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Ukrainian Ground Forces
Сухопутні Війська України
""Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.svg
Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces
Active

1919–1922

12 December 1991–present
Size 260,000 Active personnel (2016)[1]
80,000 Reserve (2016)[2]
Headquarters "Kiev
Anniversaries "Army Day (12 December, anniversary of the 1991 formation of the Ground Forces).[3]
Engagements "Kosovo Force (KFOR)
"Iraq War
"War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
"2014 Russian invasion of Crimea
"War in Donbass
Commanders
Current
commander
"Lieutenant General Serhiy Popko[4]
Insignia
Ground Forces Ensign ""Ensign of Ukrainian Ground Forces
Flag of Ukraine ""Ukrainian Ground Forces

The Ukrainian Ground Forces ("Ukrainian: Сухопутні Війська ЗСУ, Sukhoputni Viys’ka ZSU) are the land force component of the "Armed Forces of Ukraine. They were formed from "Soviet Ground Forces formations, units, and establishments, including three "military districts (the "Kiev, "Carpathian, and "Odessa Military Districts), that were on Ukrainian soil when the "Soviet Union collapsed in 1990–92.

Since "Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 Ukraine retained its Soviet-era army equipment and have not replaced nor upgraded it.[5] Also the Armed Forces have been systematically downsized since 1991 and as a result it was largely dilapidated in July 2014.[5] Since the start of the "War in Donbass in April 2014 in "eastern Ukraine Ukraine is upgrading its Armed Forces.[5][6][7] Its size of 129,950 in March 2014[8] had grown to 204,000 active personnel in May 2015.[1] In 2016 75% of the army consisted of contract servicemen.[2]

Contents

History[edit]

Prior to the "October Revolution of 1917, three separate self-governing Ukrainian states existed on what is Ukraine today. Each of these states possessed armed forces. The largest of these, the "Ukrainian People's Republic, itself comprised three separate regimes. The "Ukrainian People's Army is an example of one of the early national armed forces. Other armed independence movements existed in the wake of both the "First World War and the "Second World War, and these armies each had distinct organisation and uniforms. These armed forces, and the independent Ukrainian homeland for which they fought, were eventually incorporated into the neighboring states of "Poland, "Soviet Union, "Hungary, "Romania and "Czechoslovakia.[9]

Collapse of the USSR[edit]

The Armed Forces of Ukraine included approximately 780,000 personnel, 7,000 "armored vehicles, 6,500 tanks, and 2,500 "tactical nuclear missiles when they were established. However, the problem that Ukraine face was that while it had vast armed forces, it lacked a proper command structure. Therefore, on 24 August 1991, the "Verkhovna Rada of "Ukraine ratified the resolution of taking under its control, all military units of former Soviet Armed Forces, situated on the territory of Ukraine; and in turn the establishment of the "Ministry of Defence of Ukraine.

Creation of the Ground Forces[edit]

"Armed Forces of Ukraine
""Emblem of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg
Main branches
""Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.svg Ground Forces
""Emblem of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg "Air Force
""Emblem of the Ukrainian Navy.svg "Navy
""Emblem of Airmobile troops of Ukraine.svg "Airmobile Forces
""Special Operations Forces of Ukraine.svg "Special Operations Forces
Other Corps
""Емблема морської піхоти (2007).png "Naval Infantry
Related Services
""Emblem of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine.svg "Ministry of Defence
""General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg "General Staff
""Геральдичний знак - емблема МВС України.svg "Ministry of Internal Affairs
""NSAU Logo1.svg "National Space Agency
Intelligence
""Security Service of Ukraine Emblem.svg "Security Service
""Емблема СЗРУ.png "Foreign Intelligence Service
""Emblem of the Defence Intelligence of Ukraine.svg "Military Intelligence Service
History of the Ukrainian Military
"History of Ukraine
"History of Ukraine during WWII
"History of Ukraine during WWI

