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Tomahawk
""Tomahawk Block IV cruise missile -crop.jpg
A BGM-109 Tomahawk flying in November 2002
Type Long-range, all-weather, subsonic "cruise missile
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1983–present
Used by "United States Navy
"Royal Navy
Production history
Manufacturer "General Dynamics (initially)
"Raytheon
Unit cost $1.87M(FY2017)[1] (Block IV)
Specifications
Weight 2,900 lb (1,300 kg), 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) with booster
Length

Without booster: 18 ft 3 in (5.56 m)

With booster: 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
Diameter 20.4 in (0.52 m)
Warhead Nuclear: "W80 warhead (retired)[2]
Conventional: 1,000 pounds (450 kg) High explosive or Submunitions dispenser with "BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb or PBXN
Detonation
mechanism
FMU-148 since TLAM Block III, others for special applications

Engine "Williams International "F107-WR-402 "turbofan
using "TH-dimer fuel
and a "solid-fuel rocket booster
Wingspan 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)
Operational
range

Block II TLAM-A – 1,350 nmi (1,550 mi; 2,500 km) Block III TLAM-C, Block IV TLAM-E – 900 nmi (1,000 mi; 1,700 km)

Block III TLAM-D – 700 nmi (810 mi; 1,300 km)[3]
Flight altitude 30–50 m (98–164 ft) "AGL[4]
Speed Subsonic; about 550 mph (890 km/h)
Guidance
system
"GPS, "INS, "TERCOM, "DSMAC, "active radar homing (RGM/UGM-109B)
Launch
platform
Vertical Launch System (VLS) and horizontal submarine torpedo tubes (known as TTL (torpedo tube launch))

The Tomahawk ("US: "/ˈtɑːməhɔːk/ or "UK: "/ˈtɒməhɔːk/) Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, "subsonic "cruise missile that is primarily used by the "United States Navy and "Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations. Introduced by "General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was initially designed as a medium to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. Since then, it has been upgraded several times with guidance systems for precision navigation. It is now manufactured by "Raytheon.[5] In 2016, the U.S. Department of Defense purchased 149 Tomahawk Block IV missiles for $202.3 million.[1]

The missile is named after the "tomahawk, a one-handed "axe used by the "Native Americans.

Contents

Variants[edit]

There have been several variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads.

Ground-launched cruise missiles ("GLCM) and their truck-like launch vehicles were employed at bases in Europe; they were withdrawn from service to comply with the 1987 "Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Many of the anti-ship versions were converted into TLAMs at the end of the "Cold War. The Block III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can fly farther and use "Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to strike more precisely. Block III TLAM-Cs retain the DSMAC II navigation system, allowing GPS only missions, which allow for rapid mission planning, with some reduced accuracy, DSMAC only missions, which take longer to plan but terminal accuracy is somewhat better, and GPS aided missions which combine both DSMAC II and GPS navigation which provides the greatest accuracy. Block IV TLAMs are completely redesigned with an improved "turbofan engine. The F107-402 engine provided the new BLK III with a throttle control, allowing in-flight speed changes. This engine also provided better fuel economy. The Block IV TLAMs have enhanced deep-strike capabilities and are equipped with a real-time targeting system for striking fleeing targets. Additionally, the BLOCK IV missiles have the capabilities to be re-targeted inflight, and the ability to transmit, via "satcom, an image immediately prior to impact to assist in determining if the missile was attacking the target and the likely damage from the attack.

Description[edit]

The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets. Although a number of launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only sea (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of "warhead, guidance, and range capabilities. The Tomahawk project was originally awarded to "Applied Physics Laboratory near Laurel, Maryland by the US Navy. James H. Walker led a team of scientists to design and build this new long range missile. The original design, updated with advanced technology, is still used today.

