The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775. In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent "forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as "engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger "United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time "militias which could also be called into the service of the army.
By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During "World War I, the ""National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers. It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps, and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the ""Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.
In 1941, the ""Army of the United States" was founded to fight "World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard, and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the "United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the "Korean War and "Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the "draft.
Currently, the army is divided into the "Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard. The army is also divided into major branches such as Air Defense Artillery, Infantry, Aviation, Signal Corps, Corps of Engineers, and Armor. Before 1903 members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized (i.e., activated) by the President. Since the "Militia Act of 1903 all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and, when activated, as a reserve of the U.S. Army under the authority of the President.
Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the "Gulf War, peacekeeping in "Kosovo, Afghanistan, and the "2003 invasion of Iraq.
Army commands and army service component commands
"" "Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):
Source: U.S. Army organization
See "Structure of the United States Army for detailed treatment of the "history, "components, "administrative and operational structure, and the "branches and functional areas of the Army.
The United States Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month, known as "battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs), and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under "Title 10 of the "United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under "Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors; the District of Columbia National Guard, however, reports to the U.S. President, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the "National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.
The army is led by a civilian "Secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the "Secretary of Defense. The "Chief of Staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the Secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the "Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the "President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, and the "National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the "Chairman and "Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1986, the "Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the "unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility. Thus, the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the Secretary of Defense.
By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (COCOM):
- "United States Army Central headquartered at "Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
- "United States Army North headquartered at "Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- "United States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- "United States Army Europe headquartered at "Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
- "United States Army Pacific headquartered at "Fort Shafter, Hawaii
- "United States Army Africa headquartered at "Vicenza, Italy
The army also transformed its base unit from "divisions to "brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same, and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of ground combat brigades are:
- "Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.
- "Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.
- "Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.
In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include "aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, "fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery), and "battlefield surveillance brigades. "Combat service support brigades include "sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.
Combat maneuver organizations
- To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see "Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and Brigades
The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of "growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active combat brigade teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army Chief of Staff Raymond Odierno has projected that by 2018 the Army will eventually shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve."
Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades, and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer, and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.
"" "United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)
|Direct reporting units||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|"" "I Corps||LTG "Stephen R. Lanza||"Joint Base Lewis-McChord, "Washington|
|"" "III Corps||LTG "Sean MacFarland||"Fort Hood, "Texas|
|"" "XVIII Airborne Corps||LTG "Stephen J. Townsend||"Fort Bragg, "North Carolina|
|"" "First Army (FUSA)||LTG "Stephen Twitty||"Rock Island Arsenal, "Illinois|
|"" "United States Army Reserve Command (USARC)||LTG Charles D. Luckey||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOM|
|1st Armored Division||"Fort Bliss, Texas||1 Stryker "Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 2 armored BCTs, 1 Division Artillery ("DIVARTY), 1 "Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB), and 1 "sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|1st Cavalry Division||Fort Hood, Texas||3 armored BCTs, 1 "DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|"" "1st Infantry Division||"Fort Riley, "Kansas||2 armored BCTs, 1 "DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|3d Cavalry Regiment||Fort Hood, Texas||4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron, and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)||III Corps|
|3rd Infantry Division||"Fort Stewart, "Georgia||1 infantry BCT, 1 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the "48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the "Georgia Army National Guard||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|4th Infantry Division||"Fort Carson, "Colorado||1 infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, "DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|7th Infantry Division||Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington||Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs and 1 "DIVARTY of the "2nd Infantry Division as well as the "81st Armored Brigade Combat Team of the "Washington and "California Army National Guard||I Corps|
|10th Mountain Division||"Fort Drum, "New York||3 infantry BCTs (including the "86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) of the "Vermont Army National Guard), 1 "DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|82nd Airborne Division||Fort Bragg, North Carolina||3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne "DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 airborne sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|101st Airborne Division||"Fort Campbell, "Kentucky||3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|Combat maneuver units aligned under other organizations|
|2nd Cavalry Regiment||Rose Barracks, "Vilseck, Germany||4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron, and 1 support squadron||U.S. Army Europe|
|2nd Infantry Division||"Camp Red Cloud, "South Korea||2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the "ROK Army, 1 "DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), and 1 sustainment brigade. An ABCT was deactivated; in its place, a stateside ABCT from the active divisions is rotated in on a regular basis.||Eighth Army|
|25th Infantry Division||"Schofield Barracks, "Hawaii||3 infantry BCTs, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||U.S. Army Pacific|
|100th Infantry Battalion||"Fort Shafter, Hawaii||Infantry companies spread throughout Hawaii, "American Samoa, "Guam, and "Saipan (The only combat maneuver unit of the Army Reserve)||"9th MSC under U.S. Army Pacific|
|173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team||"Camp Ederle, "Vicenza, "Italy||3 airborne infantry battalions (including "1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the "Texas Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion (54th Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB), effective 17 June 2015), and 1 airborne support battalion||U.S. Army Europe|
For a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a "U.S. context, and also a "global context.
