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See also: "Internet exchange point

A common point of contention regarding tier 1 networks is the concept of a regional tier 1 network. A regional tier 1 network is a network which is not transit free globally, but which maintains many of the classic behaviors and motivations of a tier 1 network within a specific region.

A typical scenario for this characteristic involves a network that was the incumbent telecommunications company in a specific country or region, usually tied to some level of government-supported monopoly. Within their specific countries or regions of origin, these networks maintain peering policies which mimic those of tier 1 networks (such as lack of openness to new peering relationships and having existing peering with every other major network in that region). However, this network may then extend to another country, region, or continent outside of its core region of operations, where it may purchase transit or peer openly like a tier 2 network.

A commonly cited example of these behaviors involves the incumbent carriers within Australia, who will not peer with new networks in Australia under any circumstances, but who will extend their networks to the United States and peer openly with many networks.["citation needed] Less extreme examples of much less restrictive peering requirements being set for regions in which a network peers, but does not sell services or have a significant market share, are relatively common among many networks, not just regional tier 1 networks.

While the classification regional tier 1 holds some merit for understanding the peering motivations of such a network within different regions, these networks do not meet the requirements of a true global tier 1 because they are not transit free globally.["original research?]

List of tier 1 networks[edit]

These networks are recognised by the Internet community as tier 1 networks, even if some of them appear to have transit providers in CAIDA ranking.

Name Headquarters "AS number September 2016 "degree[10][11] Fiber Route Miles/Kilometers Peering Policy
"AT&T[12] "United States 7018 2,137 410,000 miles[13] AT&T Peering policy
"CenturyLink (formerly "Qwest & "Savvis & "Exodus Communications)[14] "United States 209
(3561)
1,689 550,000 miles[15] North America; International
"Deutsche Telekom AG (ICSS)[16] "Germany 3320 504 DTAG Peering Details
"Global Telecom & Technology (GTT) (formerly "Tinet & nLayer)[17] "United States - "Italy 3257
(4436)
1,274 GTT Peering Policy
"KPN International[18] "Netherlands 286 250 KPN Peering Policy
"Level 3 Communications (formerly "Level 3 and "Global Crossing)[19][20] "United States 3356
(3549)
(1)
4,190 200,000 miles[21] Level 3 Peering Policy
"Liberty Global[22][23] "United Kingdom[24] 6830 607 > 1,000,000 km[25] Settled Peering Policy
"NTT Communications (America) (formerly "Verio)[26] "Japan 2914 1,353 North America
"Orange (OpenTransit)[27] "France 5511 159 OTI peering policy
"Sprint[28] "United States 1239 591 26,000 miles[29] Peering policy
"Tata Communications (America) (Acquired "Teleglobe)[30] "India 6453 688 700,000 km[31] Peering Policy
"Telecom Italia Sparkle (Seabone)[32] "Italy 6762 536 Peering Policy
Telefonica Global Solutions[33] "Spain 12956 268 Telefonica Peering Policy
"Telia Carrier[34] "Sweden 1299 1,315 26,700 miles[35] TeliaSonera International Carrier Global Peering Policy
"Verizon Enterprise Solutions (formerly "UUNET and "XO Communications)[40] "United States 701
702
703
2828
1,251 500,000 miles[41] Verizon UUNET Peering policy 701, 702, 703
"Zayo Group (formerly "AboveNet)[42] "United States 6461 1,504 114,500 miles[43] Zayo Peering Policy

While most of these Tier-1 providers offer global coverage (based on the published network map on their respective public websites), there are some which are restricted geographically. However these do offer global coverage for mobiles and IP-VPN type services which are unrelated to being a Tier-1 provider.

A 2008 report shows Internet traffic relying less on U.S. networks than previously.[44]

Other major networks[edit]

A partial list of tier 2 networks which are often incorrectly listed as tier 1.