Upgrades[edit]

""
""
UGM-109 Tomahawk missile detonates above a test target, 1986

A major improvement to the Tomahawk is "network-centric warfare-capabilities, using data from multiple sensors (aircraft, "UAVs, satellites, foot soldiers, tanks, ships) to find its target. It will also be able to send data from its sensors to these platforms. It will be a part of the networked force being implemented by the Pentagon.

Tomahawk Block II[7] variants were all tested during January 1981 to October 1983. Deployed in 1984, some of the improvements included: an improved booster rocket, cruise missile radar altimeter, and navigation through the Digital Scene Matching Area Corellator (DSMAC).

Tomahawk Block III[6][8] introduced in 1993 added time-of-arrival control and improved accuracy for Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) and jam-resistant "GPS, smaller, lighter WDU-36 warhead, engine improvements and extended missile's range.

Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS)[9] takes advantage of a loitering feature in the missile's flight path and allows commanders to redirect the missile to an alternative target, if required. It can be reprogrammed in-flight to attack predesignated targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to any other GPS coordinates. Also, the missile can send data about its status back to the commander. It entered service with the US Navy in late 2004. The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) added the capability for limited mission planning on board the firing unit (FRU).

Tomahawk Block IV[10][11][12] introduced in 2006 adds the strike controller which can change the missile in flight to one of 15 preprogrammed alternate targets or redirect it to a new target. This targeting flexibility includes the capability to loiter over the battlefield awaiting a more critical target. The missile can also transmit battle damage indication imagery and missile health and status messages via the two-way satellite data link. Firing platforms now have the capability to plan and execute GPS-only missions. Block IV also has an improved anti-jam GPS receiver for enhanced mission performance. Block IV includes Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS), and Tomahawk Command and Control System (TC2S).

On 16 August 2010, the Navy completed the first live test of the Joint Multi-Effects Warhead System (JMEWS), a new warhead designed to give the Tomahawk the same blast-fragmentation capabilities while introducing enhanced penetration capabilities in a single warhead. In the static test, the warhead detonated and created a hole large enough for the follow-through element to completely penetrate the concrete target.[13] In February 2014, "U.S. Central Command sponsored development and testing of the JMEWS, analyzing the ability of the programmable warhead to integrate onto the Block IV Tomahawk, giving the missile "bunker buster effects to better penetrate hardened structures.[14]

In 2012, the USN studied applying "Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) technology into the Tactical Tomahawk.[15]

In 2014, Raytheon began testing Block IV improvements to attack sea and moving land targets.[16] The new "passive radar seeker will pick up the electromagnetic radar signature of a target and follow it, and actively send out a signal to bounce off potential targets before impact to discriminate its legitimacy before impact.[14] Mounting the multi-mode sensor on the missile's nose would remove fuel space, but company officials believe the Navy would be willing to give up space for the sensor's new technologies.[17] The previous Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile, retired over a decade earlier, was equipped with inertial guidance and the seeker of the "Harpoon missile and there was concern with its ability to clearly discriminate between targets from a long distance, since at the time Navy sensors did not have as much range as the missile itself, which would be more reliable with the new seeker's passive detection and active millimeter-wave radar.[18][19] Raytheon estimates adding the new seeker would cost $250,000 per missile.[20] Other upgrades include a "sea-skimming flight path.[21][22] The first Block IV TLAMs modified with a maritime attack capability will enter service in 2021.[23]

A supersonic version of the Tomahawk is under consideration for development with a "ramjet to increase its speed to Mach 3. A limiting factor to this is the dimensions of shipboard launch tubes. Instead of modifying every ship able to carry cruise missiles, the ramjet-powered Tomahawk would still have to fit within a 21-inch diameter and 20-foot long tube.[17]

In October 2015, Raytheon announced the Tomahawk had demonstrated new capabilities in a test launch, using its onboard camera to take a reconnaissance photo and transmit it to fleet headquarters. It then entered a loitering pattern until given new targeting coordinates to strike.[24]

