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Main article: "Meta-Object Facility
Illustration of the Meta-Object Facility

The Object Management Group (OMG) has developed a "metamodeling architecture to define the UML, called the "Meta-Object Facility.[24] MOF is designed as a four-layered architecture, as shown in the image at right. It provides a meta-meta model at the top, called the M3 layer. This M3-model is the language used by Meta-Object Facility to build metamodels, called M2-models.

The most prominent example of a Layer 2 Meta-Object Facility model is the UML metamodel, which describes the UML itself. These M2-models describe elements of the M1-layer, and thus M1-models. These would be, for example, models written in UML. The last layer is the M0-layer or data layer. It is used to describe runtime instances of the system.[25]

The meta-model can be extended using a mechanism called "stereotyping. This has been criticised as being insufficient/untenable by "Brian Henderson-Sellers and Cesar Gonzalez-Perez in "Uses and Abuses of the Stereotype Mechanism in UML 1.x and 2.0".[26]


UML has been found useful in many design contexts.[21][27]

It has been treated, at times, as a design "silver bullet, which has led to problems in its usage. Misuse of it includes excessive usage of it (design every little part of the system's "code with it, which is unnecessary) and assuming that anyone can design anything with it (even those who haven't "programmed).[28]

It is seen to be a large language, with many "constructs in it. Some (including "Jacobson) feel that there are too many and that this hinders the learning (and therefore usage) of it.[29]

See also[edit]


This article is based on material taken from the "Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the "GFDL, version 1.3 or later.

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  2. ^ "ISO/IEC 19501:2005 - Information technology - Open Distributed Processing - Unified Modeling Language (UML) Version 1.4.2". 2005-04-01. Retrieved 2015-05-07. 
  3. ^ "ISO/IEC 19505-1:2012 - Information technology - Object Management Group Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML) - Part 1: Infrastructure". 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2014-04-10. 
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  9. ^ "Will UML 2.0 Be Agile or Awkward?" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  10. ^ Hubert Tardieu, Arnold Rochfeld and René Colletti La methode MERISE: Principes et outils (Paperback - 1983)
  11. ^ Elmasri, Ramez, B. Shamkant, Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, third ed., Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA, USA, 2000.
  12. ^ ER 2004 : 23rd International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Shanghai, China, 8-12 November 2004 Archived 27 May 2013 at the "Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "A Formal Treatment of UML Class Diagrams as an Efficient Method for Configuration Management 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  14. ^ "James Dullea, Il-Yeol Song, Ioanna Lamprou - An analysis of structural validity in entity-relationship modeling 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  15. ^ ""Reasoning about participation constraints and Chen's constraints" S Hartmann - 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  16. ^ "UML 2.0". Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  17. ^ a b c "UML". Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  18. ^ OMG. "OMG Formal Specifications (Modeling and Metadata paragraph)". Retrieved 2016-02-12. 
  19. ^ "Issues for UML 2.6 Revision task Force mailing list". Retrieved 2014-04-10. 
  20. ^ Satish Mishra (1997). "Visual Modeling & Unified Modeling Language (UML): Introduction to UML". Rational Software Corporation. Accessed 9 November 2008.
  21. ^ a b "UML, Success Stories". Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  22. ^ John Hunt (2000). The Unified Process for Practitioners: Object-oriented Design, UML and Java. Springer, 2000. "ISBN 1-85233-275-1. p.5.door
  23. ^ Jon Holt Institution of Electrical Engineers (2004). UML for Systems Engineering: Watching the Wheels IET, 2004, "ISBN 0-86341-354-4. p.58
  24. ^ Iman Poernomo (2006) "The Meta-Object Facility Typed" in: Proceeding SAC '06 Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Applied computing. pp. 1845-1849
  25. ^ "UML 2.4.1 Infrastructure". 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2014-04-10. 
  26. ^ B. Henderson-Sellers; C. Gonzalez-Perez (2006). "Uses and Abuses of the Stereotype Mechanism in UML 1.x and 2.0". in: Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
  27. ^ "UML 2.5: Do you even care?".  "UML truly is ubiquitous"
  28. ^ "Death by UML Fever". 
  29. ^ "Ivar Jacobson on UML, MDA, and the future of methodologies". 

Further reading[edit]

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