Special operations forces
"" "United States Army Special Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC):
|Name||Headquarters||Structure and purpose|
|1st Special Forces Command (Airborne)||"Fort Bragg, North Carolina||The command manages seven special forces groups (five active duty and two national guard), two military information support groups, one "civil affairs brigade, and one "sustainment brigade.|
|Army Special Operations Aviation Command||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Organizes, mans, trains, resources and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to Special Operations Forces (SOF) consisting of five units: "" USASOC Flight Company (UFC), Special Operations Training Battalion (SOATB), Technology Applications Program Office (TAPO), Systems Integration Management Office (SIMO), and the "" "160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (160th SOAR)|
|75th Ranger Regiment||"Fort Benning, Georgia||Three maneuver battalions and one special troops battalion of elite airborne infantry specializing in direct action raids and airfield seizures.|
|John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Selection & training for Special Forces, Civil Affairs & Military Information Support Operations Soldiers consisting of five distinct units and one directorate: "" 1st Special Warfare Training Group (Airborne), "" Special Warfare Education Group (Airborne), "" Special Warfare Medical Group (Airborne), "" Special Forces Warrant Officer Institute, "" David K. Thuma Noncommissioned Officers Academy, and the "" Directorate of Training and Doctrine.|
|1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Elite special operations & counter-terrorism unit under the control of "Joint Special Operations Command.|
|"" Units aligned under Special Forces Command|
|Name||Headquarters||Structure and purpose|
|Special Forces Groups||Various||There are seven special forces groups: """1st SFG(A), "" "3rd SFG(A), "" "5th SFG(A), "" "7th SFG(A), "" "10th SFG(A), "" "19th SFG(A) ("ARNG), and """20th SFG(A) (ARNG) that are trained for "unconventional warfare, "foreign internal defense, "special reconnaissance, "direct action, and "counter-terrorism missions.|
|Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Performs "psychological operations via two operational groups, the "" "4th MISG(A) and "" "8th MISG(A)|
|95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne)||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Enables military commanders and "U.S. Ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders in a local area to meet the objectives of the U.S. government via five operational battalions: "" 91st CA BN, "" 92nd CA BN, "" "96th CA BN, "" "97th CA BN, and "" "98th CA BN.|
|528th Sustainment Brigade (Airborne)||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Provides combat service support and combat health support units for all USASOC elements via the "" "112th Special Operations Signal Battalion (Airborne), a "" "Special Troops Battalion, an ARSOF Support Operations Cell, six ARSOF Liaison Elements, and two Medical Role II teams.|
These are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of "General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.
There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer including the "United States Military Academy, "Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and "Officer Candidate School. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions, including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers, and chaplains are commissioned directly into the army and are designated by insignia unique to their staff community.
Most army commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system. The "Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.
Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as 'General (last name)' regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as 'Colonel (last name)' and first and second lieutenants as 'Lieutenant (last name).'
|"US DoD Pay Grade||O-1||O-2||O-3||O-4||O-5||O-6||O-7||O-8||O-9||O-10||O-11||O-12|
|"General||"General of the
|"General of the Armies
of the United States
|Note: General of the Army is reserved for wartime.|
Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the "Secretary of the Army, but receive their "commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).
By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as 'Mr. (last name)' or 'Ms. (last name)' by senior officers, and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. However, many personnel address warrant officers as 'Chief (last name)' within their units regardless of rank.
|"US DoD pay grade||W-1||W-2||W-3||W-4||W-5|
|Title||"Warrant Officer 1||"Chief Warrant Officer 2||"Chief Warrant Officer 3||"Chief Warrant Officer 4||"Chief Warrant Officer 5|
Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for "non-commissioned officers. This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists, who have the same pay grade but do not exercise leadership responsibilities.