By January 2016, "Los Alamos National Laboratory was working on a project to turn unburned fuel left over when a Tomahawk reaches its target into an additional explosive force. To do this, the missile's JP-10 fuel is turned into a "fuel air explosive to combine with oxygen in the air and burn rapidly. The thermobaric explosion of the burning fuel acts, in effect, as an additional warhead and can even be more powerful than the main warhead itself when there is sufficient fuel left in the case of a short range target.[12][25]

Launch systems[edit]

Each missile is stored and launched from a pressurized canister[26] that protects it during transportation and storage, and also serves as a launch tube. These canisters were racked in armored box launchers (ABL), which were installed on the re-activated Iowa-class battleships "USS Iowa, "USS New Jersey, "USS Missouri, and "USS Wisconsin. The ABLs were also installed on eight "Spruance-class destroyers, the four "Virginia-class cruisers, and the "USS Long Beach. These canisters are also in "vertical launching systems (VLS) in other surface ships, capsule launch systems (CLS) in the later "Los Angeles-class submarines, and in submarines' "torpedo tubes. All ABL equipped ships have been decommissioned.

For submarine-launched missiles (called UGM-109s), after being ejected by gas pressure (vertically via the VLS) or by water impulse (horizontally via the torpedo tube), the missile exits the water and a "solid-fuel booster is ignited for the first few seconds of airborne flight until transition to cruise.

After achieving flight, the missile's wings are unfolded for lift, the airscoop is exposed and the turbofan engine is employed for "cruise flight. Over water, the Tomahawk uses "inertial guidance or GPS to follow a preset course; once over land, the missile's guidance system is aided by "terrain contour matching (TERCOM). Terminal guidance is provided by the Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation ("DSMAC) system or "GPS, producing a claimed "circular error probable of about 10 meters.

The Tomahawk Weapon System consists of the missile, Theater Mission Planning Center (TMPC)/Afloat Planning System, and either the Tomahawk Weapon Control System (on surface ships) or Combat Control System (for submarines).

Several versions of control systems have been used, including:

Munitions[edit]

The TLAM-D contains 166 "sub-munitions in 24 canisters: 22 canisters of seven each, and two canisters of six each to conform to the dimensions of the airframe. The sub-munitions are the same type of Combined Effects Munition bomblet used in large quantities by the U.S. Air Force with the "CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition. The sub-munitions canisters are dispensed two at a time, one per side. The missile can perform up to five separate target segments which enables it to attack multiple targets. However, in order to achieve a sufficient density of coverage typically all 24 canisters are dispensed sequentially from back to front.

Navigation[edit]

"TERCOM – Terrain Contour Matching. A digital representation of an area of terrain is mapped based on digital terrain elevation data or stereo imagery. This map is then inserted into a TLAM mission which is then loaded onto the missile. When the missile is in flight it compares the stored map data with radar altimeter data collected as the missile overflies the map. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course. TERCOM was based on, and was a significant improvement on, "Fingerprint," a technology developed in 1964 for the "SLAM.[27]

DSMAC – Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation. A digitized image of an area is mapped and then inserted into a TLAM mission. During the flight the missile will verify that the images that it has stored correlates with the image it sees below itself. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course.

Operational history[edit]

""
""
Remnants of a shot down Tomahawk from Operation Allied Force, showing the turbofan engine at the "Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Serbia

United States Navy[edit]

In the 1991 "Gulf War, 288 Tomahawks were launched, 12 from submarines and 276 from surface ships.[28] The first salvo was fired by the Destroyer "USS Paul F. Foster[29] on January 17, 1991. The attack submarines "USS Pittsburgh[30] and "USS Louisville followed.