Following the declaration of Ukrainian independence in 1991, Ukraine inherited the "1st Guards Army, "13th Army, "38th Army, two tank armies (the "6th Guards Tank Army and the 8th Tank Army), and the 32nd Army Corps (32-й Кенигсберский армейский корпус) at "Simferopol. In addition, the "28th Guards Motor Rifle Division (MRD) and the 180th MRD were left in Ukraine, having been previously under the "14th Guards Army headquartered at "Tiraspol in the "Moldovan SSR. The post of commander of ground troops was designated in early 1992. By the end of 1992, the "Kiev Military District disbanded, and Ukraine used its structures as the basis for the Ministry of Defence and the "General Staff.[10] Between June and August 1993, the first redesignation of armies to army corps appears to have taken place.[11] While the chief of ground forces post had been created in early 1992, it was over two years before the first holder, Colonel General Vasily Sobkov, was appointed on 7 April 1994.[12] The legal framework for the Ground Forces was defined in Article 4 of the law 'On the Armed Forces of Ukraine.' At that time, the Ground Forces had no separate command body, and were directly subordinate to the Ukrainian General Staff.

The creation of the Ground Forces as a separate armed service was legally only put in train by Presidential Decree 368/96 of 23 May 1996, 'On the Ground Forces of Ukraine.'[13] That year both the Ground Forces Command was formed and the 1st Army Corps was reorganised as the Northern Territorial Operational Command (which became the Northern Operational Command in 1998). In 1997 the Carpathian Military District was reorganised as the Western Operational Command.

From 1992 to 1997, the forces of the Kiev MD were transferred to the Odessa MD, and the Odessa MD's headquarters moved to "Donetsk.[14] A new 2nd Army Corps was formed in the Odessa MD. Armies were converted to army corps, and motor rifle divisions converted into mechanised divisions or brigades. Pairs of attack helicopter regiments were combined to form army aviation brigades.

President "Leonid Kuchma revealed in a December 1996 speech that as many as 191 mechanised infantry and tank battalions were rated not ready, adding,"This is especially dangerous in the forward-based units securing the nation's borders."[15]

Reform[edit]

According to a plan promulgated in 2000 the Ground Forces were to reduce the number of troops from the then 300,000 to 240,000 by 2015, and an ultimate change from a partial "conscript-based force to a fully professional military.[16] Even though the Armed Forces received little more than half of the "Hr 68 million it was promised for reform in 2001, officials were able to disband nine "regiments and close 21 local military bases.[nb 1]

In 2005–06, the Northern Operational Command was reorganised as "Territorial Directorate "North". It was tasked with territorial defence, mobilisation training, and preparation of reserves.[17][nb 2]

From 1991 the Ukrainian Ground Forces bought its military equipment only from "Russia and other "CIS states, as well as locally producing some of their own equipment.[5][6] The "defence industry in Ukraine produced equipment was not used to equip the Armed Forces prior to the "War in Donbass (that started in April 2014[19]) but it produced only for export.[5]

Loss of Crimea[edit]

In the aftermath of the "2014 Ukrainian Revolution, Russian special forces in unmarked uniforms began surrounding Ukrainian military bases on the Crimea before capturing them individually using a mixture of attrition and threats.[20] Over the following weeks the "Russian Armed Forces consolidated control of the peninsula and established road blocks to cut off the possibility of Ukraine sending reinforcements from the mainland.[21] By the end of March, all remaining Ukrainian troops were ordered to pull out of Crimea.[22] The Ukrainian Army was considered to be in a poor state during and after the annexation with only 6,000 of its troops ready for combat and many of its vehicles lacking batteries.[23] (According to February 2016 official Ukrainian figures) after "Russia's annexation 6.000 of the pre-annexation 20.300 people strong Ukrainian army personnel left Crimea.[24]

War in Donbass[edit]

Military Training and Education Centers[edit]

""
""
Ukrainian special forces soldier during an exercise.
""
""
Ukrainian and Canadian soldiers converse with each other during the 2014 Rapid Trident exercise in Yavoriv, Ukraine.