Name Headquarters "AS Number September 2016 "degree[10][11] Reason
"Cogent Communications (formerly "PSINet)[45] "United States 174 4,641 IPv4: Tier 1.
IPv6: Cogent does not provide IPv6 routing/connectivity to Google or Hurricane Electric.[46][47]
"Hurricane Electric "United States 6939 4,972[48] IPv4: Purchases transit from "Telia Carrier/AS1299.[49][50] Openly advertises their use of purchased transit.[51]
IPv6: No routes to Cogent Communications (AS174).[52][53]
"PCCW Global "Hong Kong 3491 627 Purchases transit from "Level 3 Communications/AS3356[54]
"Vodafone (formerly "Cable & Wireless Worldwide) "United Kingdom 1273 297 Purchases transit from "Level 3 Communications/AS3356, "Telia Carrier/AS1299, "Global Telecom & Technology (GTT)/AS4436[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Winther, Mark (May 2006). "Tier1 ISPs: What They Are and Why They Are Important" (PDF). NTT America Corporate. 
  2. ^ "How the 'Net works: an introduction to peering and transit: Page 4". 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2008-11-04. Tier 1 networks are those networks that don't pay any other network for transit yet still can reach all networks connected to the internet. 
  3. ^ http://renesys.com/ Renesys Corporation
  4. ^ RIPE RIS database
  5. ^ https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet
  6. ^ https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet
  7. ^ "You can't get there from here". 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2014-05-11. Cogent and Telia are having a lover’s quarrel and, as a result, the Internet is partitioned. That means customers of Cogent and Telia cannot necessarily reach one another. 
  8. ^ "'Peering' Into AOL-MSN Outage". 2003-09-05. Retrieved 2014-05-11. Some industry watchers believe the problem shows signs of dispute over peering agreements -- deals between Internet service providers to create a direct link to route each other's packets rather than pay a third-party network service provider for transport. 
  9. ^ "Level 3 IP traffic exchange policy". Retrieved 2014-05-11. Must provide paid Internet transit services to at least 500 unique transit networks utilizing BGP on a global basis. 
  10. ^ a b CAIDA AS ranking
  11. ^ a b Visualizing Internet Topology at a Macroscopic Scale April 2005
  12. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  13. ^ http://www.att.com/gen/general?pid=7462
  14. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  15. ^ http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/centurylink-completes-largest-deployment-of-gfast-technology-in-north-america-300325687.html
  16. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  17. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  18. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  19. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  20. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  21. ^ http://www.level3.com/~/media/files/brochures/en_dataserv_br_secureinternetservices.pdf
  22. ^ "AS6830 IPv4 route propagation". 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-09. 
  23. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2016-11-15. 
  24. ^ http://www.libertyglobal.com/about-us-contact-us.aspx
  25. ^ "Liberty Global Wholesale". 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2016-11-11. 
  26. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  27. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  28. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  29. ^ https://www.sprint.com/business/resources/fts2001/rrg/section2.doc
  30. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  31. ^ http://www.tatacommunications.com/glance/our-network
  32. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  33. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  34. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  35. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telia_Carrier
  36. ^ http://www.fiercetelecom.com/telecom/after-delay-verizon-wraps-1-8b-xo-acquisition-deepens-metro-fiber-density-45-markets
  37. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  38. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  39. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  40. ^ [36][37][38][39]
  41. ^ https://www22.verizon.com/wholesale/productguide/voice_services/when-you-need-quality-reliability-and-a-global-presence-trust-verizon-global-wholesale-for-all-of-your-voice-services-requirements.html
  42. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  43. ^ http://www.zayo.com/services/dark-fiber/
  44. ^ Markoff, John (2008-08-30). "Internet Traffic Begins to Bypass the US". New York Times. 
  45. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  46. ^ "Cogent - Google - HE Fun". 2016-03-09. 
  47. ^ "No connectivity to Cogent IPv6 network". www.sixxs.net. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  48. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  49. ^ "Hurricane Electric Looking Glass". 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02. 
  50. ^ "IPv4 Providers: AS6939 HURRICANE - Radar by Qrator". radar.qrator.net. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  51. ^ "Network - Hurricane Electric Internet Services". he.net. Retrieved 5 February 2017. Our self-healing network architecture virtually eliminates a single point of failure. In addition to our own backbone, we also purchase backup transit from multiple providers in multiple locations to ensure that your data will arrive via the shortest possible routes. Because of our backup transit and the many international peers, our network maintains the shortest routes for sending your data all over the world. On an ongoing basis, we are negotiating with the top fiber carriers for new routes, additional backup transit providers, and we are signing on new peering relationships. 
  52. ^ "Peering Disputes Migrate to IPv6". 
  53. ^ "IPv6 internet broken, cogent/hurricane not peering". 
  54. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  55. ^ "CAIDA AS Rank". 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
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