thomas Alva Edison (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. pp. 300–301. 
  115. ^ "Franklin Laureate Database - Edward Longstreth Medal 1899 Laureates". "Franklin Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2011. 
  116. ^ "Thomas Alva Edison - Acknowledgement". The Franklin Institute. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  117. ^ "Proclamation 5013 – National Inventors' Day, 1983". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  118. ^ "Great Floridian Program". Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  119. ^ "Edison Community College (Ohio)". Edison.cc.oh.us. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  120. ^ Pelé; Orlando Duarte; Alex Bellos (2006). Pelé: The Autobiography. London: "Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. p. 14. "ISBN "978-0-7432-7582-8. Retrieved 2 October 2010. 
  121. ^ "The Edison Hotel". City of Sunbury. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  122. ^ "Description of the Big Creek System" (PDF). Southern California Edison. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  123. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". "Hotel Edison. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  124. ^ "The History & Technology of the Edison Bridge & Driscoll Bridge over the Raritan River, New Jersey" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Transportation. 2003. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  125. ^ Solomon, Irvin D. (2001). Thomas Edison: The Fort Myers Connection. "Arcadia Publishing. p. 9. "ISBN "9780738513690. 
  126. ^ "5533.18 Thomas A. Edison memorial bridge". Lawriter LLC. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  127. ^ "Thomas Edison National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. December 15, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  128. ^ Menlo Park Museum, Tower-Restoration. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  129. ^ Biographiq (2008). Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. p. 32. "ISBN "9781599862163. 
  130. ^ Thomas Edison Depot. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  131. ^ Edison Memorial Fountain at Buildings of Detroit. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
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  133. ^ "Edison". Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
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  135. ^ "Google Doodle: February 11, 2011 – Thomas Edison's Birthday". 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Albion, Michele Wehrwein. (2008). The Florida Life of Thomas Edison. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. "ISBN "978-0-8130-3259-7. 
  • Adams, Glen J. (2004). The Search for Thomas Edison's Boyhood Home. "ISBN "978-1-4116-1361-4. 
  • Angel, Ernst (1926). Edison. Sein Leben und Erfinden. Berlin: Ernst Angel Verlag. 
  • Baldwin, Neil (2001). Edison: Inventing the Century. University of Chicago Press. "ISBN "978-0-226-03571-0. 
  • Clark, Ronald William (1977). Edison: The man who made the future. London: Macdonald & Jane's: Macdonald and Jane's. "ISBN "978-0-354-04093-8. 
  • Conot, Robert (1979). A Streak of Luck. New York: Seaview Books. "ISBN "978-0-87223-521-2. 
  • Davis, L. J. (1998). Fleet Fire: Thomas Edison and the Pioneers of the Electric Revolution. New York: Doubleday. "ISBN "978-0-385-47927-1. 
  • Essig, Mark (2004). Edison and the Electric Chair. Stroud: Sutton. "ISBN "978-0-7509-3680-4. 
  • Essig, Mark (2003). Edison & the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death. New York: Walker & Company. "ISBN "978-0-8027-1406-0. 
  • Israel, Paul (1998). Edison: A Life of Invention. New York: Wiley. "ISBN "978-0-471-52942-2. 
  • Jonnes, Jill (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House. "ISBN "978-0-375-50739-7. 
  • Josephson, Matthew (1959). Edison. McGraw Hill. "ISBN "978-0-07-033046-7. 
  • Koenigsberg, Allen (1987). Edison Cylinder Records, 1889-1912. APM Press. "ISBN "0-937612-07-3. 
  • Pretzer, William S. (ed). (1989). Working at Inventing: Thomas A. Edison and the Menlo Park Experience. Dearborn, Michigan: Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. "ISBN "978-0-933728-33-2. 
  • Stross, Randall E. (2007). The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World. Crown. "ISBN "1-4000-4762-5. 

External links[edit]

Locations

Information and media

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
"Leon Trotsky
"Cover of Time magazine Succeeded by
"Richard Swann Lull
) )