Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the "Spanish and "Portuguese colonization brought about the establishment and development of "colonial empires in the Americas that integrated politically, economically and culturally vast extensions of the continent each with their respective metropolis.
Since the "Spanish American wars of independence a trend towards the political integration of the newly born republics of "Hispanic America became strong in the thinking of several independence leaders, influenced in turn by the "Spanish Enlightenment and the "French and "American revolutions. A notable early exponent of this trend was "Francisco de Miranda, who envisioned a federated republic encompassing all of Hispanic America, which he called "Colombia".
The independence war efforts saw the concurrence of integrated armies composed by Spanish Americans of diverse regions on both sides of the conflict (v.g. "Patriots and "Royalists), and fighting all over the territories of many future nations. For example, the "Army of the Andes which was gathered in the "United Provinces of the River Plate fought in "Chile, "Peru and Ecuador, and later integrated with "Simón Bolívar's Army (which itself included troops of future Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) to further fight in Peru and the "Upper Peru
By the 1820s, the main proponent of a federation of the newly born republics was "Simón Bolívar, although this idea was shared by many contemporaneous, notably including "José de San Martín and "Bernardo de Monteagudo, under either republican or constitutional monarchical governments. In 1826, Bolívar summoned a conference to be held in Panama, which was to be known as the ""Amphictyonic" Congress of Panama because of the parallelism with the Hellenic "Amphictyonic League. The Congress was attended by "Gran Colombia (including present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador), the "Federal Republic of Central America (including present-day Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala), the "United Mexican States, and Peru. The ostensible intention was to form a defensive league that could prevent foreign expansionism and foster the interests of the Spanish American republics. The Congress' conclusions, however, were not ratified by the participants, except for Gran Colombia. Soon after, both Gran Colombia and the United Provinces of Central America fell apart and the whole of Hispanic America was balkanized by competing national governments.
By the 1990s, however, Brazil had consolidated as the most powerful country in South America (accounting for half of the regional GDP) and began to promote the notion of a united South America (a new regional framing) where Brasilia would be pivotal. The project did not take hold until the United States' foreign policy priorities turned to other regions in the 2000s.
The complete integration between the Andean Community and the "Mercosur nations was formalized during the meeting of South American heads of state that took place on 23 May 2008 in "Brasília.
In the "2004 South American Summit, representatives of twelve South American nations signed the "Cuzco Declaration, a two-page letter of intent announcing the establishment of the then-named "South American Community of Nations". "Panama and "Mexico were present as observers. The leaders announced the intention of modeling the new community in the mold of the "European Union, including a unified passport, a parliament and, eventually, a single currency. The then Secretary General of the Andean Community "Allan Wagner speculated that an advanced union such as the EU should be possible within the next fifteen years.
On 28 December 2005, Chilean former foreign minister Ignacio Walker proposed that the Union's former designation, the South American Community of Nations, abbreviated as CSN, be changed to South American Union; nevertheless, many members stated to him that that proposal had already been rejected to prevent confusion since its acronym of U.S.A. (Spanish: Unión Sudamericana) would be easily confused for the United States of America. In the press, the phrase "United States of South America" was bandied about as an "analogy to the United States to reflect the economic and political power that the union would have on the world stage.
The name was finally changed on 16 April 2007 to Union of South American Nations. The new name was jointly agreed by all member states during the first day of meeting at the First "South American Energy Summit, held at "Isla Margarita, "Venezuela.
At the moment, the provisional structure of the UNASUR is as follows:
- A permanent Secretariat is to be established in Quito, Ecuador. The Secretary General, with a two-year mandate, is to be elected on a consensual basis among the Heads of State of the member states. Former Argentine President "Néstor Kirchner was designated the first "Secretary General on 4 May 2010.
- The presidents of the member nations will have an annual meeting, which will have the superior political mandate. The first meeting was in Brasília (Brazil) on 29–30 September 2005. The second meeting was in "Cochabamba (Bolivia) on 8–9 December 2006. The third meeting was held in Brasília on 23 May 2008.
- The "Presidency Pro Tempore, is exercised for a one-year period on a pro tempore basis by one of the heads of state of each UNASUR Member State, the succession following alphabetical order. The first leader to occupy this position was Chilean President "Michelle Bachelet. According to Decisions Reached in the Political Dialogue which was signed during the First South American Energy Summit.