On 17 January 1993, 46 Tomahawks were fired at the Zafraniyah Nuclear Fabrication Facility outside "Baghdad, in response to Iraq's refusal to cooperate with UN disarmament inspectors. One missile crashed into the side of the "Al Rasheed Hotel, killing two civilians.[31]

On 26 June 1993, "23 Tomahawks were fired at the Iraqi Intelligence Service's command and control center.[32]

On 10 September 1995, the "USS Normandy launched 13 Tomahawk missiles from the central Adriatic Sea against a key air defense radio relay tower in Bosnian Serb territory during "Operation Deliberate Force.[33]

On 3 September 1996, 44 cruise missiles between UGM-109 and B-52 launched AGM-86s, "were fired at air defence targets in Southern Iraq.[34][35]

On 20 August 1998, "79 Tomahawk missiles were fired simultaneously at two separate targets in Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation for the "bombings of American embassies by "Al-Qaeda.[2]

On 16 December 1998, 325 Tomahawk missiles were fired at key Iraqi targets during "Operation Desert Fox.[36]

In early 1999, 218 Tomahawk missiles were fired by US ships and a British submarine during "Operation Allied Force against key targets in "Serbia and Montenegro.[3]

In October 2001, approximately 50 Tomahawk missiles struck targets in Afghanistan in the opening hours of "Operation Enduring Freedom.[4][37]

During the "2003 invasion of Iraq, more than 802 Tomahawk missiles were fired at key Iraqi targets.[38]

On 3 March 2008, two Tomahawk missiles were fired at a target in Somalia by a US vessel during the "Dobley airstrike, reportedly in an attempt to kill "Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, an al Qaeda militant.[39][40]

On 17 December 2009, two Tomahawk missiles were fired at targets in Yemen.[41] One of the targets was hit by a TLAM-D missile. The target was described as an 'alleged "Al-Qaeda training camp' in "al-Ma’jalah in al-Mahfad a region of the Abyan governorate of "Yemen. Amnesty International reported that 55 people were killed in the attack, including 41 civilians (21 children, 14 women, and six men). The US and Yemen governments refused to confirm or deny involvement, but diplomatic cables released as part of "United States diplomatic cables leak later confirmed the missile was fired by a US Navy ship.[42]

On 19 March 2011, 124 Tomahawk missiles[43] "were fired by U.S. and British forces (112 US, 12 British)[44] against at least 20 "Libyan targets around "Tripoli and "Misrata.[45] As of 22 March 2011, 159 UGM-109 were fired by US and UK ships against Libyan targets.[46]

On 23 September 2014, 47 Tomahawk missiles "were fired by the United States from the "USS Arleigh Burke and "USS Philippine Sea, which were operating from international waters in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, against "ISIL targets in Syria in the vicinity of "Raqqa, Deir ez-Zor, Al-Hasakah and Abu Kamal,[47] and against "Khorasan group targets in Syria west of Aleppo.[48]

On 13 October 2016 five Tomahawk cruise missiles were launched by "USS Nitze at three radar sites in Yemen held by "Houthi rebels in response to anti-ship missiles fired at US Navy ships the day before.[49]

On 6 April 2017, 59 Tomahawk missiles were "launched (with one missile landing in the water after launch[50]) from the "USS Ross (DDG-71) and "USS Porter (DDG-78), targeting "Shayrat Airbase near "Homs, in Syria. The strike was in response to a "chemical weapons attack, an act allegedly carried out by Syrian President "Bashar Al-Assad. "U.S. Central Command stated in a press release that Tomahawk missiles hit "aircraft, hardened aircraft shelters, petroleum and logistical storage, ammunition supply bunkers, defense systems, and radars".[51] Initial U.S. reports claimed "approximately 20 planes" were destroyed, and that 58 out of the 59 cruise missiles launched "severely degraded or destroyed" their intended target.[52][53] Syrian state-run media claimed that nine civilians, including four children living in nearby villages were killed and another seven wounded as a result of the strike after missiles fell on their homes,[54][55] but "The Pentagon said civilians were not targeted.[56]

