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A Torx T8 screw on a "hard disk drive.
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T6 screw driver

Torx (pronounced "/tɔːrks/), developed in 1967[1] by Camcar "Textron,[2] is the trademark for a type of "screw head characterized by a 6-point star-shaped pattern. A popular generic name for the drive is star, as in star screwdriver or star bits. The official generic name, standardized by the "International Organization for Standardization as ISO 10664, is hexalobular internal.[3] This is sometimes abbreviated in databases and catalogs as 6lobe (starting with numeral, 6, not a capital letter, G). Torx Plus is an improved head profile.

Torx screws are commonly found on "automobiles, "motorcycles, "bicycle brake systems ("disc brakes), "hard disk drives, "computer systems and "consumer electronics. Initially, they were sometimes used in applications requiring "tamper resistance, since the drive systems and "screwdrivers were not widely available; as drivers became more common, tamper-resistant "variants, as described below, were developed.[4] Torx screws are also becoming increasingly popular in construction industries.

Contents

Principles of operation[edit]

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The angle between the plane of contact between tool and fastener and the circumferentially directed force is much closer to 90º in a Torx type of head (lower) than in a conventional hex head (upper).

By design, Torx head screws resist "cam-out better than "Phillips head or "slot head screws.[1] Whereas Phillips heads were allegedly designed to cause the driver to cam out, to prevent overtightening, Torx heads were designed to prevent cam-out. The development of better "torque-limiting automatic screwdrivers for use in factories allowed this change. Rather than rely on the tool to slip out of the screw head when a desired torque level is reached (which risks damage to the driver tip, screw head, and/or workpiece), torque-limiting driver designs achieve a desired torque consistently.

The Torx design allows for a higher torque to be exerted than a similarly sized conventional hex socket head without damaging the head and/or the tool.[1] The diagram on the right depicts the interaction between the male and female components of a conventional hex drive and a Torx drive. The clearance between the components is exaggerated for clarity.

The green circle, passing through the six points of contact between the two components, represents the direction of the rotational force being exerted at each of those points. Because the plane of contact is not perpendicular to this circle, a radial force is also generated which tends to "burst" the female component and "crush" the male one. If this radial force component is too great for the material to withstand, it will cause the corners to be rounded off one or both components or will split the sides of the female part. The magnitude of this force is proportional to the "cotangent of the angle (depicted in orange) between the green circle and the contact plane.

For the Torx type of design, the angle is much closer to 90º than in the case of the hex head, and so for a given torque the potentially damaging radial force is much lower. This property allows the head of the fastener to be smaller for the same required torque, which can be an advantage in applications where space to accommodate the head is limited.

The disadvantage on older Torx heads is that the smaller internal "splines" can "corrode relatively easily and cause the Torx driver to slip and damage the head, making it more difficult to remove than the traditional hexagon head.

Sizing[edit]

Part of a series on
"Screw drive types
"Screw Head - Slotted.svg "Slot
"Screw Head - Phillips.svg "Phillips
PH
"Screw Head - Pozidrive.svg "Pozidriv (SupaDriv)
PZ
"Screw Head - Frearson.svg "Frearson
"Screw Head - Square External.svg "Square
"Screw Head - Robertson.svg "Robertson
"Screw Head - Hex External.svg "Hex
"Screw Head - 12-Point external.svg "12-point flange
"Screw Head - Hex Socket.svg "Hex socket (Allen)
"Screw Head - Hex Socket Tamperproof.svg "Security hex socket (pin-in-hex-socket)
"Screw Head - Torx.svg Torx
T & TX
"Screw Head - Torx Tamperproof.svg "Security Torx
TR
"Screw Head - TA.svg TA
"Screw Head - Tri-point.svg "Tri-point
"Screw Head - Tri-wing.svg Tri-wing
"Screw Head - Torq-set.svg "Torq-set
"Screw Head - Spanner.svg "Spanner head
(pig nose)
TH
"Screw Head - Clutch Type G.svg "Clutch
A & G
"Screw Head - One-way Clutch.svg "One-way
"Screw Head - Double Square.svg "Double-square
"Screw Head - Triple Square.svg "Triple-square
XZN
"Screw Head - Polydrive.svg "Polydrive
"Screw Head - Spline.svg "Spline drive
"Screw Head - Double Hex.svg "Double hex
"Screw Head - Bristol.svg "Bristol
"Pentalobular.svg "Pentalobe

Torx head sizes are described using the capital letter "T" followed by a number ranging from T1 to T100.[5] A smaller number corresponds to a smaller point-to-point dimension of the screw head (diameter of circle circumscribed on the cross-section of the tip of the screw driver). Common sizes include T10, T15, and T25, while T5.5, T35, and T47 tend to see specialized use. Only the proper driver can drive a specific head size without risk of damaging the driver or screw. The same series of Torx drivers is used to drive "SAE, "metric and other thread system fasteners, reducing the number of bit sizes required.