- The ministers of foreign affairs of each country will meet once every six months. They will formulate concrete proposals of action and of executive decision. The President of the Mercosur's permanent representatives committee and the director of the Mercosur's department, the Andean Community's general secretary, "ALADI's general secretary and the permanent secretaries of any institution for regional cooperation and integration, "Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization among others, will also be present at these meetings.
- Sectorial Ministers' meeting will be called upon by the presidents. The meetings will be developed according to Mercosur's and CAN's mechanisms.
- On 9 December 2005, a special "commission was established in charge of advancing the process of South American Integration. It consists of 12 members, whose function is to elaborate proposals that will help the process of integration between the South American nations.
- An Executive Commission, which was created by the II CSN meeting, was transformed in the Political Commission or Delegates Council, according to Decisions Reached in the Political Dialogue.
The organisations of UNASUR are:
- Council of Heads of State and of Government of Unasur
- "President Pro Tempore of UNASUR
- Council of Minister of External Relationships of Unasur
- Council of Delegates of Unasur
- "Secretary General of UNASUR
There are twelve Ministerial Councils of the USAN.
- "Council of South American Defense
- Electoral Council
- "South American Energy Council
- "South American Council of Health
- South American Council of Social Development
- South American Council of Infrastructure and Planning
- South American Council of fight against the drug traffic
- South American Council of Economy and Finances
- South American Council of Education
- South American Council of Culture
- South American Council of Science, Technology and Innovation
- South American Council of Citizen Security, Justice and Coordination of Action against Transnational Organized Crime
Current work in progress
UNASUR has also initiated the creation of "electoral monitor teams that could replace the monitors from the OAS.
Presidents of the seven founding countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela and Uruguay) officially launched the South American Bank in Buenos Aires in December 2007. The heads of all the founding countries were at the ceremony, with the exception of President "Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay. The capital will be US$7b, with Venezuela responsible for US$3b and Brazil US$2b. The headquarters will be located in Caracas with offices in Buenos Aires and La Paz.
The "Bank of the South will finance economic development projects to improve local competitiveness and to promote the scientific and technological development of the member states. Its founding charter affirms that the bank will promote projects in a "stable and equal" manner and priorities will be oriented towards reinforcing South American integration, reducing asymmetries, and promoting an egalitarian distribution of investments.
The Brazilian Minister, Guido Mantega, stated that the bank is not similar to the "International Monetary Fund; it will be a credit institution similar to the "World Bank.
The South American Defense Council (CDS) was proposed by Venezuela and Brazil to serve as a mechanism for regional security, promoting military co-operation and regional defense. From the beginning Brazil, Argentina and Chile, the countries that took the leadership of the project, made clear that they did not intend to form a "NATO-like alliance, but a cooperative security arrangement, enhancing multilateral military cooperation, promoting confidence and security building measures and fostering defense industry exchange. "Colombia initially refused to join the defense council due to the strong military ties it has with the United States through the "Plan Colombia. However, after reviewing the proposal they decided to join on 20 July 2008.
Shortly following the signing by Colombia's President, President of Chile "Michelle Bachelet appointed a working group to investigate and draft a plan for the new council. Finally, on 10 March 2009, the 12 nation members held, in Chile, the first meeting of the newly formed council.
In mid-2010, UNASUR played a key role in mediating the "2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis. On 1 September 2010, the agency "UnasurHaití" was created to provide US$100 million in help to "Haiti.
- There is an "Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America (IIRSA) underway, which has received the support of the "Inter-American Development Bank and the "Development Bank of Latin America.
- UNASUR started plans of integration through infrastructure cooperation with the construction of the "Interoceanic Highway, a road that intends to more firmly link the Pacific Coast countries, especially "Chile and "Peru with Brazil and "Argentina by extending highways through the continent, allowing better connections to ports from Bolivia and the inner parts of Argentina, Peru, and Brazil. The first corridor, between Peru and Brazil, began construction in September 2005, financed 60% by Brazil and 40% by Peru, and was completed in December 2010.
- The South American Energy Ring is intended to interconnect Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay with natural gas from several sources, such as the "Camisea Gas Project in Peru and Tarija Gas Deposits in Bolivia. Though this proposal has been signed and ratified, economic and political difficulties in Argentina and Bolivia have delayed this initiative, and to date, this agreement remains more like a protocol than an actual project, since Chile and Brazil are already building "LNG terminals to import gas from overseas suppliers.