While an independent "bomb damage assessment conducted by ImageSat International 10 hours after the attack counted hits on 44 targets,[57] the Russian defense ministry contends that the combat effectiveness of the attack was extremely low,[58][59] only 23 missiles hit the base, and it did not know where the other 36 landed.[60][61] Russian television news, citing a Syrian source at the airfield, said that nine planes were destroyed by the strikes (5 Su-22M3s, 1 Su-22M4, and 3 Mig-23ML) and that all planes were thought to have been out of action at the time.[62] Some observers conclude that the Russian government—and therefore also the Syrian government—was warned and Syria had enough time to move most of the planes to another base.[63][64] The "Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strike damaged over a dozen hangars, a fuel depot, and an air defense base.[65][66] "Al-Masdar News reported that 15 fighter jets were damaged or destroyed and that the destruction of fuel tankers caused several explosions and a large fire.[67]

According to the "satellite images the "runways[68] and the "taxiways have been undamaged and combat flights from the attacked airbase resumed on 7 April a few hours after the attack.[69][70][71]

As of 2015, the United States Navy has a stockpile of around 3,500 Tomahawk cruise missiles of all variants, with a combined cost of approximately US $2.6 billion.[72]

Number of Tomahawk missiles fired
Operation Year Number
"Gulf War 1991 288
part of Iraq disarmament 17 January 1993 46
part of Iraq disarmament 26 June 1993 23
"Operation Deliberate Force 10 September 1995 13
part of Iraq disarmament 3 September 1996 44
"Operation Infinite Reach 20 August 1998 79
"Operation Desert Fox 16 December 1998 325
"Operation Allied Force 1999 218
"Operation Enduring Freedom 2001 50
"2003 invasion of Iraq 2003 802
"Dobley airstrike 3 March 2008 2
against an 'alleged Al-Qaeda training camp' in Yemen 17 December 2009 2
"2011 military intervention in Libya 19 March 2011 124
"Military intervention against ISIL 23 September 2014 47
in response to anti-ship missiles fired by Houthis in Yemen 13 October 2016 5
"Shayrat missile strike 6 April 2017 59

Royal Navy[edit]

In 1995 the US agreed to sell 65 Tomahawks to the UK for torpedo-launch from their nuclear attack submarines. The first missiles were acquired and test-fired in November 1998; all "Royal Navy fleet submarines are now Tomahawk capable, including the new "Astute-class.[73][74][75][76] The "Kosovo War in 1999 saw the Swiftsure-class "HMS Splendid become the first British submarine to fire the Tomahawk in combat. It has been reported that seventeen of the twenty Tomahawks fired by the British during that conflict hit their targets accurately;["citation needed] the UK subsequently bought 20 more Block III to replenish stocks.[77] The Royal Navy has since fired Tomahawks during the 2000s "Afghanistan War, in "Operation Telic as the British contribution to the "2003 Iraq War, and during "Operation Ellamy in Libya in 2011.

In April 2004, the UK and US governments reached an agreement for the British to buy 64 of the new generation of Tomahawk missile—the Block IV or TacTom missile.[78] It entered service with the Royal Navy on 27 March 2008, three months ahead of schedule.[79] In July 2014 the US approved the sale to the UK of a further 65 submarine-launched Block IV's at a cost of US$140m including spares and support;[80] as of 2011 the Block III missiles were on British books at £1.1m and the Block IV at £0.87m including VAT.[81]

The "Sylver Vertical Launching System on the new "Type 45 destroyer is claimed by its manufacturers to have the capability to fire the Tomahawk, although the A50 launcher carried by the Type 45 is too short for the weapon (the longer A70 silo would be required). Nevertheless, the Type 45 has been designed with weight and space margin for a strike-length Mk41 or Sylver A70 silo to be retrofitted, allowing Type 45 to use the TLAM Block IV if required. The new "Type 26 frigates will have strike-length VLS tubes. SYLVER user France is developing MdCN, a version of the "Storm Shadow/Scalp cruise missile that has a shorter range but a higher speed than Tomahawk and can be launched from the SYLVER system.