Training in 2006 was aimed at developing mobility and combat readiness of the forces.[25] The Ukrainian armed forces took advantage of the opportunities provided by "UN exercises and exercises where Ukraine and "NATO nations and other partners participated.[25][26]

Training resulted in 6,000 combat-ready troops in the spring of 2014 of Ukraine's (then) 129,950 active military personnel.[23][27] In 2016 the Ukrainian army had more than 200,000 combat-ready soldiers of its 260,000 active personnel.[1][28]

In 2015 Ukraine, the "United States, the "United Kingdom and "Canada established the Joint Multinational Training Group – Ukraine (JMTG-U) and they set up three new training sites, in "Khmelnytskyi, "Yavoriv and "Kamianets-Podilskyi.[28]

Education Centers[edit]

In 2007 the system of exercise/training ranges was optimized, decreasing their number and providing a specialized role.[29]

Schooling Occurs at:

While Training Ranges are:

  • Uzhgorod Military Training Center (48°39'44"N 22°26'27"E)
  • Storozhynets Military Training Center (48°8'5"N 25°50'24"E)
  • Yavoriv Military Training Center (50°2'44"N 23°36'21"E)
  • Rivne Military Training Center (50°48'22"N 26°33'12"E)
  • Novohrad-Volynskyi Military Training Center (50°40'3"N 27°32'33"E)
  • Zhytomyr Military Training Center (50°9'59"N 28°31'9"E)
  • Soshnikovskyi Military Training Center (50°1'19"N 31°10'29"E)
  • Maloye Ozero Military Training Center (51°16'19"N 32°52'41"E)
  • Poltava Military Training Center (49°37'27"N 34°36'35"E)
  • Chuhuiv Military Training Center (49°49'11"N 36°47'31"E)
  • Chervona Polyana Military Training Center (47°50'28"N 33°10'40"E)
  • Samarskyi Bor Military Training Center (48°42'34"N 35°27'27"E)
  • Mykolaiv Military Training Center (47°5'16"N 32°0'32"E)
  • Shyrokiy Lan Military Training Center (47°4'4"N 31°32'40"E)
  • Chornomorske Military Training Center (46°36'44"N 30°55'54"E)
  • Bolhrad Military Training Center (45°41'11"N 28°43'36"E)
  • Shirokyi Ovrag Military Training Center (46°51'48"N 36°58'9"E)

Branches of the Ground Forces[edit]

Armoured and mechanised forces[edit]

""
""
Ukrainian Army soldiers and "BMP-2 in "Mariupol.
""
""
Ukrainian Army "T-64BM during a training.

Mechanised Infantry and armoured forces are the primary components of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. Their primary objectives in case of war are capturing and holding targets, maintaining positions, defending against attack, penetrating enemy lines and defeating enemy forces.

The mechanised and armoured forces are equipped with "T-64[31] and "T-64BM "Bulat"[32] main battle tanks; "BTR-4, "BTR-60, "BTR-70 and "BTR-80, wheeled armored personnel carriers and "BMP-1, "BMP-2 and "BMD-2 infantry combat vehicles.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, a large number of the previous Soviet mechanised formations on Ukrainian soil have been disbanded – the "IISS says totals have dropped from 14 divisions, in 1992, to two divisions, six brigades, and one independent regiment in 2008.[33] Today, all mechanised and armoured formations are called "brigades.

Mountain Troops[edit]

The Ukrainian Ground Forces also include two mountain infantry brigades.

Army Aviation[edit]

"Army Aviation provides "reconnaissance, tactical fire support and air transport for the Ukrainian Ground Forces. As of 2017 Ukraine's army fields four Army Aviation brigades:

The Army Aviation's maintenance facility is the 57th Aviation Base in Brody. The service's equipment includes: "Mi-2, "Mi-8, "Mi-9, "Mi-24 and "Mi-26 helicopters.