Free movement of people
Visits by South American citizens to any South American independent country of up to 90 days only require an identification document issued by the traveler's country. On 24 November 2006, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Uruguay abolished visa requirements for tourists between any of those nations.
Mercosur, along with its Associate members of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador established that their territories together form an "area of free residence with the right to work" to all its citizens, with no additional requirements other than nationality. The Free Movement and Residence Agreement was established in the "Brasília summit based in a previous document signed on 6 December 2002.
Citizens of any Mercosur countries will have a simplified process in temporary residence visa of up to two years in any other member countries, with the requirements of a valid "passport, "birth certificate, and no criminal record. Temporary residence can become permanent if a licit means of living can be verified.
At a summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador on 4 December 2014, UNASUR general secretary Ernesto Samper announced, "We have approved the concept of South American citizenship," including the creation of a single passport.
Participating nation states
"Treaty of Asunción
|Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)|
|"Andean Pact (Andean Community of Nations)|
- Members of the "Andean Community of Nations (CAN): 1 L
- Members of "Mercosur: 2 L
- Other members:
S Suspended<be/> 1 These countries are also considered to be associate members of Mercosur.
2 These countries are also considered to be associate members of the Andean Community.
C "Caribbean Community (CARICOM) member state
L "Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) member state
M Accessing member to "Mercosur
Member states of the "Andean Community trade bloc.
Participating non-South American territories
The following territories situated outside South America are part of member states and therefore participate:
- "Easter Island (Rapa Nui), a Chilean territory situated in Oceania.
- "San Andrés y Providencia, a Colombian territory situated in Central America.
- "Isla Aves, a Venezuelan territory situated in the "Antilles.
- "Argentine and Chilean Antarctic bases.
Non-participating South American states and territories
The following parts of South America are territories of non-South American states and therefore do not participate:
- "Aruba, "Bonaire and "Curaçao are parts of the "Kingdom of the Netherlands near the Venezuelan coastline.
- "French Guiana, which is an "overseas department of "France and is therefore part of the "European Union.
- The "Falkland Islands and "South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are "overseas territories of the "United Kingdom and "overseas countries and territories of the European Union; they are also claimed by Argentina.
- "Trinidad and Tobago, although not a member, was invited to join the Union of South American Nations by President of Venezuela, "Nicolas Maduro in July 2013.
|1st||15 September 2008||"Chile||"Santiago de Chile||"Michelle Bachelet|
|2nd||10 August 2009||"Ecuador||"Quito||"Rafael Correa|
|3rd||28 August 2009||"Argentina||"Bariloche||"Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|
|"4th||26 November 2010||"Guyana||"Georgetown||"Bharrat Jagdeo|
|5th||29 October 2011||"Paraguay||"Asunción||"Fernando Lugo|
|6th||30 November 2012||"Peru||"Lima||"Ollanta Humala|
|7th||30 August 2013||"Suriname||"Paramaribo||"Dési Bouterse|
|8th||4 December 2014||"Ecuador||"Guayaquil||"Rafael Correa|
|9th||23 April 2016||"Ecuador||"Quito||"Rafael Correa|
- The July 2014 summit was a joint UNASUR/"BRICS summit.
There have been other presidential extraordinary meetings, such as:
- May 2010: "Buenos Aires, "Argentina. Election of Néstor Kirchner as "Secretary General.
- September 2010: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Discussion of the "2010 Ecuador crisis.
- December 2010: "Mar del Plata, Argentina. Kirchner's successor after his death. (Concurring with the 20th "Ibero-American Summit)
- June 2012: "Mendoza, "Argentina. Discussion on the "Impeachment of Fernando Lugo and suspension of Paraguay. (Concurring with the XLIII "Mercosur presidential summit)
- April 2013: Lima, Peru. Recognition of contested "Venezuelan presidential elections results.
- July 2013: "Cochabamba, "Bolivia. Discussion on the "Evo Morales "kidnapping" incident in Europe (due to European/US suspicions that the Bolivian Presidential aircraft carried US fugitive "Edward Snowden.)