United States Air Force[edit]

The Air Force is a former operator of the nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk, the BGM-109G Gryphon.

Other users[edit]

The "Netherlands (2005) and "Spain (2002 and 2005) were interested in acquiring the Tomahawk system, but the orders were later cancelled in 2007 and 2009 respectively.[82][83]

In 2009 the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States stated that Japan would be concerned if the TLAM-N were retired, but the government of Japan has denied that it had expressed any such view.[84]

It is believed that the SLCM version of the "Popeye was developed by Israel after the US Clinton administration refused an Israeli request in 2000 to purchase Tomahawk SLCM's because of international "Missile Technology Control Regime proliferation rules.[85]

As of March 12, 2015 Poland has expressed interest in purchasing long-range Tomahawk missiles for its future submarines.[86]

Operators[edit]

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Map with Tomahawk operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2017 Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon System" (pdf). Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Comptroller)/ Chief Financial Officer. January 2016. p. 63. 
  2. ^ a b Kristensen, Hans M. (March 18, 2013). "US Navy Instruction Confirms Retirement of Nuclear Tomahawk Cruise Missile". Strategic Security. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Tomahawk - Missile Threat". 
  4. ^ Tomahawk cruise missiles proved to be difficult targets for Russian electronic warfare systems - Navyrecognition.com, 18 April 2017
  5. ^ "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Smart Weapons". Archived from the original on 20 February 1999. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Petty, Dan. "The US Navy -- Fact File: Tomahawk Cruise Missile". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  7. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/bgm-109-var.htm
  8. ^ http://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2002/pdf/navy/2002TacticalTomahawkMissile.pdf
  9. ^ "Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) · Lockheed Martin". 
  10. ^ Company, Raytheon. "Navy Posts Successful Test of Raytheon's Block IV Tomahawk Cruise Missile". 
  11. ^ Communications, Raytheon Corporate. "Raytheon: Tomahawk Cruise Missile". 
  12. ^ a b Eshel, Tamir. "Tomahawk Cruise Missiles to Become Dual-Mission, Assume Anti-Ship Role - Defense Update:". 
  13. ^ U.S. Navy Completes First Test of New Warhead for Tomahawk Block IV Missile - PRNewswire.com, 24 October 2010
  14. ^ a b Navy Wants Its Tomahawks to Bust More Bunkers - Defensetech.org, 14 February 2014
  15. ^ "Viability Study associated with Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile - Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities". 
  16. ^ Raytheon Corporate Communications. "Raytheon". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  17. ^ a b Facing End of Tomahawk Production, Raytheon Plays Industrial Base Card - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 2 April 2014
  18. ^ New Seeker Could Put Tomahawk In Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile Race - Aviationweek.com, 12 November 2014
  19. ^ US Navy: More Can Be Done If Risks Are Accepted - Militarytimes.com, 1 December 2015
  20. ^ Pentagon Budget Requests $2B for Tomahawks, $2.9B for SM-6 - Defensenews.com, 3 February 2016
  21. ^ http://warisboring.com/ship-killing-missiles-are-the-pentagons-big-budget-winner/
  22. ^ Eshel, Tamir. "Enhanced Tomahawk cruise missile engages moving targets - Defense Update:". 
  23. ^ U.S. Navy Anti-Ship Tomahawk Set for Surface Ships, Subs Starting in 2021 - News.USNI.org, 18 February 2016
  24. ^ US Navy, Raytheon demonstrate network-enabled Tomahawk cruise missiles in flight - PRNewswire.com, 5 October 2015
  25. ^ Tomahawk Missiles Will Get Twice As Deadly By Blowing Up Their Own Fuel - Popularmechanics.com, 15 January 2016
  26. ^ GAO (October 1997). Test and evaluation impact of DOD. DIANE Publishing. "ISBN "978-1428979291. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