Rocket Forces and Artillery[edit]

""
""
Ukrainian "BM-30 Smerch heavy "multiple rocket launchers on parade in Kiev

Army Air Defence[edit]

The Army Air Defence units are responsible for covering troops against enemy air attacks anywhere on the battlefield, and while in combat. The Ukrainian Ground Forces army air defence branch is equipped with a variety of effective "surface-to-air missile systems of division level and "anti-aircraft missile and "artillery complexes of "regiment level. Regiment level units are characterized by their high rate of fire, vitality, maneuverability, and capability of action under all conditions of modern combat arms operations. Surface-to-air missile systems and complexes of division level are characterized by their long range and firepower and are equipped with surface-to-air missile complexes;S-300V,Osa, Buk, Buk-M1 and Tor. While anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes that are of regiment level are equipped with the Tunguska-M1, Igla "MANPADS system, Strela, and Shilka anti-aircraft missile systems.[34] While the army's only separate radar system, meaning it isn't a part of any anti-aircraft system, is the Ukrainian "Kolchuga-M. It was designed sometime between the years 1993–1997, the system is said to be one of the most (if not the most) advanced passive sensors in the world, as it was claimed to be able to detect stealth aircraft.[35]

Structure[edit]

2017 structure of the Ukrainian Ground Forces after the reorganization caused by the "Donbass War. It built and expanded on the 2011 structure.[36]

The 4th Army Corps of the Reserve ("Ukrainian: 4-й армійський корпус резерву) is a new formation, directly subordinated to the General Staff. It is also called the Strategic Reserve Army Corps. Its main function is to prepare and administer the reservists of the ground forces. According to plans it should be fully operational by 2020 with reserve servicemen in three separate categories[40]:

Geographic Distribution[edit]

""Ukrainian Ground Forces is located in Ukraine Relief Location Map - Ground Forces Operational Commands
""

Location of Ukrainian Ground Forces units

""DeepPink pog.svg Tank, ""Pink pog.svg Mechanized, ""Green 008000 pog.svg Motorized, ""Green 008000 pog.svg Mountain Infantry, ""Yellow pog.svg Artillery, ""Orange pog.svg Rocket Artillery, ""Blue 0080ff pog.svg Army Aviation
Regiments: ""Orange pog.svg Rocket Artillery, ""Red pog.svg Anti-Aircraft Missile Artillery, ""Black pog.svg Engineer
units in Italics are directly subordinated to Ground Forces Command

List of Commanders[edit]

Military ranks[edit]

As a non-member state, NATO rank codes are not used in Ukraine, they are presented here for reference purposes only

In the new uniforms the Ukrainian Army unveiled in August 2016 the stars that traditionally adorn shoulder straps have been replaced by diamonds.[41] A new set of insignia are being adopted.

General and officer ranks[edit]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 "OF(D) & Student officer
"Ukraine Ukraine
("Edit)
""UA shoulder mark 22.svg ""UA shoulder mark 21.svg ""UA shoulder mark 20.svg ""UA shoulder mark 19.svg ""UA shoulder mark 18.svg ""UA shoulder mark 17.svg ""UA shoulder mark 16.svg ""UA shoulder mark 15.svg ""UA shoulder mark 14.svg ""UA shoulder mark 13.svg ""UA shoulder mark 12.svg ""UA shoulder mark 11.svg ""None.svg
"General of the army of Ukraine
(Генерал армії України)
"Colonel General
(Генерал-полковник)
"Lieutenant General
(Генерал-лейтенант)
"Major General
(Генерал-майор)
"Brigadier
(Бригадний генерал)
"Colonel
(Полковник)
"Lieutenant Colonel
(Підполковник)
"Major
(Майор)
"Captain
(Капітан)|
"First Lieutenant
(Старший лейтенант)
"Lieutenant
(Лейтенант)
"Second Lieutenant
(Хорунжий)
"Officer cadet
(курсант)

Other ranks and NCOs[edit]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
"Ukraine Ukraine
("Edit)
""UA shoulder mark 10.svg ""UA shoulder mark 09.svg ""UA shoulder mark 08.svg ""UA shoulder mark 07.svg ""UA shoulder mark 06.svg ""UA shoulder mark 05.svg ""UA shoulder mark 04.svg ""UA shoulder mark 03.svg ""UA shoulder mark 02.svg ""UA shoulder mark 01.svg
"Chief Master Sergeant
Головний майстер-сержант
"Master Sergeant
Майстер-сержант Головний
"Sergeant First Class
Головний штаб-сержант
"Second Sergeant
Штаб-сержант
"Third Sergeant
Головний сержант
"Staff Sergeant
Старший сержант
"Sergeant
Сержант
"Corporal
Капрал
"Private First Class
Старший солдат
"Private
Солдат

