A common point of contention regarding tier 1 networks is the concept of a regional tier 1 network. A regional tier 1 network is a network which is not transit free globally, but which maintains many of the classic behaviors and motivations of a tier 1 network within a specific region.
A typical scenario for this characteristic involves a network that was the incumbent telecommunications company in a specific country or region, usually tied to some level of government-supported monopoly. Within their specific countries or regions of origin, these networks maintain peering policies which mimic those of tier 1 networks (such as lack of openness to new peering relationships and having existing peering with every other major network in that region). However, this network may then extend to another country, region, or continent outside of its core region of operations, where it may purchase transit or peer openly like a tier 2 network.
A commonly cited example of these behaviors involves the incumbent carriers within Australia, who will not peer with new networks in Australia under any circumstances, but who will extend their networks to the United States and peer openly with many networks.["citation needed] Less extreme examples of much less restrictive peering requirements being set for regions in which a network peers, but does not sell services or have a significant market share, are relatively common among many networks, not just regional tier 1 networks.
While the classification regional tier 1 holds some merit for understanding the peering motivations of such a network within different regions, these networks do not meet the requirements of a true global tier 1 because they are not transit free globally.["original research?]
These networks are recognised by the Internet community as tier 1 networks, even if some of them appear to have transit providers in CAIDA ranking.
|Name||Headquarters||"AS number||September 2016 "degree||Fiber Route Miles/Kilometers||Peering Policy|
|"AT&T||"United States||7018||2,137||410,000 miles||AT&T Peering policy|
|"CenturyLink (formerly "Qwest & "Savvis & "Exodus Communications)||"United States||209||1,689||550,000 miles||North America; International|
|"Deutsche Telekom AG (ICSS)||"Germany||3320||504||DTAG Peering Details|
|"Global Telecom & Technology (GTT) (formerly "Tinet & nLayer)||"United States - "Italy||3257
|1,274||GTT Peering Policy|
|"KPN International||"Netherlands||286||250||KPN Peering Policy|
|"Level 3 Communications (formerly "Level 3 and "Global Crossing)||"United States||1
|4,190||200,000 miles||Level 3 Peering Policy|
|"Liberty Global||"United States||6830||607||> 1,000,000 km||Settled Peering Policy|
|"NTT Communications (America) (formerly "Verio)||"Japan||2914||1,353||North America|
|"Orange (OpenTransit)||"France||5511||159||OTI peering policy|
|"Sprint||"United States||1239||591||26,000 miles||Peering policy|
|"Tata Communications (America) (Acquired "Teleglobe)||"India||6453||688||700,000 km||Peering Policy|
|"Telecom Italia Sparkle (Seabone)||"Italy||6762||536||Peering Policy|
|Telefonica Global Solutions||"Spain||12956||268||Telefonica Peering Policy|
|"Telia Carrier||"Sweden||1299||1,315||TeliaSonera International Carrier Global Peering Policy|
|"Verizon Enterprise Solutions (formerly "UUNET and "XO Communications)||"United States||701
|1,251||500,000 miles||Verizon UUNET Peering policy 701, 702, 703|
|"Zayo Group (formerly "AboveNet)||"United States||6461||1,504||114,500 miles||Zayo Peering Policy|
While most of these Tier-1 providers offer global coverage (based on the published network map on their respective public websites), there are some which are restricted geographically. However these do offer global coverage for mobiles and IP-VPN type services which are unrelated to being a Tier-1 provider.
A 2008 report shows Internet traffic relying less on U.S. networks than previously.
A partial list of tier 2 networks which are often incorrectly listed as tier 1.
|Name||Headquarters||"AS Number||September 2016 "degree||Reason|
|"Cogent Communications (formerly "PSINet)||"United States||174||4,641||Cogent does not provide IPv6 routing/connectivity to Google or Hurricane Electric.|
|"Hurricane Electric||"United States||6939||4,972||IPv4: Purchases transit from "Telia Carrier/AS1299. Openly advertises their use of purchased transit.
IPv6: No routes to Cogent Communications (AS174).
|"PCCW Global||"Hong Kong||3491||627||Purchases transit from "Level 3 Communications/AS3356|
|"Vodafone (formerly "Cable & Wireless Worldwide)||"United Kingdom||1273||297||Purchases transit from "Level 3 Communications/AS3356, "Telia Carrier/AS1299, "Global Telecom & Technology (GTT)/AS4436|
Tier 1 networks are those networks that don't pay any other network for transit yet still can reach all networks connected to the internet.
Cogent and Telia are having a lover’s quarrel and, as a result, the Internet is partitioned. That means customers of Cogent and Telia cannot necessarily reach one another.
Some industry watchers believe the problem shows signs of dispute over peering agreements -- deals between Internet service providers to create a direct link to route each other's packets rather than pay a third-party network service provider for transport.
Must provide paid Internet transit services to at least 500 unique transit networks utilizing BGP on a global basis.
Our self-healing network architecture virtually eliminates a single point of failure. In addition to our own backbone, we also purchase backup transit from multiple providers in multiple locations to ensure that your data will arrive via the shortest possible routes. Because of our backup transit and the many international peers, our network maintains the shortest routes for sending your data all over the world. On an ongoing basis, we are negotiating with the top fiber carriers for new routes, additional backup transit providers, and we are signing on new peering relationships.