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  28. ^ Robinson, John (5 September 1996). "Tomahawk launch breaks submarine silence". Defense Daily. Retrieved 23 May 2015 – via "HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  29. ^ http://www.navsea.navy.mil/Portals/103/Documents/TeamShips/SEA21/InactiveShips/Historic/2013/EDD964-Paul-F.-Foster-Final-DOI.pdf
  30. ^ https://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/p/pittsburgh-iv.html
  31. ^ Pike, John. "Air Strike 13 January 1993 - Operation Southern Watch". 
  32. ^ Pike, John. "Air Strike 13 January 1993 - Operation Southern Watch". 
  33. ^ Pike, John. "Operation Deliberate Force". 
  34. ^ "2nd Cruise Missile Strikes in Iraq". 9 February 2005. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. 
  35. ^ Pike, John. "Operation Desert Strike". 
  36. ^ Pike, John. "Operation Desert Fox Order of Battle". 
  37. ^ Pike, John. "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Operational Use". 
  38. ^ Pike, John. "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Smart Weapons". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  39. ^ "U.S. Forces Fire Missiles Into Somalia at a Kenyan". The New York Times. 4 March 2008. 
  40. ^ Nathan Hodge, 'US strikes Al-Qaeda target located in southern Somalia," JDW, 12 March 2008 (Vol 45, Issue 11), p.18
  41. ^ Cruise Missiles Strike Yemen - ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (2009-12-18). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  42. ^ "Landmine monitor, US 2011 report". 
  43. ^ "Live blog: allied airstrikes continue against Gadhafi forces". CNN. 2011-03-20. 
  44. ^ "Libya: Navy running short of Tomahawk missiles". Telegraph.co.uk. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
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  46. ^ "U.S. aviators rescued; Gadhafi remains defiant". CNN. 11 May 2011. 
  47. ^ "Sept. 23: U.S. Military, Partner Nations Conduct Airstrikes Against ISIL in Syria". U.S. Central Command. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  48. ^ "Al-Qaeda Khorasan cell in Syria attack 'was imminent'". BBC News. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 23 Sep 2014. 
  49. ^ Dan, Lamothe (13 October 2016). "Navy launches Tomahawk missiles at rebel sites in Yemen after attacks on U.S. ships" (Online). The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  50. ^ "Syrian villagers near U.S. missile strike know the sound of battle – but never as horrific as this". 7 April 2017 – via LA Times. 
  51. ^ "Statement from Pentagon Spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis on U.S. strike in Syria". U.S. Central Command. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  52. ^ CNN, Laura Smith-Spark and Barbara Starr. "US investigates possible Russia role in Syria chemical attack". 
  53. ^ CNN, Barbara Starr and Jeremy Diamond. "Trump launches military strike against Syria". 
  54. ^ CNN, Faith Karimi and Jason Hanna. "What you need to know about US strike on Syrian air base". cnn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  55. ^ "4 children among 9 civilians dead in US airstrike on Syria strike: state media - The Express Tribune". tribune.com.pk. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  56. ^ Rosenfeld, Everett (7 April 2017). "Trump launches attack on Syria with 59 Tomahawk missiles". cnbc.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  57. ^ "ISI first to analyze Shayrat airfield missile attack". ImageStat International. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
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  60. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Bulos, Nabih (7 April 2017). "Syrians report 15 dead in U.S. airstrike". Los Angeles Times. Irbil. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  61. ^ Konashenkov, Igor (7 April 2017). "MoD to hold briefing after US strike in Syria – TAPE FEED". "RT. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  62. ^ "Nine Syrian planes destroyed by US strike on airfield". "ITV News. 7 April 2017. 
  63. ^ Dolejší, Karel (7 April 2017). "Pokud Trump nařídí útok na Asada, má v kapse "velkou" dohodu s Putinem" [If Trump orders an attack on Assad, he has "big" deal with Putin]. Britské listy (in Czech). Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
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External links[edit]

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