Equipment[edit]

Hardware[edit]

""T-64BM pre parade.jpg ""BTR-4E in Kyiv.jpg ""OSCE SMM monitoring the movement of heavy weaponry in eastern Ukraine (16730571432).jpg ""Ukrainian Humvees IMG 7649.JPG ""KrAZ-6322 during the Independence parade in Kiev, 2008.jpg ""9K22 Tunguska during the Independence Day parade in Kiev.JPG ""Mi24ukraine.JPG


Uniforms[edit]

The Ukrainian Army unveiled its new uniforms on 24 August 2016 ("Independence Day of Ukraine).[41] The new uniforms are modeled on British military styles.[41] They also incorporate details from the uniforms worn by the "Ukrainian People's Army.[41] The new cap includes an insignia of a "Ukrainian Cossack grasping a cross.[41]

Deployment outside of Ukraine[edit]

Iraq[edit]

""
""
Henadii Lachkov, commander of the Ukrainian contingent in Iraq, kisses his country's flag

Ukraine deployed a sizable contingent of troops to the "Iraq War, these were stationed near "Kut. Ukraine's troop deployment was the second largest of all former Soviet states besides "Georgia and they deployed more soldiers to the nation then many members of "NATO such as Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Ukraine also suffered the fifth highest casualty toll during the war, with only Polish, Italian, UK, and US forces suffering heavier losses.[42]

From 2003-2005 over 1,700 Ukrainian soldiers were deployed to Iraq, the third largest contingent at the time, they were designated to the "5th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine), as in Ukraine's mission to Kosovo the troops deployed were contract soldiers and not conscripts. Ukraine began to severely draw down its troop levels in Iraq in 2005 due to mounting casualties and the political toxicity of the conflict. By 2005 only 876 soldiers, roughly half of the original contingent were deployed, by years end troop levels dropped to below 100. In 2008, one year before the official end of the US military mission President Viktor Yushchenko ordered all remaining troops deployed to Iraq returned home and Ukraine's mission to the nation officially over.[43]

Afghanistan[edit]

Since 2001 Ukraine allowed United States military cargo planes to fly over and refuel on Ukrainian soil on their way to Afghanistan. In 2007 Ukraine deployed a detachment of the 143rd De-mining Center of the "Armed Forces of Ukraine to Afghanistan. Ukraine has kept a team of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan as part of ISAF since 2007, these mostly consisted of pilots, medical officers, and bomb disposal experts. Ukrainian pilots were responsible for training the pilots of the Afghan Air Force on the operation of several air craft as Afghanistan's forces consisted of many Soviet designed aircraft such as the "Mi-17 with which Ukrainian troops were very familiar with. In 2013 the contingent of troops in Afghanistan totaled 26 troops. As of 2014 the Ukrainian contingent was further drawn down and the team included 8 bomb disposal experts and several medical officers.[44]

Kosovo[edit]

Ukrainian forces have also been deployed to "Kosovo since 2000 as part of the 600 man "Polish–Ukrainian Peace Force Battalion. In August 2014 Ukraine ended its mission to Kosovo due to the "2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[45]

Africa[edit]

Ukrainian peacekeeping forces have been deployed to the "Democratic Republic of Congo, "Liberia, "Sudan and "South Sudan and "Cote d'Ivoire. Ukrainian forces have also been requested to take a more active role in the "Northern Mali Conflict of 2012 in battling Islamic forces. One of the largest deployments is the 18th Separate Helicopter Unit of the Armed Forces of Ukraine which consisted of 160 servicemen and four "Mi-24P helicopters and was deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2011.[46]

Military Decorations[edit]

""Ukrainian Goldenstar.jpg
""Zasluhy-1.jpg
""Hmel-1.jpg
""Mugnist-1.jpg
""Orden-danilo-galitsky.jpg
""Order of Ivan Mazepa.jpg
""Vijs-slug.jpg
""Bezdog-1.jpg
""Ukraine-Defender of the Motherland Medal.PNG


Veterans[edit]