- "Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
- "Continental union
- "Economic integration
- "Andean Community of Nations
- "Free Trade Area of the Americas
- "Latin American Integration Association
- "Latin American Parliament
- "Organization of Ibero-American States
- "Central American Parliament
- "Caribbean Community
- "North American Union
- "Organization of American States
- "Rio Group
- "Pacific Alliance
- José Antonio Sanahuja. "Post-liberal regionalism in South America: the case of Unasur", European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (EUI-RSCAS) 2012/05. Pdf version downloadable in 
- José Briceño. "From the South American Free Trade Area to the Union of South American Nations: The Transformations of a Rising Regional Process". Latin American Policy, Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 208–229, December 2010
- Luis Schenoni. "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais, Volume 2, Issue 2, pages 215–232, December 2014. PDF version downloadable 
- Anne Marie Hoffmann: "South America's Neoliberal Turnaround: The End for Regional Social Policy", "GIGA Focus Afrika No. 06/2016
- "UNASUR Means Union of South American Nations, Hugo Chávez". "Mathaba News Agency. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Goodman, Joshua (23 May 2008). "South American Presidents Agree to Form Unasur Bloc (Update3)". "Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Surface area (sq. km)". World Development Indicators.
- The World Factbook. "The World Factbook.
- "2015 Revision of World Population Prospects". "United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
- World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015 edition.
- "South America nations found union". BBC News. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- "Uruguay Senate puts Unasur over the top". "Buenos Aires Herald. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Uruguay's ratification gives Unasur legal status (nine out of twelve)". MercoPress. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Sede de Unasur llevará el nombre de Néstor Kirchner" (in Spanish). telesur. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011.
- Ministros da América do Sul vão a Caracas preparar encontro da Unasul Archived 5 July 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
- The phrase has been used in the past for this same purpose. It has never been officially proposed or used. Collazo, Ariel B. La Federación de Estados: Única solución para el drama de América Latina. n/d, circa 1950-1960. "OCLC 25422930
- "Duhalde, Eduardo (13 July 2004). "Hacia los Estados Unidos de Sudamérica." La Nación.
- Grorjovsky, Nestor (14 July 2004). "Duhalde señaló que el Mercosur es un paso para la Unión Sudamericana" Archived 5 February 2012 at the "Wayback Machine. Reconquista-Popular.
- Collazo, Ariel (15 July 2004). "Los Estados Unidos de Sudamérica" La República.
- 29 July 2004,interview with Mexican President "Vicente Fox by "Andrés Oppenheimer. Mexico:Presidencia de la República.
- "Estados Unidos de Sudamérica" Herejías y silencios. (22 November 2005).
- Duhalde, Eduardo (6 December 2004). "Sudamérica y un viejo sueño." Clarín.
- "Chávez: presidentes acordaron llamar Unasur a integración política regional" (in Spanish). "Terra Networks. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2011.["dead link]
- Garces, Raul O.; Calatrava, Almudena (4 May 2010). "Néstor Kirchner to Head South American Bloc". "ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Decisions reached in the Political Dialogue among the Heads of State and of Government". 16 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Cámara de Diputados de Brasil aprueba el tratado constitutivo de la Unasur | ANDES["dead link]
- organos de UNASUR
- :: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas :: UNASUR ::. TRATADO CONSTITUTIVO DE LA UNIÓN DE NACIONES SURAMERICANAS Archived 25 October 2011 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Consejos Sectoriales Archived 27 July 2014 at the "Wayback Machine.
- Obama in Cartagena: No change, dwindling hope - Opinion - Al Jazeera English
- "South American leaders sign agreement creating South Bank". "MercoPress. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
- "Venezuela summit criticises West". BBC News. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
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- "Colombia refuses to join regional defense council". "People's Daily Online. 24 May 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "The Paradox of South American Integration: The Founding of a Defense Council". "Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "La Unasur ya tiene oficina en Haití". "Página/12 (in Spanish). 1 September 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- ¿Puedo residir o trabajar libremente en otros Estados Partes del MERCOSUR? "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Historia". Secretary General of UNASUR. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- "Falkland Islands government – organisation". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
- Treaty of Lisbon: Annexes.["permanent dead link]
- See "Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands and "Sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
- Johnlall, Raphael (18 July 2013). "Venezuela President Maduro talked energy, transport while in T&T". "Trinidad and Tobago Guardian. Guardian Media. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
Apart from Mercosur, Maduro also invited T&T to be "incorporated" into Union of South American Nations (Unasur) because of its geographical proximity to the South American mainland." Maduro said.
- Surinam asume la presidencia pro témpore de la Unasur — teleSUR
- "Cumbre de Unasur acordó anoche en Lima respaldar al electo Nicolás Maduro" (in Spanish). La República. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.