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The "Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in "Turkmenistan is a "Latin alphabet based on the "Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the "dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values [æ] and [ŋ], respectively.

At the start of the 20th century, when Turkmen started to be written, it used the "Arabic script, but in 1928 the Latin script was adopted. In 1940, the "Russian influence in "Soviet Turkmenistan prompted a switch to a "Cyrillic alphabet, and a Turkmen Cyrillic alphabet (shown below in the table alongside the Latin) was created. When Turkmenistan became independent in 1991, President "Saparmurat Niyazov immediately instigated a return to the Latin script. When it was reintroduced it was supposed to use some unusual letters, such as the pound ("£), dollar ("$), yen ("¥), and cent signs ("¢), but these were replaced by more conventional letter symbols. The political and social forces that have combined to bring about these changes of script, then modifications of the Latin script, have been documented by Victoria Clement (2008).

Turkmen is still often written with an "Arabic alphabet in other countries where the language is spoken and where the Arabic script is dominant (such as "Iran and "Afghanistan).

Contents

Evolution of Latin script[edit]

Current
Latin
Cyrillic IPA Latin, 1993 Latin, 1992–1993 Latin 1927–1940
A a А а [a] A a A a A a
B b Б б [b] B b B b B b
Ç ç Ч ч [tʃ] Ç ç C c C c
D d Д д [d] D d D d D d
E e initial Э э
non-init. Е е
[e] E e E e E e
Ä ä Ә ә [æ] Ä ä Ea ea Ә ә
F f Ф ф [ɸ] F f F f F f
G g Г г [g~ʁ] G g G g G g
H h Х х [h~x] H h H h H/X h/x
I i И и [i] I i I i I i
J j Җ җ [dʒ] J j J j Ç ç
Ž ž Ж ж [ʒ] £ ſ Jh jh Ƶ ƶ
K k К к [k~q] K k K k K/Q k/q
L l Л л [l] L l L l L l
M m М м [m] M m M m M m
N n Н н [n] N n N n N n
Ň ň Ң ң [ŋ] Ñ ñ Ng ng Ŋ ŋ
O o О о [o] O o O o O o
Ö ö Ө ө [ø] Ö ö Q q Ө ө
P p П п [p] P p P p P p
R r Р р [r] R r R r R r
S s С с [θ] S s S s S s
Ş ş Ш ш [ʃ] $ ¢ Sh sh Ş ş
T t Т т [t] T t T t T t
U u У у [u] U u U u U u
Ü ü Ү ү [y] Ü ü V v Y y
W w В в [β] W w W w V v
Y y Ы ы [ɯ] Y y X x -
Ý ý Й й [j] ¥ ÿ Y y J j
Z z З з [ð] Z z Z z Z z

Sample text (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)[edit]

Correspondence chart[edit]

Latin
letter
Cyrillic
equivalent
Arabic
equivalent
Phonetic
value
English Approximation
A a А а ا [a, aː] Father
B b Б б ب [b] Ball
Ç ç Ч ч چ [t͡ʃ] Cheek
D d Д д د [d] Dean
E e Е е اِ– ە [je], [e] Yes, Egg
Ä ä Ә ә أ [æ, æː] Hat, Had
F f Ф ф ف [ɸ] Face
G g Г г غ - گ - ق [ɡ~ʁ] Get
H h Х х ح - خ - هـ [h~x] Hat, Loch
I i И и ای [i, iː] Mini
J j Җ җ ج [d͡ʒ] Joke
Ž ž Ж ж ژ [ʒ] Treasure
K k К к ق - ك [k~q] Look
L l Л л ل [l] Lake
M m М м م [m] Mole
N n Н н ن [n] Nest
Ň ň Ң ң نگ [ŋ] Sing
O o О о اوْ [o, oː] Horse
Ö ö Ө ө اؤ [ø, øː] Measure
P p П п پ [p] Loop
R r Р р ر [r] Rim
S s С с ث - س - ص [θ, s] Thick, Sick
Ş ş Ш ш ش [ʃ] Shimmer
T t Т т ت - ط [t] Austin
U u У у اوُ [u, uː] Fluent
Ü ü Ү ү اۆ [y, yː] Pure
W w В в و [β] Valley
Y y Ы ы اؽ [ɯ, ɯː] Roses
Ý ý Й й ی [j] Yacht
Z z З з ز - ذ - ض - ظ [ð, z] There, Zoo

Letter names and pronunciation[edit]

Pronunciation of the Latin alphabet[edit]

Türkmen elipbiýi

Letter Name "IPA Letter Name "IPA
"A, a a /a, aː/ "N, n en /n/
"B, b be /b/ "Ň, ň /ŋ/
"Ç, ç çe /tʃ/ "O, o o /o, oː/
"D, d de /d/ "Ö, ö ö /ø, øː/
"E, e e /e/ "P, p pe /p/
"Ä, ä ä /æ, æː/ "R, r er /r/
"F, f fe /ɸ/ "S, s es /θ, s/
"G, g ge /ɡ~ʁ/ "Ş, ş şe /ʃ/
"H, h he /h~x/ "T, t te /t/
"I, i i /i, iː/ "U, u u /u, uː/
"J, j je /dʒ/ "Ü, ü ü /y, yː/
"Ž, ž že /ʒ/ "W, w we /β/
"K, k ka /k~q/ "Y, y y /ɯ, ɯː/
"L, l el /l/ "Ý, ý ýe /j/
"M, m em /m/ "Z, z ze /ð, z/

Cyrillic[edit]

түркмен элипбийи

Common in Russia

Arabic[edit]

توركمن الیپبایی

Common in Iran and Afghanistan

Vowels[edit]

[1]

Letter "IPA Latin equivalent
آ /a, aː/ a
أ /æ, æː/ ä
اِ /e/ e
اوْ /o, oː/ o
اؤ /ø, øː/ ö
اوُ /u, uː/ u
اۆ /y, yː/ ü
ای /i, iː/ i
اؽ /ɯ, ɯː/ y

Consonants[edit]

Letter "IPA Latin equivalent Letter "IPA Latin equivalent
ب /b/ b ض /ð/ z
پ /p/ p ط /t/ t
ت /t/ t ظ /ð/ z
ث /θ/ s ع /ʔ/
ج /dʒ/ j غ /ɡ~ʁ/ g
چ /t͡ʃ/ ç ف /f/ f
ح /h/ h ق /ɡ~ʁ~q/ g-k
خ /x/ h ك /k/ k
د /d/ d گ /g/ g
ذ /z/ z ل /l/ l
ر /r/ r م /m/ m
ز /z/ z ن /n/ n
ژ /ʒ/ ž ڭ /ŋ/ ň
س /θ/ s و /β/ w
ش /ʃ/ ş هـ /h/ h
ص /θ/ s ی /j/ ý

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]

External links[edit]

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