Ukraine provides combat veterans with various benefits. Ukrainians who have served in World War II, "Soviet war in Afghanistan, or as liquidators at the "Chernobyl disaster are eligible for benefits such as; a monthly allowance, discount on medical and pharmacy services, free use of public transportation, additional vacation days from work, having priority for retention in case of work layoffs, easier loan access and approval process, preference when applying for security related positions, priority when applying to vocation school or trade school, and electricity, gas, and housing subsidies. Veterans are also eligible to stay at military sanatoriums permitting there is space. Since gaining independence Ukraine has deployed troops to Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan gaining a new generation of veterans separate from those who have served in the Soviet forces. Most recently the government passed a law extending veteran benefits to Ukrainian troops participating in the "2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Moreover, veterans from other nations who move to or reside in Ukraine may be eligible for some of the listed benefits, this provision was likely made to ensure World War II, Chernobyl, and Afghanistan veterans from other Soviet states who moved to Ukraine received similar benefits, however as Ukraine has participated in numerous NATO led conflicts since its independence it is unclear if NATO veterans would be extended these benefits.[47]

Veteran groups are not as developed as in the United States which has numerous well known national organizations such as the "Veterans of Foreign Wars. World War II veterans, and even persons who have lived through the war are generally treated with the highest respect. Other veterans are not as well known. Ukrainian veterans from the Soviet War of Afghanistan are strikingly similar to the Vietnam veterans of the United States. The Soviet Union generally kept the public in the dark through the war, unlike in Vietnam where coverage was very high, Afghanistan is often labeled as a mistake by the Soviet Union and its successor states, the lack of media coverage and censorship through the war also ensured that many still remain unaware of their nations involvement in the conflict.[48] Despite Ukraine having the 3rd largest contingent of troops in Iraq in 2004 few also realize that their nation has many veterans of the Iraq war.

