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( => ( => ( => Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron [pageid] => 1972545 ) =>
The Lord Fairfax of Cameron
""ThomasFairfax6th.jpg
Born October 22, 1693
"Leeds Castle, "Kent, "England
Died December 9, 1781(1781-12-09) (aged 88)
"Greenway Court, Virginia, USA
Nationality "British
Occupation "Estate Lord
"Baron
Known for "Peer of Scotland
"Northern Neck Proprietary

Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron (October 22, 1693 – December 9, 1781) was a Scottish peer. He was the son of "Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron and of Catherine, daughter of "Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper.

The only resident "peer in late "colonial America, Fairfax administered his vast "Northern Neck Proprietary — a "Virginia "land grant dating back to 1649 — from his wilderness estate at "Greenway Court, Virginia. Various place names in "Northern Virginia and the "Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia are named for him—most notably "Fairfax County, Virginia.

Contents

Early life[edit]

Born in "Kent, "England at "Leeds Castle — owned by his maternal Culpeper ancestors since the 1630s[1] — Lord Fairfax succeeded to his title in 1709. He was educated at "Oriel College, "Oxford University between 1710 and 1713 and afterward held a commission in the Royal Horse Guards (1721–1733). He was a contributor to the early newspaper "The Spectator.

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"Coat of arms of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, which was adapted into the official Seal of the County of Fairfax, Virginia
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In 1719, Fairfax came into possession of the vast Culpeper family estates in Virginia's "Northern Neck "Proprietary between the "Rappahannock and "Potomac Rivers. These lands included a great portion of the "Shenandoah and "South Branch Potomac valleys, in all consisting of some 5,282,000 acres (21,380 km²). Struggling to keep up an expensive lifestyle and maintain "Leeds Castle, Fairfax relied on the income from his Virginia tract, both from the sale of land and the annual "quit rents, paid by planters who settled in the Northern Neck.[2] These rents were collected by his resident land agent, "Robert "King" Carter (1662–1732). In the fall of 1732, Fairfax read Carter's obituary in the London monthly "The Gentleman's Magazine and was astonished to read of the vast personal wealth Carter had accumulated, which included £10,000 in cash: this at a time when the Governor of Virginia was paid an annual salary of £200. Rather than appoint another Virginian to the position, Lord Fairfax arranged to have his cousin Colonel "William Fairfax move in 1734 from "Massachusetts to "Virginia to serve as his resident land agent.

In North America[edit]

Lord Fairfax travelled to Virginia for the first time between 1735 and 1737 to inspect and protect his lands. In 1738, about thirty farms were established as part of his 9,000-acre (36 km2) "Patterson Creek Manor near present-day "Burlington, "Mineral County, "West Virginia. The northwestern boundary of his Northern Neck Proprietary, which had been contested by the "English Privy Council, was marked in 1746 by the ""Fairfax Stone" at the headwaters of the "North Branch Potomac River. Returning to America in 1747, he first settled at "Belvoir (present-day "Fort Belvoir), an "estate which had been completed by Col. Fairfax six years earlier. That year he also set aside land for his personal use at "Swan Pond Manor (located near present-day "Martinsburg, Berkeley County, West Virginia). He then became active in developing his lands and collecting ground rents.

Fairfax was the only resident "peer in the Thirteen Colonies.[3] In 1748, he made the acquaintance of "George Washington, then a youth of 16, a distant relative of the "Yorkshire Fairfax family. Impressed with Washington's energy and talents, Lord Fairfax employed him (Washington's first employment) to "survey his lands lying west of the "Blue Ridge.[4]

Fairfax, a lifelong bachelor, moved out to the "Shenandoah Valley in 1752. At the suggestion of his nephew "Thomas Bryan Martin, he fixed his residence at a "hunting lodge at "Greenway Court, near "White Post, "Clarke County.[5] Here he and Martin lived together in a style of liberal hospitality, frequently indulging in the diversion of the "chase. He served as county lieutenant and as "justice of the peace for "Frederick County which then included Clarke.

Though an avowed "Loyalist, Fairfax kept quiet and was known to be close to Washington. He was never insulted or molested. Title to his domain, however, was confiscated during the hostilities by the Virginia Act of 1779. Less than two months after the 1781 defeat of the British invaders at Yorktown, the 88-year-old Fairfax died at his seat at "Greenway Court. He was buried on the east side of Christ Church (Episcopal) in "Winchester, Virginia.

Legacy[edit]

Name usage controversy[edit]

Lord Thomas Fairfax owned 5,282,000 acres (2,138,000 ha; 8,253 sq mi; 21,380 km2) in Virginia. To manage these holdings, Fairfax depended on hundreds of slaves who worked among his 30 Virginia plantations.[9] He was active in trading slaves and, despite his age, he proudly participated in a "little talked about" activity called "bedding down with a negro wench" for which Lord Fairfax would pay a fee to the person who supplied the "wench".[9][10] Based on this history, some county students are petitioning the Fairfax School Board (and pressuring others such as the Fairfax Park Department's promotion of his cartoon image to children) to drop the use of the Fairfax name and "coat of arms, expressing distaste for Lord Fairfax's lifestyle and system of wealth and recognizing that it does not represent the values of the school board as detailed in its mission statement.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ransome, David R.; Braddick, Mike J.; Greengrass, Mark; Cliffe, J. T., eds. (1996). Seventeenth-Century Political and Financial Papers: Camden Miscellany XXXII. Cambridge University Press. pp. 115–116. "ISBN "9780521573955. 
  2. ^ Cleggett, David A. H. (1992). "6". History of Leeds Castle and Its Families. Leeds Castle Foundation. pp. 100–102. "ISBN "0951882716. 
  3. ^ Historians do not support the claim of "William Alexander that he was entitled to be the "Earl of Stirling.
  4. ^ George Washington's elder half brother "Lawrence Washington (1718-1752) was married to Anne (1728-1761) a daughter of Col. William Fairfax of "Belvoir — a land agent and cousin of Lord Thomas Fairfax. Anne's brother, "George William Fairfax, was married to "Sally Fairfax (nee Cary).
  5. ^ Cartmell, Thomas Kemp (1909). Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants. Eddy Press Corp. p. 587. 
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 123. 
  7. ^ unknown (n.d.). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Swan Pond Manor Historic District" (PDF). State of West Virginia, West Virginia Division of Culture and History, Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  8. ^ a b Col. F.W.T. Attree R.E./F.S.A. & Rev. J.H.L. Booker M.A., "The Sussex Colepepers, Part I", Sussex Archaeological Collections, XLVII, 47-81, (1904)
  9. ^ a b Brown, Stuart E. (August 1, 2008). Virginia Baron: The Story of Thomas 6th Lord Fairfax. Genealogical Publishing Com. p. 185. "ISBN "9780806352183. 
  10. ^ Fairfax, Thomas (1965). "Virginia Baron: The Story of Thomas 6th Lord Fairfax". Ancestry.com. 

External links[edit]

"Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
"Thomas Fairfax
"Lord Fairfax of Cameron
1709–1781
Succeeded by
"Robert Fairfax
) )