Privates (E1 and E2) and privates first class (E3) are addressed as 'Private (last name)', specialists as 'Specialist (last name)', corporals as 'Corporal (last name)', and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class, and master sergeants all as 'Sergeant (last name).' First sergeants are addressed as 'First Sergeant (last name)', and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as 'Sergeant Major (last name)'.
|"US DoD Pay grade||E-1||E-2||E-3||E-4||E-5||E-6||E-7||E-8||E-9|
of the Army
|Abbreviation||PV1 ¹||PV2 ¹||PFC||SPC ²||CPL||SGT||SSG||SFC||MSG||1SG||SGM||CSM||SMA|
|¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished.
² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.
Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. "Basic training consists of 10 weeks for most recruits followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their "military occupational specialties (MOS). Some individuals MOSs range anywhere from 14–20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier, and some highly technical MOS training may require many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, "Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the "Infantry School, both at "Fort Benning, Georgia.
Following their basic and advanced training at the individual-level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it into a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist, or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, ASI training includes pre-commissioning training either at "USMA, or via "ROTC, or by completing "OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according their future assignments. Further career development is available through the "Army Correspondence Course Program.
Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the "National Training Center (NTC) at "Fort Irwin, California, the "Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at "Fort Polk, Louisiana, and the "Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in "Hohenfels, Germany. "ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level, and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental US (CONUS) replacement center at "Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas, before their individual deployment.
- Individual weapons
The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapons used by the army are the compact variant of the "M16 rifle, the "M4 carbine, as well as the 7.62×51mm variant of the "FN SCAR for "Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm "M9 pistol; the "M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the "M17 through the "Modular Handgun System program. Soldiers are also equipped with various "hand grenades, such as the "M67 fragmentation grenade and "M18 smoke grenade.
Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the "M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the fire-team level. Indirect fire is provided by the "M203 grenade launcher. The "M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the "Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for "door breaching and close-quarters combat. The "M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the "M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the "M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle, and the "M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle.
- Crew served weapons
The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.
The "M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun. The "M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm "MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.
The U.S. Army uses three types of "mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm "M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level. At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm "M252 mortars. The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm "M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.
Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm "M119A1 and the 155 mm "M777 (which will replace the "M198).
The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The "AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The "FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The "FGM-148 Javelin and "BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.
The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the "Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform, and ambulance, among many other roles. While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of "HEMTT vehicles. The "M1A2 Abrams is the army's "main battle tank, while the "M2A3 Bradley is the standard "infantry fighting vehicle. Other vehicles include the "Stryker, and the "M113 "armored personnel carrier, and multiple types of "Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.
The Pentagon bought 25,000 MRAP vehicles since 2007 in 25 variants through rapid acquisition with no long-term plans for the platforms. The Army plans to divest 7,456 vehicles and retain 8,585. Of the total number of vehicles the Army will keep, 5,036 will be put in storage, 1,073 will be used for training, and the remainder will be spread across the active force. The "Oshkosh M-ATV will be kept the most at 5,681 vehicles, as it is smaller and lighter than other MRAPs for off-road mobility. The other most retained vehicle will be the "Navistar MaxxPro Dash with 2,633 vehicles, plus 301 Maxxpro ambulances. Thousands of other MRAPs like the "Cougar, "BAE Caiman, and larger MaxxPros will be disposed of.
The U.S. Army's principal "artillery weapons are the "M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the "M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.
While the "United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few "fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the "AH-64 Apache "attack helicopter, the "OH-58D Kiowa Warrior armed reconnaissance/light attack helicopter, the "UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter, and the "CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter. Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.
Under the "Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For "UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone "MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division.
The "Army Combat Uniform, or ACU, currently features a digital Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) and is designed for use in woodland, desert, and urban environments. However, soldiers operating in Afghanistan are being issued a fire-resistant ACU with the ""MultiCam" pattern, officially known as Operation Enduring Freedom Camouflage Pattern or "OCP".