The "external" variants of Torx head sizes (see below) are described using the capital letter "E" followed by a number ranging from E4 to E44.[6] The "E" numbers are different from the "T" numbers of the same size: for example, an E4 Torx socket fits a T20 head.[5]

Properties of various Torx drives[5]
Size Point-to-point distance Maximum torque range ~ E Torx
(in) (mm) (lb·ft) (N·m)
T1 0.031 0.81 0.01–0.02 0.02–0.03
T2 0.036 0.93 0.05–0.07 0.07–0.09
T3 0.046 1.10 0.10–0.13 0.14–0.18
T4 0.050 1.28 0.16–0.21 0.22–0.28
T5 0.055 1.42 0.32–0.38 0.43–0.51 E2
T5.5[7]
T6 0.066 1.70 0.55–0.66 0.75–0.90
T7 0.078 1.99 1.0–1.3 1.4–1.7
T8 0.090 2.31 1.6–1.9 2.2–2.6
T9 0.098 2.50 2.1–2.5 2.8–3.4
T10 0.107 2.74 2.7–3.3 3.7–4.5
T15 0.128 3.27 4.7–5.7 6.4–7.7
T20 0.151 3.86 7.74–9.37 10.5–12.7 E4
T25 0.173 4.43 11.7–14.0 15.9–19 E5
T27 0.195 4.99 16.6–19.8 22.5–26.9
T30 0.216 5.52 22.9–27.6 31.1–37.4 E6
T35[8]
T40 0.260 6.65 39.9–48.0 54.1–65.1 E8
T45 0.306 7.82 63.4–76.1 86–103.2
T47[9][10] GM-Style
T50 0.346 8.83 97.4–117 132–158 E10
T55 0.440 11.22 161–189 218–256 E12
T60 0.519 13.25 280–328 379–445 E16
T70 0.610 15.51 465–516 630–700 E18
T80 0.690 17.54 696–773 943–1048 E20
T90 0.784 19.92 984–1094 1334–1483
T100 0.871 22.13 1359–1511 1843–2048 E24

Variants[edit]

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Security Torx driver
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External Torx driver
Properties of various External Torx drives
Size   Point-to-point distance [5]    Standard fastener selection [6] 
(in) (mm) SAE Metric
E4 0.15 3.8 #6 M3
E5 0.18 4.7 #8 M4
E6 0.22 5.6 #10 M5
E7 0.24 6.1
E8 0.29 7.4 1/4" M6 & M7
E10 0.36 9.3 5/16" M8
E12 0.43 11.1 3/8" M10 & M11
E14 0.50 12.8 7/16" M12
E16 0.57 14.7 1/2"
E18 0.65 16.6 9/16" M14
E20 0.72 18.4 5/8" M16
E24 0.87 22.1 3/4" M18 & M20
E28 7/8" M22
E32 1" M24 & M27
E36 1-1/8" M30
E40 1-1/4" M33
E44 1-3/8" M36

Competitive variants[edit]

AW drive is a similar hexalobular type screw head to Torx, with a tapered profile to aid in centering, developed by the "Würth Group in Germany.[21] Available in five sizes: AW 10, AW 20, AW 25, AW 30 and AW 40.[22]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c U.S. Patent 3,584,667, Bernard F Reiland, "Coupling arrangement and tools for same", filed 1967-03-21
  2. ^ Camcar eventually became part of Textron Fastening Systems in the 1990s. In 2006 Textron Fastening Systems was sold to Platinum Equities, LLC, of Beverly Hills, California. They renamed the company Acument Global Technologies, which as of 2010 includes Avdel, Camcar, Ring Screw, and others. In 2014, Acument was sold from Platinum Equity to Fontana Gruppo.
  3. ^ ISO 10664:2005, ISO.org, retrieved 2012-01-14 
  4. ^ Paul Sharke (June 2005). "Fast and Secure: how much proof is tamperproof?". Mechanical Engineering. 127 (6): 32. "ISSN 0025-6501. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Chart of Torx fasteners and tools". Wiha Tools USA. Archived from the original on 2015-12-26. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  6. ^ a b "TORX Drive System" (PDF). Textron Fastening Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01-02. 
  7. ^ "16pc torx bit set". Amtech Tools. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
  8. ^ "2 Pcs T35 3/13 Torx Head Screwdriver Link 1/2 Square Mechanic Drive Socket". 
  9. ^ "FTX47E, Socket Driver, TORX, GM-Style, T47". 
  10. ^ "Fiero Torx Sockets". 
  11. ^ a b "TORX PLUS Drive System" (PDF). Acument. 
  12. ^ "TORX PLUS Long arm L-Keys". Wiha Tools USA. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  13. ^ Egon Pavlis (16 March 2010). "When a Phillips is not a Phillips Plus So Much More!". "Instructables. 
  14. ^ "Fastening Solutions" (PDF). Acument. 
  15. ^ "Tamper-Resistant TORX PLUS Drive System" (PDF). Textron Fastening Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-10. 
  16. ^ "TS Star Bits (5 Sided) 1/4"D 7pc - Part No. 3389 - Part of the TS Star/Torx* Plus range from Laser Tools". Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  17. ^ "Security TORX PLUS Insert Bits". Wiha Tools USA. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  18. ^ US patent 6951158, Jone Edland, "System comprising a screw and a tool therefor", issued 2005-10-04 
  19. ^ "TTAP Fastener". Acument Global Technologies. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  20. ^ "Torx TTAP Advantages". TTAP Drive AS. Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  21. ^ "Technical Information on Fasteners: Design recommendations 11.1 Inside drives for screws – AW drive (AW-Antrieb)" (PDF). Adolf Würth GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 2 March 2017. 
  22. ^ "Construction Range Overview (Fasteners: Introducing the AW Drive System, p3)" (PDF). Würth New Zealand. 2016. 

External links[edit]

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