Reporters witnessed a rapid increase in prostitution in "Cambodia and "Mozambique after UN peacekeeping forces moved in. In the 1996 UN study "The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children", former first lady of Mozambique Graça Machel documented: "In 6 out of 12 country studies on sexual exploitation of children in situations of armed conflict prepared for the present report, the arrival of peacekeeping troops has been associated with a rapid rise in child prostitution."
"Gita Sahgal spoke out in 2004 with regard to the fact that prostitution and "sex abuse crops up wherever "humanitarian intervention efforts are set up. She observed: "The issue with the "UN is that "peacekeeping operations unfortunately seem to be doing the same thing that other militaries do. Even the guardians have to be guarded."
Human rights violations in United Nations missions
The following table chart illustrates confirmed accounts of crimes and human rights violations committed by United Nations soldiers, peacekeepers, and employees.
In response to criticism, particularly of the cases of sexual abuse by peacekeepers, the UN has taken steps toward reforming its operations. The "Brahimi Report was the first of many steps to recap former peacekeeping missions, isolate flaws, and take steps to patch these mistakes to ensure the efficiency of future peacekeeping missions. The UN has vowed to continue to put these practices into effect when performing peacekeeping operations in the future. The technocratic aspects of the reform process have been continued and revitalised by the DPKO in its "Peace Operations 2010" reform agenda. This included an increase in personnel, the harmonization of the conditions of service of field and headquarters staff, the development of guidelines and standard operating procedures, and improving the partnership arrangement between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), African Union and European Union. 2008 capstone doctrine entitled "United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines" incorporates and builds on the Brahimi analysis.
Rapid reaction force
One suggestion to account for delays such as the one in Rwanda, is a rapid reaction force: a standing group, administered by the UN and deployed by the Security Council, that receives its troops and support from current Security Council members and is ready for quick deployment in the event of future genocides.
Restructuring of the UN secretariat
The UN peacekeeping capacity was enhanced in 2007 by augmenting the DPKO with the new Department of Field Support (DFS). Whereas the new entity serves as a key enabler by co-ordinating the administration and logistics in UN peacekeeping operations, DPKO concentrates on policy planning and providing strategic directions.["citation needed]
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Nations peacekeeping missions.|
- "UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations
- "List of United Nations peacekeeping missions
- "List of countries by number of UN peacekeepers
- "Multinational Force and Observers
- "Timeline of UN peacekeeping missions
- "List of non-UN peacekeeping missions
- "NATO peacekeeping
- "White Helmets Commission
- "Security-related bills
- UN Peacekeeping Fact Sheet: 30 June 2013; accessed: August 7, 2013
- "Financing peacekeeping".
- United Nations Peacekeeping
- Nau, Henry (2015). Perspectives on International Relations. Washington DC: CQ Press. p. 252. "ISBN "978-1-4522-4148-7.
- DPKO Capstone Doctrine
- "United Nations troop and police contributors archive (1990 - 2013)". Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "The Korean War armistice". BBC News. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Lester B. Pearson: 1957 Nobel Peace Prize Recipient".
- "Beyond Peace Deals: The United Nations Experiment in "Peacebuilding"".
- "Contribution to United Nations peacekeeping operations, 29th February, 2016" (PDF).
- Ranking of Military and Police Contributions to UN Operations accessed August 7, 2013.
- Monthly Summary of Contributions (Police, UN Military Experts on Mission and Troops)accessed February, 2015.
- Background Note – United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
- United Nations peacekeeping – Fatalities By Year up to 31 Dec 2008
- "Peacekeeping Fact Sheet". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- United Nations Peacekeepers - How are peacekeepers compensated?
- "Enough with the Pessimism about Peacekeeping". Political Violence @ a Glance. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
- Lundgren, Magnus (2016). "Which international organizations can settle civil wars?". Review of International Organizations. DOI 10.1007/s11558-016-9253-0.
- "Evaluating the conflict-reducing effect of UN peacekeeping operations" (PDF).
- The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children
- "Sex charges haunt UN forces; In places like Congo and Kosovo, peacekeepers have been accused of abusing the people they're protecting," "Christian Science Monitor, 26 November 2004, accessed 16 February 2010
- 1 : compiled from the corresponding Wikipedia articles. When a range was given, the median was used.
- 2 http://www.unwire.org/unwire/20030411/33133_story.asp United Nations Foundation.
- 3http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52333-2005Mar20.html Congo's Desperate 'One-Dollar U.N. Girls'
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6195830.stm UN troops face child abuse claims
- http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/005/081zxelz.asp The U.N. Sex Scandal
- http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/un-troops-buy-sex-from-teenage-refugees-in-congo-camp-756666.html UN troops buy sex from teenage refugees in Congo camp
- http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/199/40816.html UN Peacekeepers Criticized
- http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/190/32956.html Global Rules Now Apply to Peacekeepers
- http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3113&context=expresso Victims of Peace: Current Abuse Allegations against U.N. Peacekeepers and the Role of Law in Preventing Them in the Future
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/27_05_08_savethechildren.pdf No One to Turn To - BBC Analysis
- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1538476/UN-staff-accused-of-raping-children-in-Sudan.html UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan
- https://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/2002/bosnia/ TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND GIRLS TO POST-CONFLICT BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR FORCED PROSTITUTION - Human Rights Watch
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- Pushkina, Darya (June 2006). "A Recipe for Success? Ingredients of a Successful Peacekeeping Mission". "International Peacekeeping. 13 (2): 133–149. "doi:10.1080/13533310500436508.
- Worboys, Katherine (2007). "The Traumatic Journey from Dictatorship to Democracy: Peacekeeping Operations and Civil-Military Relations in Argentina, 1989-1999". "Armed Forces & Society. 33 (2): 149–168. "doi:10.1177/0095327X05283843.
- Dandeker, Christopher; Gow, James (1997). "The Future of Peace Support Operations: Strategic Peacekeeping and Success". "Armed Forces & Society. 23 (3): 327–347. "doi:10.1177/0095327X9702300302.
- Blocq, Daniel. 2009. "Western Soldiers and the Protection of Local Civilians in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Is a Nationalist Orientation in the Armed Forces Hindering Our Preparedness to Fight?" "Armed Forces & Society,abstract
- Bridges, Donna and Debbie Horsfall. 2009. "Increasing Operational Effectiveness in UN Peacekeeping: Toward a Gender-Balanced Force." "Armed Forces & Society, May 2009. abstract
- Howard, Lise Morjé. 2008. UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.abstract
- Fortna, Virginia Page; Lise Morjé, Howard (2008). "Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping Future". Annual Review of Political Science. 11: 283–301. "doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.9.041205.103022.
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