The standard garrison service uniform is the "Army Service Uniform, which functions as both a garrison uniform (when worn with a white shirt and necktie) and a dress uniform (when worn with a white shirt and either a necktie for parades or a bow tie for after six p.m. or black tie events).
The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the new ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it wasn't suited well for most work conditions, Army Chief of Staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. U.S. soldiers still wear berets who are currently in a unit in jump status, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified, or not (maroon beret), Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret), and Special Forces (rifle green beret) and may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.
The army has relied heavily on "tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment. The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary "barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) facilities, and security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of "Natick Soldier Systems Center.
The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the "deployable rapid assembly shelter or DRASH. In 2008, "DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.
"Tomb of the Unknowns is a tomb that soldiers walk and salute every day in any weather.
In November 2012, the United States Army developed a tactical "3D printing capability to allow it to rapidly manufacture critical components on the battlefield.
- "America's Army ("Video games for "recruitment)
- "Army CHESS (Computer Hardware Enterprise Software and Solutions)
- "Army National Guard
- "Comparative military ranks
- "History of the United States Army
- "List of active United States military aircraft
- "List of former United States Army medical units
- "List of wars involving the United States
- "Military–industrial complex
- "Officer Candidate School (United States Army)
- "Reserve Officers' Training Corps and "Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps
- "Soldier's Creed
- "Structure of the United States Army
- "Timeline of United States military operations
- "Transformation of the United States Army
- "U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System
- "U.S. Army Regimental System
- "United States Military Academy
- "United States Army Basic Training
- "United States Army Center of Military History
- "United States Volunteers
- "Vehicle markings of the United States military
- "Warrant Officer Candidate School (United States Army)
Notes and references
- Wright, Jr., Robert K. (1983). The Continental Army (Army Lineage Series). Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. "ISBN "9780160019319. "OCLC 8806011.
- Maass, John R. "June 14th: The Birthday of the U.S. Army". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Department of Defense (DoD) Releases Fiscal Year 2017 President's Budget Proposal". U.S. Department of Defense. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal: 17. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Usa, Ibp. U.S. Future Combat & Weapon Systems Handbook. p. 15.
- "14 June: The Birthday of the U.S. Army". "United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 1 July 2011. an excerpt from Robert Wright, The Continental Army
- Library of Congress, Journals of the Continental Congress, Volume 27
- "Army Birthdays". "United States Army Center of Military History. 15 November 2004. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 3 Jun 2010.
- "The United States Army - Organization". army.mil. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- DA Pamphlet 10-1 Organization of the United States Army; Figure 1.2 Military Operations.
- "10 USC 3062: Policy; composition; organized peace establishment". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 Aug 2013.
- Cont'l Cong., Formation of the Continental Army, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 89–90 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Cont'l Cong., Commission for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 96-7 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Cont'l Cong., Instructions for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 100-1 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Cont'l Cong., Resolution Changing "United Colonies" to "United States", in 5 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 747 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).
- Ron Field and Richard Hook, The Seminole Wars 1818–58 (2009)
- "The U.S.-Mexican War - PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Tinkler, Robert. "Southern Unionists in the Civil War". http://www.csuchico.edu/. http://www.csuchico.edu/. Retrieved November 21, 2016. External link in
- McPherson, James M., ed. The Atlas of the Civil War, (Philadelphia, PA, 2010)
- Maris Vinovskis (1990). "Toward a social history of the American Civil War: exploratory essays". Cambridge University Press. p. 7. "ISBN 0-521-39559-3
- Cragg, Dan, ed., The Guide to Military Installations, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, 1983, p. 272.
- US Army TRADOC, "Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept"
- Woodruff, Mark. Unheralded Victory: The Defeat of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army 1961–1973 (Arlington, VA: Vandamere Press, 1999).
- Wilson, John B. (1997). Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, Chapter XII, for references see Note 48.
- "Army National Guard Constitution".
- Carafano, James, Total Force Policy and the Abrams Doctrine: Unfulfilled Promise, Uncertain Future, Foreign Policy Research Institute, 3 February 2005.
- An Army at War: Change in the Midst of Conflict, p. 515, via "Google Books
- Section 1101, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991, Department of Defense Interim Report to Congress, September 1990. (See ""rebalancing" as used in finance.)
- Downey, Chris, The Total Force Policy and Effective Force, Air War College, 19 March 2004.
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