Soldiers that took part in the "War in Donbass can receive free land plots.[49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to the State Program of the Ukrainian Armed Forces reform and development to 2005, the ground forces were to have the biggest ratio of personnel of all services (up to 54%). This ratio was to be based on the missions assigned to the armed forces, and also on the fact that the "economy of Ukraine could not support any larger troop numbers. However, the ground forces still has priority in the number of personnel, weapons, military equipment development priorities and the development of their future systems, which were to correspond to "modern warfare requirements. The ground forces were planned to closely coordinate their assignments with other army branches, engaging appropriate military arts and equipment. They were to also be involved in law enforcement activities during emergencies, dealing with consequences of technological and "natural disasters, providing military assistance to other countries, engaging in international military cooperation activities ("UN), and participating in international peacekeeping operations according to international agreements.
  2. ^ It was reported on 27 July 2005 that '..[o]ver 70 per cent of planned work on [the] disbandment of the Ukrainian armed forces' Northern Operational Command has been completed,' according to the Defence Ministry's press service.[18]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Olga Rudenko (6 May 2014). "Thousands dodge Ukraine army in fight with rebels". USA Today. Retrieved 19 March 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Ukrainian army composed of 75% contract servicemen - president, "Interfax-Ukraine (24 August 2016)
  3. ^ Culture Smart! Ukraine by "Anna Shevchenko, Kuperard, 2006, "ISBN "978-1-85733-327-5
  4. ^ Poroshenko appoints ATO chief Commander of Land Forces, "UNIAN (28 March 2016)
    Poroshenko appoints ATO chief Popko as commander of ground forces, "Interfax-Ukraine (28 March 2016)
  5. ^ a b c d e In the Army Now: Answering Many Why's, "The Ukrainian Week (8 July 2014)
  6. ^ a b Ukraine must stop importing Russian weapons, switch to NATO standards, "Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2014)
  7. ^ Poroshenko says military hardware will bring Ukraine's victory closer, "Interfax-Ukraine (24 August 2016)
  8. ^ Adam Taylor (3 March 2014). "Ukraine's military is far smaller than Russia's, but there are 3 reasons it might not be so easy to crush". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2016. 
  9. ^ Abbott, P. & E. Pinak Ukrainian Armies 1914–55 (Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004), "ISBN "1780964013, 9781780964010
  10. ^ ANALYSIS: Ukraine adopts program for military reform, 03/02/1997
  11. ^ See references at "6th Guards Tank Army and "6th Army Corps (Ukraine). On 1 December 1993, 8th Guards Tank Army became 8th Army Corps.
  12. ^ Jane's Sentinel: Ukraine, 1994
  13. ^ Yuriy Yurchnya, 'The Armed Forces of Ukraine,' DCAF, 2010, 89.
  14. ^ Andrew Duncan, 'Ukraine's forces find that change is good,' "Jane's Intelligence Review, April 1997, 162–3.
  15. ^ Stephen D. Olynyk, Ukraine as a Post-Cold War Military Power, "Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1997, 93.
  16. ^ http://merln.ndu.edu/whitepapers/Ukraine_Eng-2005.pdf , page 4 of 136
  17. ^ Yurchnya, 2010, 91.
  18. ^ Interfax-AVN, 'Ukrainian army's Northern Operational Command being disbanded,' Interfax-AVN military news agency web site, Moscow, in English 1152 gmt 27 Jul 05 via "BBC Monitoring.
  19. ^ Ukraine crisis timeline, "BBC News
  20. ^ "Kiev announces plans to withdraw Ukrainian troops from Crimea". "The Guardian. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  21. ^ "Russia has sent 6,000 troops to Crimea says Ukraine". www.thejournal.ie. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  22. ^ "Ukraine orders all troops out of Crimea". "CBS News. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  23. ^ a b "Ukraine Battles to Rebuild a Depleted Military". "Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  24. ^ (in Ukrainian) After the annexation of Crimea left only 10% of staff SBU, "Ukrayinska Pravda (February 8, 2016)
  25. ^ a b Ukrainian Armed Forces 2006 White Book p.25
  26. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2006 White Book p.26
  27. ^ Explainer: How Do Russia's And Ukraine's Armies Compare?, "Radio Free Europe (6 March 2014)
  28. ^ a b Ukrainian army struggling with its training system, "Kyiv Post (14 September 2016)
  29. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2007 White Book p.42
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ (in Ukrainian) Minister of Defence visits 1st Armored Brigade
  32. ^ (in Ukrainian) People's Army Magazine
  33. ^ IISS Military Balance 1992/3, p 86, and Military Balance 2008, p 188
  34. ^ Structure of Ukrainian Armed Forces
  35. ^ http://thereliant.blogspot.com/2006/09/in-focus-kolchuga-esm-system.html
  36. ^ "Ukrainian Armed Forces White Book 2011" (PDF). Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Dovbaka Nicholas Ihorovych. "National defense" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba "Сухопутні війська" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  39. ^ "Новостворена танкова бригада склала іспит на полігоні "ШИРОКИЙ ЛАН"" [New Tank Brigade passess test at training ground "Shyrokyi Lan"]. Ministry of Defence of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). 28 December 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-22. 
  40. ^ http://www.ukrmilitary.com/2016/05/zminy-vijskovyi-rezerv.html
  41. ^ a b c d e Fashion statement: Ukrainian troops debut post-Soviet uniforms, "The Washington Times (25 August 2016)
  42. ^ "Ukraine withdraws last troops from Iraq". Reliefweb. 2005-12-05. 
  43. ^ "Ukrainians complete mission in Iraq". Army Times. 2008-11-08. 
  44. ^ "Українського контингенту Міжнародних сил сприяння безпеці в Афганістані". Ukraine Ministry of Defense. 2014-09-18. 
  45. ^ "Украина возвращает из Косово еще 100 миротворцев". Ukrinform. 2014-08-15. 
  46. ^ "Ukraine and Africa. Ukrainian Peacekeepers in Africa". Borysfen Intel. 2014-08-15. 
  47. ^ "Benefits for the servicemen of the ATO". Харькова Тимохов. 2014-09-08. 
  48. ^ "Vietnam Veterans Against the War: THE VETERAN: Afghanistan Veteran Once Removed". Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  49. ^ Soldiers participating in ATO get 863 land plots of 394 ha, 45% of petitions satisfied – land agency, "Interfax-Ukraine (16 December 2014)

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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